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Volume XVI] 


Number i. 


The Paris Exposition. 

Our ilustration on this page gives a bird's- 
eye vievrof the grounds and buildings of the 
great Intirnational exposition whioh is now in 
progress i the great city of the French. The 
reader wi'i note at a glance the macrniticent 
style in wich the French people have provided 
for displaing their industrial strength and 
achievemets. Indeed it calls forth wonder 

hill of the Trocadero is to be a permanent pal- 
ace and is in many respects a remarkable edi- 
fice. It is placed on the crest of the hill, and 
looks to the northward over the new suburb 
springing up on the west side of Paris, and in 
the southerly direction down on the river and 
the Champ de Mars. On the left side of the 
engraving is seen the building on the Trocadero. 
In the center, rising above a grand portal about 
100 feet wide, is a pavilion, or grand dome, 
with a tower on each side reaching up about •2.')0 

palace there is a fine view of the park as well as 
of the exhibition building, and of the city itself. 
On the outside the Palace of the Trocadero 
is adorned by a cascade of water falling 
from a hight of 26 or 30 feet into an ornamental 
lake, round which extend the elegantly laid-out 
grounds, in which figure many striking sculp- 
tures by well-known artists. Concerts and 
other entertainments will be held in the Troca- 

The open space between the Seine and the 

Below these interesting structures on the 
hillside runs the Seine river, separating the Tro- 
cadero from the Champ de Mars. This river, 
instead of being an interruption to the plan of 
exhibition, has been made one of its most pic- 
turesqe attractions. The whole length of it be- 
tween the Trocadero side and the Champ de 
Mars has been appropriated by Commissioner 
General Krautz, and used exclusively for the 
purposes of the exhibition. The Pont de Jena, 
which connects the two banks of the river, has 


from every student of huupiogiess as he 
notes the recuperative po\which secures 
Buch an industrial triumph fa people which 
has so lately risen from theit of conijuest 
and invasion. The deeds of French people 
are the world's pride and ma 

It will be seen that the eition grounds 
are well within the corapa; the rapidly 
growing city. It will be setoo, that the 
plan embraces both level ailevated sites, 
with the river Seine runnin tween them. 
The exposition buildings consirincipally of 
two vast ediftces, both newly ted; the one 
located on the bights of 'Tiero and the 
other in Champ de Mars. Thlding on the 

feet. I'Mankiiig tlie I'otunda are galleries reach- 
ing out in liorse-shoe shape toward the river, 
the frontage being 1,600 feet. Tlie rotunda is 
an immense structure, containing the largest 
concert hall in the world, with a capacity of 
seating 6,000 or 8,000 persons. The towers 
form the higliest points in Paris. They are 
furnished with lifts worked by hydraulic power 
for the elevation of visitors by the hundred or 
two at a time. From the top of the towers the 
view takes in the Valley of the Seine for miles 
on each side, and every prominent building in 
the city is easily distinguishable. The grounds 
around are beautifully laid out, and from the 
colonnade extending along [the wings of the 

Trocadero palace is about 500 yards in length, 
lying along a steep hillside, sloping toward the 
river. The hillside is steep — so steep, in fact, 
that a horse draws a cab containing two per- 
sons up the sloping streets adjoining with much 
labor. The tract has been converted into a 
charming and varied landscape, ornamented 
with a number of curious buildings, and con- 
taining delightful garden.s, fountains and cas- 
cades. Among the curious buildings, some are 
of Japanese and Chinese construction, and some 
are model cottages of Sweden, Norway, Switzer- 
land, Egypt and Turkey. One structure is the 
Algerian pavilion, of the purest Arabian archi- 

been widened and inclosed for a crossing place, 
and it looks as if it had been newly built for the 

Crossing the bridge we come to the Champ 
de Mars, the main grounds of the exposition, 
shown in the large enclosure in the center of 
the engraving. Tlie Champ de Mars building 
is an immense temporary structure, quadrangu- 
lar in form. It is the main exposition building, 
and is more than 2,000 feet in length by 1,000 
in width. The east and west fronts having 
long machine galleries measuring 2,310 by 120 
feet. The principal front is located parallel to 

Continued on paRe 9. 



[July 6, 1878 


We admit, uiieudorsed, opinions of correspondents.— Eds 

Merced County. — The Farmers' Canal 
Nearly Completed. 

Editors Puess:— Some items gathered lately 
about irrigation in a trip through Merced count)' 
may be acceptable to your readers. It is a 
pleasure to find that the Farmers' Canal, begun 
nearly five years ajjo for the purpose of furnish- 
ing wiiter from the Merced river to irrig.ate the 
level lands along Bear creek, is rapidly approach- 
ing completion. Within .about two months a 
large body of water will be conducted through 
the canal, its tuunel, and natural water courses 
between 20 and 30 miles from the headgate — 
three miles above Snelling and two and one- 
half miles below Merced falls — into Bear creek, 
and even through the latter into the San .Joa- 
(juin a few miles above Dover. 

Tlie Truly Splendid Grain Crops 
Along Bear creek now are so thoroughly ma- 
tured, that they need no such aid this year, but 
it is truly fortunate that for next season dis- 
tributing ditches can soon be prepared to spread 
this water, by flooding and seepage, over large 
tracts of land owned by the stockholders in this 

Until February last, no work had been done 
during four years on the canal proper for reasons 
unnecessary to mention, but especially because 
the original plan for a canal 100 feet wide and 
35 miles long was found, by attempting it, to be 
so expensive that the money necessary could 
not be readily controlled. 

Mr. W. G. Collier, Surveyor of Merced county, 
has the credit of originating this important 
irrigation .scheme. Mr. A. D. Barling, an enter- 
prising and skillful young engineer, more or less 
connected with the work from its beginning, 
has had charge of the construction of the tuunel 
for four years past, and is deserving of all praise 
for sucli modification of the original plan as 
could secure the completion of the enterprise in 
the shortest possible time at moderate expense, 
and for such judicious management, in connec- 
tion with the Directors, as will secure the results 
above indicated before the end of August. 

The Essential Points 
In the modification of the plan are: I. The con- 
struction of a canal only some 20 feet wide at 
bottom, extending six miles from headgate to 
tunnel. 2. A cut of 1,400 feet, with average 
depth of seven feet beyond and south of tlie 
tunnel. 3. The use of the natural water chan- 
nels of a "dry creek," now known as Canal 
creek, and of Bear creek, to convey the water 
to irrigable tracts and its waste to the Joaquin. 
I find this latter principle of saving expense 
and following nature's lessons, by utilizing 
natural water channels as much as possible, is 
coming into popular use in the irrigated districts 
of Tulare and Fresno, on the east side of the 
valley. Its value as a sound principle, may well 
be heeded by our .State engineers and others in 
charge of our larger irrigation enterprises. Mr. 
E. A. M.-vnning, Superintendent of the Mussel 
Slough ditch on Lower King's river, Tulare 
county, has applied this principle with marked 
success and great economy in his extensive 
system of irrigation, and claims to be the 
origin.ator of this and some other important 
appliances for irrigation. 

In the Merced canal, the most formidable 
part of the work has been 

The Tunnel. 
Its course is througli a grayish, solid, indurated 
sand, which has to be drilled and blasted at every 
step of progress. The average amount ilisplaced 
daily now is about two linear feet. Four men, 
a horse, two rough, wooden cars, and tramway 
sufiice for this, under Mr. Barling's direction. 
On the six miles of the canal proper, between 
the river and the tuunel, 140 men are now at 
work, as many as 200 having been employed at 
times during the last four months. In that 
time four miles of the worst cuts have been 
completed, and two months more is deemed 
ample time to complete the remaining two miles 
— luucli the lightest part -and the cut below 
the tunnel, most of which is finished. I care- 
fully examined the tunnel in company with Mr. 
Barling, and am indebted to him and Mr. C. G. 
Hubuer, of Hill's Ferry, for the accompanying 

The tunnel proper is l,(i50 feet long. Besides 
the cut of 1,400 feet at the south end — 23 feet 
deep at face of tuunel— another at the north 
end is (iOO feet long; depth at face of tunnel 35 
feet, average depth 20 feet. So that the entire 
extent of tlie heavier part of the work — includ- 
ing adjacent cuts — is 3,G50 feet, or nearly three- 
quarters of a mile. In the north end of the 
tunnel 740 feet are now finished; in the south 
end, where alone work is at present going on, 
860 feet, leaving only 50 feet, on the 14th of 
.June, to complete it. .Standing at the wall in 
the north part of the tunnel, we distinctly heard 
the blows of the tamping in the south end. 
A round, perpendicular shaft, four and a half 
feet in diameter, is sunk 700 feet from the south 
face of the tunnel. Its depth is 45 feet to 
grade, the apex of the ridge pierced being 70 
feet above grade. This shaft ventilates the 
tunnel well and admits immediately at its base 
as soft a light as a German student's lamp 

Near the noon of a hot June day, the cool air 
and soft light were so enticing that part of 
the notes here used were written there. 

The Cost of the Tunnel 
Alone will be about .?13,000. By the time the 
water re.iches Bear creek, the entire expendi- 
ture will have been not far from §80,000. The 
stockholders are now satisfied, that had the 
present plan been adopted five years ago, a 
large part of their expense would have been 
saved — probably more than half — and the work 
could have been finished much sooner. It is to 
be hoped that those controlling other plans for 
irrigation, will profit by the teachings of such 

A stone dam across the Merced, made some 
years ago for small iirigating ditches on bottom 
lauds, turns the water into the canal, at the 
head of which is a head-gate of heavy timber 
100 feet long and of such higlit as to protect the 
canal in times of high water. This is guarded 
also by a strong wing-dam of cobble stones and 
earth. Tlie head-gate cost about $5,000. 
These upper works and the cuts next to the 
tunnel were finished four years ago, but to give 
a fuller idea of the large amount of work done 
in the last four months, mention may be made 
of one cut — in stiti' soil and hard rock about a 
mile below the head — which is 3,000 feet long, 
from six to 12 feet deep, and was made in six 
weeks by 170 men, at a cost of about 30 cents 
per cubic yard. Its course is straight, and it is 
a fine sample of engineering skill. 

The Average Fall 
In this six miles of canal is one foot to the mile; 
the fall in the tunnel is at the rate of five and 
one-quarter feet to the mile — or nearly two feet 
in its length. Inside slopes of cuts in hard ma- 
terial follow the ratio of one horizontal to one 
perpendicular; in soft material, one and one-half 
to one; inside slopes of emb.ankments, two and 
one-half to one; hight of embankments, four and 
one-half feet above the grade, or bottom of 
canal. Bottom oF canal varies in width from 20 
to 24 feet. Estimated capacity of tunnel, with 
water three feet deep, 176.() cubic feet per sec- 
ond, though it can easily discharge .300 cubic 
feet per second. Provision is made to enlarge 
the canal in future, if desired. Capacity of 
tunnel can easily be enlarged by deepening it. 
it is a fact of interest that the fall in the first 
quarter of a mile of the creek, into which the 
tunnel discharges the water, is 15 feet, or at tlie 
rate of liO feet to the mile. 

There are about a dozen stockholders in the 
canal, prominent among whom are J. W. .Mitch- 
ell, C. J. Cressey, C. H. Hubner, and Messrs. 
Atwater, Upton, Paige and Fowler, the latter 
being President of the company. Their enter- 
i)rise is certainly one of great value and interest. 
Unquestionably, from the experience thus 
gained, similar canals, perhaps without tunnels, 
but using natural water ways, can be construct- 
ed at moderate expense comparatively, from the 
north bank of the Merced for the Turlock re- 
gion, and the south side of the Tuolumne for the 
Ceres country, just as it is hoped will soon be 
done by a company already organized for the 
.Modesto district, by taking water from the 
north side of the Tuolumne river. 

Judging from tlie small impression made upon 
The Large Volumes of Water 
Xow flowing in Kings river — near which this 
sketch is written — by no less than five large 
ditches on the south side and three or four on 
the north side, the Merced, Tuolumne, and 
.Stanislaus may be relied on to supply ample 
water, when needed, to thoroughly irri- 
gate all the level lands between them. Then 
there is this encouraging feature: wherever land 
has once been thoroughly wet, it needs much 
less water to irrigate it. Mr. Barling, basing 
his estimate on small ditches do oa Mer- 
ced bottom lands, calculates that hi.^ present 
canal can eventually supply .50,000 acres. This 
may be, especially when it has been somewhat 
enlarged, as is provided for. But considering 
the very large amount of water which extreme- 
ly thirsty land will drink up, the canal will do 
well to irrigate thoroughly IO,(X)0 acres in all, 
the first year it is applied. 

After several years experience in irrigation, it 
is conceded here in Tulare county that 80 acres 
of land well irrigated and cropi>cd is about as 
much as any one man can well manage. Coiise- 
queiitly the important project here described 
and similar ones will best enable large landown- 
ers to subdivide and sell much of their land at 
fair prices, as many of them are more than wil- 
ling to do so soon as they can. 

Success in every way to the Farmers' canal, 
which will be the first to take the waters that 
have made Yosemite valley celebrated the 
world over for its beauty and sublimity, and 
will now make them useful to fertilize through- 
out the year many of the best farming lands of 
Merced county, J. \V. A. W. 

Hanford, June 18th. 

The House Sparrow. 

Editors Pre.s.s:— The English sparrow is a 
consumer that produces nothing but swarms of 
his only worthless brood, whose depredations in 
vineyards and orchards will ere long be recog- 
nized as perhaps the most severe affliction which 
the fruit grower has to endure. 

These sub-tropical climates have proved most 
congenial to the nature and habits of the house 
sparrow; so much so tliat they breed every 
month in the year save one, viz., while moult- 

About 14 years ago the house sparrow was 

introduced into Victoria, Australia, and such 
has been its increase that it has now spread 
over the country. In and around Melbourne, 
where it first acclimated, and for many 
miles around, it has multiplied to incalculable 
numbers and has already done immense mis- 
chief to the growers of all kinds of fruit. In a 
garden in the city, the sparrows destroyed for 
me a grape crop of more than three cwts. , leav- 
ing not one bunch. I have seen vineyards of 
two and even three acres left without a bunch 
of grapps year after year, so that the owners, in 
despair, dug up the vines. 

Once let the sparrows become numerous, and 
farewell to any chance of suppressing the nui- 
sance. Poisoning has been tried, but always 
failed where most needed, in the vicinity of 
fruit gardens. When there is not fruit, they 
will pick young buds. Shooting them among 
tlie fruit trees would do more harm than the 
birds themselves. In this country it may yet 
be possible to repress if not exterminate them, 
by assiduously killing them when possible and 
carefully destroying all nests. 

It is said they destroy insects; truly, to the 
extent of rearing their young on them, but the 
parents will never touch insect food so long as 
they can help it. Their nature is against it. 
Their bills are formed for cracking seeds. The 
soft-billed birds, such as the English hedge 
sparrow, are the true destroyers of in-socts. 
Again, it is said the sparrow is a sort of homely 
creature, and so he is, like all parasites, as long 
as he can get anything by being so. But again 
W(! are told he must have some useful function 
in the vast scheme of nature; granted, so have 
bugs, so have Heas, mosquitoes, sn.akes, so has 
every variety of vermin, but as yet it is so 
hidden from us that wc simply write them down 
vermin and destroy them as Ijcst we may. 

Since writing the above, I met with the sub- 
joined excerpt in the Auckland U'eekli/ Neif^, 
which bears out what I had written. There is 
no exaggeration .about it. I quote: "I have 
no doubt that the sparrows, etc., do not infiict 
much mischief on Mr. Ilussell, in Fort street, 
but that they are a very serious loss to the 
country settlers there can be no doubt. I take 
my own case as a sample of many others. I 
used to gain from f30 to £50 a year by my lin- 
seed, now I never think of growing any. Peas, 
mangold and rape seed, and many other crops 
tliat brought me in a good return, are aban- 
doned. Oats, of which I used to grow large 
quantities, I have also had to give up, even to 
the extent of providing for my own horses. I 
can no longer renovate my land by growing rape 
to be fed off by sheep — it takes twice the clover 
and grass secil to sow for a crop, and twice the 
wheat, wliich they dig up even when drilled in. 
Even from the wheat paddocks they rise up in 
a cloud, and the percentage loss of grain grows 
every year markedly greater. My straw berries 
and cherries are all destroyed and my other 
fruit injured, and even the very corn thrown 
down to my fowls is devoured by the sparrows, 
and still I am told that I am ' short sightoil ' 
and cannot see the good the birds are doing; 
but I can certainly see if lliey go on increasing 
as they do now, farming will have to be con- 
fined to the pastoral branch. Now, what the 
farmers reijuire, or ought to require, is, in the 
(irst place, an immediate witlidrawal of all pro- 
tection from the house sparrow and other birds 
of the like habits. " 

J. I. Bleasuale, D. D. 
San Francisco, June 2(>th, 1878. 

American Agricultural Exhibit at the 
Paris Exposition. 

EniTORS — Thb remarkable exhibit of 
the Commissioner of Agriculture in t!ie Agri- 
cultural section of the United States is now 
finished. Its main feature is an ingenious pcn- structure of wood and glass, in which 
economy of space and effectiveness of distribu- 
tion of the objects exhibited have been very 
successfully combined. Unfortunately the agri- 
cultural building is too low, and the topmost 
pentagon almost touches the roof. Tlie build- 
ing, too, being small and low-studded the effect 
of the structure is entirely marred. The con- 
tents of the cases, however, are highly satisfac- 
tory. A more complete and better arranged 
collection of the natural products of our coun- 
try could hardly have been made. Woods, 
fruits, fibrous plants and their pulps, minerals, 
corn, tobacco, fiowers, in fact everything that 
the soil of the various States produces is to be 
found in the cases, fully and scientifically de- 
scribed, each by its separate label. There is a 
similar exhibit made by the Ilussian Agricul- 
tural department, but it is not nearly so com- 
plete or so compact and convenient as that of 
the United .States. 

The display of agricultural machinery, in an- 
other part of the building, is also very line, and 
it is already evident that we will be able to dis- 
tance all competitors and to sustain our repu- 
tation for cheapness, lightness, strength and in- 
genuity. The French, however, 1 have ob- 
served from their journ.als, are disposed to ridi- 
cule us, in their polite way, for our excessive 
ornamentation of plows, reapers, harrows and 
threshing machines. An article in a morning 
paper argued that it was evident, from the gilt 
luxuriousness of our machines, that our^farmers 
went afield in kid gloves and soft raiment; not 
like their laborers in blue blouses and wooden 
shoes. The writer was not aware that the ma- 
chines on exliibition here, are in their holid.iy 
attire, that they have come to Europe, and are 

arrayed much more gorgeously than the spcci 
mens that do service at home on the prairies 
There are some excellent exhibits of plows 
grain drills, and other agricultural appliances 

Deere & Co., of Moline, Illinois, the largest 
plow makers in the world and whose names are 
associated with the earliest steel plows made in 
the Western States, show their celebrated 
"(iilpin sulky plow," their "Highlander," 
"Pr.airie Queen." and also a "walking cultiva- 
tor, ' which is decorated with a gold medal won 
at a State trial in Indiana. 

A remarkable machine is " Faust's hay load- 
er," exhibited by Stratton tc Cullom, of Mead- 
ville. This machine is attached to the back of 
a wagon and will elevate a ton of hay in five 
minutes. I)ederick & Co., of Albany, exhibit a 
perpetual baling press. Baugli & Son, of Phila- 
delphia, sliow their mills and fertilizers. 
Wagons, carriages, and wheelwrights work, 
are fairly represented in the igricultural 
section. Studebaker Bros., of Sputli Bend, 
Ind., and Peter Schulter, of Chicago, have 
each a good show of farm, freight and 
plantation wagons. Their wiigons, hiwever, 
are not of a character that it is wortli 
while to advertise in this market, where vtliicles 
for use in towns and cities must have very low 
front wheels, and be so constructed as to turn 
in the narrowest street. All heavy portage is 
effected by means of prodigious carts drawn by 
large Normandy horses, sometimes s many as 
six harnessed tandem. In the way if carriages, 
buggies, etc., the largest exhibit is that of 
Brewster & Co., of New York, it ifiu the main 
American section, and contains, Ijesides five 
specimens of buggies and spider t'>tting carts, 
of the American pattern, severa broughams, 
landaus and phietons, built after he European 
styles. The American street ca5, models of 
lightness and smooth running, anexhibited by 
New York and Philadelphia tirmi It may be 
remarked here that street cars are exported 
from the United .States, a numir were on the , 
steamer by which your corresjioilent sailed, in- ' 
tended for the streets of Hamlnig. 

One of the features of the U ted States sec- 
tion is the curious way in wbh exhibits are 
mixed: for instance, Colts piols are in the 
machinery department, wl\ile emington's fire- 
arms are in the industrial *ctii. Almost the 
first object that strikes onannue gallery of ali- 
mentary products is the ^,Ivit of a car-wheel 
company of Wilmington, Pel 

It is upon agriculturalJtrchines and prod- 
ucts, and upon certain claisf of manufactured 
articles, that our side of |ie>ater will have to 
rely for excellence. In am of these we can 
certainly surpass all otw -xhibitors, but in 
every department of legiinte art and decora- 
tion we are far behind. / C. O. .S. 


There are very many 
with poultry, their 
common habits, and 
with the recently intri 
to fowls ; -words, the 

'cms who are familiar 
ral appearance and 
A'holly unacquainted 
ed terms as applied 
ining of which thus 

used, is Greek even t»i >8e well informed on 
general subjects. FoJe benefit of those who 
may desire to obtain^' knowledge, a writer 
tor the Country Geulh" gives a glossary of 
technical terms, derij from the best author- 

Beard. — A bunch dathers under the throat 
of some breeds of ch!lns, such as Houdaus or 
Polish. There are ly phrases, such as breed, 
brood, brooding, cajc, etc., that even the 
least unlearned wilnder^tand. We often 
hear of a "litter o'lickens," or similar ex- 

applied to poultry, is 
I ite. We hear of a Jitter 
ens, etc., but a litter of 

red with small fleshy 
le head and neck of a 

pressions. Litter, 
inelegant and in ba 
of pigs, a litter of 
chicks is entirely 01 

Carunculated. — | 
protuberances, as i 
turkey cock. 

Chick.— A newljohed fowl. 

Chicken. This |l applies indefinitely to 
any age under oneF old. 

Clutch.— This t is applied both to the 
batch of eg:gs sat>n by a fowl, and to the 
brood of chickens^hed therefrom. 

Cockerel.—.'^ * i-'ock. A cockerel does 
LOt truly Viecomeik until 18 months of age, 
although he is gef'.y thusj;ermed at the a^e 
of one year. Nffitil a year and a half old 
does he get his I nioult, and attain to the 
full glory of pluJ iiud size. Cockerels have 
many deficieucifat disappear when they 
emerge into fJown, full-plumed cocks. 
Then they mayj"nie exhibition birds with 
some trimmingJ be poor birds to breed 
from. It does] always follow that a bird 
is for Wiig purposes simjdy because 
he or she has nJ I'r'ze. .Many imiierfections 
that presented'iiselves in the chicken may 
grow out, but fffspring of such birds gener- 
ally repeats thf reiiancy. Imperfect plum- 
age may grow' or be plucked, and other 
points be conci ^7 » covering of fiesh. Ex- 
hilntion birds always become so without 
aid. Nature 'ten assisted by art in this 
respect as weB^hers. 

Comb. — Thpy protuberance growing on 
the top of thd « head. 

Condition. -f state of the fowl as regards 
health and b^ plumage. 

(^rest. Ai" or tuft of feathers on the 

head; of tliej significance as top-not. 

Crop. -Thpeptacle in which the fowl's 

July 6, 1878.J 




food is stored before passing into the gizzard for 

Cushion. — The mass of feathers over the 
rump of a hen, covering the tail — chiefly devel- 
oped in Cochins. 

Dubbing. — Cutting off the comb, wattles and 
ear-lobes, so as to leave the head smooth and 

Ear-lobes. — The folds of bare skin hanging 
just below the ears, by many called deaf ears. 
They vary in color, being red, white, blue and 

Face. — The bare skin around the eye. 

Flights. — The primary feathers of the wings 
used in Hying, but tucked under the wings out 
of sight when at rest. 

Fluff. — Soft, downy feathers about the thighs, 
chiefly developed in Asiatics. 

Furnished. — When a cockerel has obtained his 
full tail, comb, hackles, etc. , he is said to be 

Gill. — This term is oftenapplied to the wattles. 

Hackles. — The peculiar, narrow, long feathers 
on the necks of fowls. 

Henny, or Hen-Feathers. — Resembling a hen, 
from the absence of hackles and sickle feathers, 
and in plumage generally. 

Hock. — The joint between the thigh and 

Keel. — A word sometimes used to denote the 

Leg. — In a living fowl this is the scaly part, 
usually denominated the shank. In a dressed 
bird, the term refers to the joint above. 

Leg Feathers. — Feathers growing on the outer 
sides of the shanks in many of the Asiatics. 

Mossy. — Confused or indistinct markings in 
the plumage. 

Pea-Comb. — A triple comb, resembling three 
small combs in one, the middle being the highest. 

Penciling. — Small markings or stripes over a 
feather. These may run straight across, as in 
the Hamburgs, or in a cresent form, as in Par- 
tridge Cochins. 

Poul. — A young turkey. 

Primaries. — The flight feathei's of the wings, 
hidden when the wing is closed, being tucked 
under the visible wing, which is composed of 
the "secondary" feathers. Usually the pri- 
maries contain the deepest color belonging to 
the fowl, except the tail, and great importance 
is attached to their color by breeders. A cock- 
erel or a pullet of some breeds should never 
show a white quill or a white shaft to a quill to 
become perfect breeding birds. 

Pullet.-— A young hen. The term is not 
properly applicable after a bird is a year old. 

Saddle. — The posterior part of the back, 
reaching to the tail in a cock, aud answering to 
the cushion in a hen — cushion, however, being 
restricted to a very considerable development, 
as in Cochins, while saddle may be applied to 
any breed. 

Secondaries. — The quill featliers of the wings 
^ which are visible when the wings are folded. 

Self-color. — A uniform tint over the feather. 

Shaft. — The stem or (juill part of a feather. 

Shauk. — The lower and scaly joint of the leg. 

Sickles. — The long curved feathers of a cock s 
tail, properly applied only to the top pair, but 
sometimes used for one or two pairs besides. 

Spangling. ^ — The marking produced by a large 
spot or splash on each feather, difl'eriug from 
the ground color. 

S(piirrel Tailed. — The tail projecting in front 
of a perpendicular line over the back. 

Stag. — A term used for a young cock ; chiefly 
employed by game fanciers. 

Station. — An ideal standard for games, em- 
bodied in style and symmetry. 

Strain — A race of fowls that has been care- 
fully bred by one breeder or his successors, for 
a number of years, and has acquired an in- 
dividual character of its own. 

Symmetry. — Perfection of proportion ; often 
confounded with carriage, but quite distinct, as 
a bird may be nearly perfect in his proportions, 
and yet " carry " himself awkwardly. 

Tail-Coverts. — The soft, glossy, curved feath- 
ers at the sides of the lower part of the tail, 
usually of the same color as the tail itself. 

Tail-Feathers. — The straight, stiff' feathers of 
the tail only ; the top pair are sometimes slightly 
curved, but they are generally nearly if not 
quite straight, aud are contained inside the 
sickles and tail coverts. 

Thighs. — The joints above the shanks — the 
same as the drum-sticks in dressed fowls. 

Top- Knot. — Same as crest. 

Under-Color. — The cobr of the plumage, 
seen when the surface has been lifted. It is 
manifested chiefly in the down seen about the 
roots of the feathers. 

Vulture-Hock. — Stiff, projecting feathers at 
the hock joint. Th« feathers must be both stilf 
and projecting to be thus truly called, and con- 

Wattles. — The red depending structures at 
each side of the base of the beak, chiefly devel- 
oped in the male sex. 

Web — The web of a feather is the flat or 
plume portion : the web of the feet, the flat 
skin between the toes ; of the wings, the tri- 
angular skin seen when the wings are extended. 

W'ing-Bars. — Long lines of dark color across 
the middle of the wings, caused by the color or 
marking of the feathers known as the lower 

Wing-Bows. — The upper or shoulder part of 
the wings. 

Wing- Points or Wing-Buts. — The ends of the 

Wing-Coverts. — The broad feathers covering 
the roots of the secondary quills. 

Wry-Tailed. —Crooked-tailed ; a deformity. 

Notes on European Raisin Making. 

The different qualities of imported raisins 
known in the trade are the produce either of 
distinct varieties of the plant, of different soils, 
or of different modes of drying ; this last, in- 
deed, is all-important in producing a fine-fla- 
vored, fleshy, and good-looking fruit. In his 
account of Spain, Laborde thus describes the 
mode of drying these fruits: — "In the kingdom 
of Valencia they make a kind of ley with the 
ashes of rosemary and vine branches, to which 
they add a quart of slaked lime. This ley is 
heated, and a vessel full of holes containing the 
grapes is put into it. When the bunches are in 
the state desired they are generally carried to 
naked rocks, where they are spread on beds of 
the field Artemisia, and are turned every two 
or three days till they are dry. In the kingdom 
of (xranada, particularly towards Malaga, they 
are simply dried in the sun without any prepa- 
ration. The former have a more pleasing rind, 
but a mellow substance ; the skins of the 
latter are not so sugary, but their substance has 
a much greater relish, therefore the raisins of 
Malaga are preferred by foreigners, and are sold 
at a higher price. To this their quality may 
likewise contribute, as they are naturally larger 
and more delicate than those of the kingdom of 

The finest kinds at the present time are, we 
believe, those that are carefully dried in the sun 
as they still hang in bunches on the vines, the 
stalks being partial!}' cut through so as to inter- 
rupt the natural flow of the juices, and the 
leaves being also removed around the bunches. 
The Spanish grape harvest for the preparation 
of raisins commences in August, and during the 
drying, more particularly of the better kinds of 
fruit, the bunches are very carefully overhauled 
and the small or injured fruits removed. Great 
care is needed that rain or moisture should not 
get to them, by which the fruits are often 
spoiled; and tlie stalks, instead of being the 
bright, reddish-brown color, so familiar to us, 
and always indicative of good fruit, become 
black or 'olotchy. When thoroughly dried they 
are carefully and tightly packed in boxes, vary- 
ing in size. 

In the neighljorhood of Smyrna large quanti- 
ties of grapes are grown entirely for the pur- 
pose of drying; the well-known Sultana, a 
small seedless variety with a light-colored fruit, 
is solely the produce of this neighborhood. The 
vines, which are planted in rows, usually about 
six feet to seven feet apart, commence bearing 
in the third year, and are considered in perfec- 
tion at from four to six years old. The gather- 
ing of the fruit commences in July and lasts till 
about the middle of August, the principal 
bunches l)eing gathered first, and those from the 
lateral slioots, which are for the most- part 
smaller, being taken at the close of the harvest. 
The drying and p.acking are similar in principle 
to those already described. Sultanas always 
realize a higher price in the market than the 
other kinds of raisins, and the produce also 
fluoluatcs very much. It is estimated that, in 
the neighborhood of Smyrna, about 10,000 tons 
are annually produced. Very large ([uantities 
of raisins have been received from .Malaga this 
season. From August, 187b', to .June 30th of 
1877, as many as 1.843,000 boxes arrived, 
against 977,o'20 up to the same date of the pre- 
vious year. In the early part of the season, in 
some districts near Valencia, the vineyards 
suft'ered severely from storms, but the crops, on 
the whole, appear to have been good. 

Somewhat similar to the Sultana in point of 
its being without seeds is the currant, the pro- 
duce of a distinct variety of rili.< r hi //era, known 
as Corinthiaca, derived it is said, from Corinth, 
the place of its original cultivation. At the 
present time it is very largely grown in the 
Greek islands, especially in Patras, Zante, the 
best quality being produced in Patras, Vostizza, 
and Corinth. In a well ordered currant plan- 
tation the vines are usually found in rows about 
six feet apart, and sufficiently distant from each 
other to allow the branches to form a spreading 
head, which is supported by props. What we 
have said with regard to the gathering anAdry- 
ing of raisins is generally applicable to th? cur- 
rant. The currant crop of the Morea in 187G 
was an exceptionally large one, reaching 70,000 
tons, of which England took .iS, ."jofi tons, the 
United States of America 6,431, Canada 900, 
Trieste 2, 999, North of Europe 441, Russia ()59, 
Marseilles 32, while 4,920 tons were held forship- 
ment to England and America. It seems from 
the report from which the above figures are 
gathered that the consumption of currants is 
steadily increasing all over the world. 

Keeping Grapes. 

'I'he following method, among many that have 
been recommended for keeping grapes, has 
proved highly successful with who have 
adopted it. Cut the fruit, when fully ripe, on 
a dry day; spread it out thinly on shelves or 
tables, in a coed, dry room, for a few days, two 
to six according to the weather, the object be- 
ing to dry up the stems a little. Cut clean, 
dry, rye straw in a straw-cutter about an inch 
long, aud cover liberally the bottom of a suita- 
ble tightly -jointed box or other vessel; on which 
place a layer of fruit, not too deeply; then 
cover with straw liberally, and lay fruit on it 
again ; aud so proceed with the packing of straw 
and fruit alternately. This done, they require 

only a cool place, with as little moisture as 
practicable, to insure sound fruit for several 
mouths. A sprinkling of flower of sulphur in- 
creases the safety of the grapes; yet the absorb- 
ing property of dry straw is mainly and ordi- 
narily sufficient. 

The practice of keeping grapes in the fruit 
room with the stalks inserted in bottles filled 
with water, and 8us2Jended from the roof, is 
said to have become general in England. It is 
very important to direct attention to the fact 
that the stem must be inserted in the water im- 
mediately after it is severed from the vine, and 
also that the end of the shoot must be short- 
ened. When the branches are not at once in- 
serted the stalks will soon become brown and 
the berries shrivel. Also, if the end of the 
branch is shortened for the purpose of giving a 
neater appearance to the bunches when sus- 
pended in the fruit room, the grapes will soon 
begin to shrivel, and if not used within a short 
space of time, will be of little service. Last 
winter I saw in the garden of an amateur a 
very splendid lot of grapes which were very 
nearly spoiled through that portion of the wood 
above the bunch being removed. 

Unfermentei) Wine. — Those who have a 
superabundance of grapes make wine in the 
usual way and allow it to ferment. It thus 
becomes to a greater or lesser degree intoxicat- 
ing. Much more so, of course, if spirits are 
added. Wine can be made without fermenta- 
tion, and it will keep. It would be well if 
country settlers who grow more grapes than 
they can eat or dispose of, should know the 
method of manufacturing unintoxicating wine. 
The following extract will give some informa- 
tion on the subject: What is termed unfer- 
mented wine is simjdy the juice of the grape as 
it comes from the press and before it has under- 
gone fermentation, and what people want to 
know is how to preserve the juice in its pure 
state without being liable to fdrment. In the 
first place the grapes must be of good quality, 
such as the Muscat, and perfectly ripe. The 
juice preserved in the following manner, from 
the New York Triliiine, is now used in many 
cliurches at communion. The writer says: "I 
use a common hand apple-mill and press, pass- 
ing the grajies through the mill to break the 
berries, then pressing out the juice. Next put 
it into a copper kettle and bring it to a boil, 
and, when cool, pass it through a filter of six 
injhes or more of clean sand and charcoal; it is 
then ready for bottling. Now take a flat-bot- 
tomed wash-boiler, and lay an old cloth in the 
bottom and stand it full of the bottles filled up 
to their necks, leaving a little room for expan- 
sion: pour water into the boiler to half the 
hight of the bottles, and bring the water to a 
boil; then remove the bottles and cork tightly 
while hot, covering the tops with melted seal- 
ing wax; then put away in the cellar. I have 
had such bottles keep through two summers 
without a sign of fermentation." 

How Milk is Made. 

There are different opinions on this point. 
The following is one view of the formation, as 
upheld by l)r. Sturtevtnt, in the Scientijir. 
Furmer: We all know that milk comes from 
the cow, aud is derived primarily from the food 
that goes in at the rnouth. The cow indeed is 
the machine which receives the raw material, 
the grass or hay or grain, and in the natural 
laboratory of her body produces the sweet and 
palatable milk, so essential to infancy, so agreea- 
ble to the adult. How it is done is a most 
interestiag inquiry. It is not simply filcered 
from the blood, as water is filtered through 
earth or paper. It is itself an organized 
material, containing bodies which possess form 
and which are allied to the animal which pro- 
duces them. 

If we pass a bristle inward through the orifice 
of the teat, it traverses a duct or tube which 
opens into a reservoir which communicates with 
other reservoirs or with ducts: selecting one of 
these ducts and continuing, it finally arrives at 
a small saccular cavit}', which comprises the 
extremity of the system. Within this cavity, 
the vesicle, as it has been named, the fat of 
milk is produced. But how ? A microscopic 
examination shows these little cavities, but 
about a thirtieth of an inch more or less in 
diameter, are lined with cells of a uniform size; 
but, if anything, smaller above than below. 
These cells produce the milk-globules by form- 
ing new cells, in the following way: A cell 
commences to bud at the extremity and grows 
until the bud is dropped oH' into the cavity, 
and the water, containing casein and milk sugar 
in solution, and which has been transuded from 
the tissuses, takes this young milk -globule, but 
just now a part of the living structure of 
cow, and washes it down through duct 
after duct, till it readies the reservoir 
and passes out through the teat. Thus 
the fat of milk is formed in the cow, and the 
process is strictly an epithelial one, or a sort of 
a cell growth, as the nail cells elongate to form 
the nail of the hand or foot. 

Let us retrace our way with the milk. The 
simple cell, which but just now was part of the 
vesicle, or terminal acini, or ultimate follicle, 
has received the material for its growth from 
the blood which has been brought to it by the 
system of capillaries, which has enveloped it 
with an abundant network. This material 

received into the cell has become changed into 
fat, by a species of change allied to degeneration 
or the breaking up of preWous compounds. 
This ultimate follicle is grouped with other vesi- 
cles of like character, to form a lobule. 

This lobule is arranged with other lobules, 
and the combined secretion of all the lobules 
are passed onward to the main duct. To repeat, 
the vesicles secrete and pass their product, the 
milk-globule, into the duct of the lobule, and 
from this duct the globule passes into others, 
continually more capacious, until it reaches the 
reservoirs, which are principally arranged about 
the periphery and apex of the udder gland. 

W^e thus see that the milk-globule is at one 
time a portion of the living cow, that it must 
partake in some measure of the character of the 
cow. Hence, as cows differ — we know that 
cows' meat differs, formed of muscle cells as it 
is, one piece of beef being tender and juicy, 
another being dry and tough — so must their be 
difference in their milk. 

Notes on Rose Culture. — No. 3. 

Editors Pkess: — Already the dry season is 
beginning to show its eflfects upon the flower 
garden where they are not properly treated. 
It is claimed by most California gardeners and 
tillers of the soil generally, that unless the sys- 
tem of irrigation be applied through the entire 
dry season, or until the crop is harvested, it is 
the worst policy to irrigate at all. The reason 
of this is very obvious. Watering develops 
surface roots in great abundance, ■which require 
a continued supply in order to keep them alive 
and growing. And hence it is, that if the sup- 
ply is stopped, after once began, these roots are 
exposed to the dry soil and thus starves and 
stunts the plant. Crops of nearly every kind 
can be grown successfully without irrigation 
where the ground is well cultivated. 

With these points in view we will consider 
the best method of treating roses. For young 
plants, under two years of age, irrigation is 
preferable, but when it is not convenient, a 
free use of the hoe, if applied at least every 
two weeks, will suffice. After the plants have 
attained a good size and over three years of age 
irrigation is not so necessary when they are 
kept thoroughly cultivated, aud fine plants can 
be grown without watering at all. Where a 
special show and continuance of bloom is de- 
sired, a tile inserted near the bush, so as to 
convey the water a foot or more below the sur- 
face, will be found a valuable means for effect- 
ing this purpose. Where the surface is kept 
well cultivated, watering through this tile a 
dozen times during the season is sufficient, pro- 
vided it is done thoroughly each time. 


When choice can be had, a rich, heavy loam is 
preferable, though fine specimens can be grown 
on nearly all sorts, provided it is well enriched. 
Manure is an article, the application of which is 
injurious to but few plants, and none are bene- 
fited by it more than the rose. In planting the 
ground should be previously well enriched with 
strong cow or horse manure. (Some fertilizers 
and composts are good, but these two are pre- 
ferable.) After they have become established, 
a good top dressing or mulching, with good 
stable manure, is necessary every fall or spring. 
Fall is the better time, thus allowing the ground 
to become saturated with the strength and 
washings of the manure during the rainy 
months. The manure should be spaded in be- 
fore the dry weather begins and the ground 
kept in a state of continual cultivation. The 
effect of thorough manuring is amazing, and can 
scarcely bo realized, unless it is tested, and re- 
sults of the two systems, with and without ma- 
nuring, witnessed. Some varieties growing on 
poor and rich soil would scarcely be recognized 
as the same kind. Some sorts that produce in 
well enriched ground large, double, fragrant 
blossoms have become, when planted in a poor 
spot, very insignificant, bearing flowers almost 
single in form and nearly odorless. 

With these remarks I will close this article, 
leaving for the reader to adopt any observations 
which he may consider worthy of imitation. 
Rose culture is a large subject and to treat it 
scientifically aud in detail would occupy the 
spa„e of a large volume. While this is so it is 
e(|ually true that any one by giving hints in his 
special line, learned from study and experience, 
will often save others much loss and many mis- 
directed efforts. In the writer's humble opin- 
ion there is not a plant or shrub grown which 
will so amply reward the cultivator for his 
special study and attention as this justly en- 
titled "queen of flowers." As far back in 
history as we can trace the cultivation of flow- 
ers, for ornamental purposes, the rose stands 
pre-eminent. Since then up to the present day 
it has continued to grow in popular favor, and 
it is now the leading favorite among amateurs 
and connoisseurs of floral and ornamental taste. 
It has ever engaged the hj bridizers attention 
to an extent that no other plant has, as is 
evidenced by the innumerable varieties now 
under cultivation throughout nearly every civi- 
lized portion of the globe. Z. Eason. 

Santa Rosa, .Tune 15th. 



[July 6, 1878. 

Correapoudence cordially in\ited from all Patrons for this 

Worthy State Lecturer's Appointments. 

The State Lecturer will visit the tollowin? Granges o 
the day and date herein given, prepared to hold a private 
meeting at each (Jrange for the good of the Order, and 
also a public meeting at such hour as each Grange may 
determine, to which public meeting everybody is invited 
We bespeak for Bro. Pilkington a most hospitable recep 
tion and large turn outs, and those who can ought not to 
miss hearing him on Grange topics, for he discusses 
them with an earnestness and ability positively his own. 

I. C. Steele, 

Amos Adams, Master of the State Grange. 

Secretary of the State Grange. 
Name of Grange. County. Time. 

Lincoln Placer Monday, July 8th, 1878 

North Butte Butte Wednesday, July 10th 

Grand Island Colusa Friday, July 12th 

Willows Colusa Saturdav, July 13th 

Plaza Colusa Monday, July 15th 

Farmington Tehama Wednesday, July 17th 

Reading Shasta. Thursday, July ISth 

Miilville Shasta Friday, July 19th 

American Valley Plumas Tuesday. July 23d 

Indian Valley Plumas Thursday, July 2.'>tli 

Plumas Lassen Saturday, July 27th 

Surprise Valley Modoc Tuesday, July 30lh 

Eagleville Modoc Thursday, August 1st 

Cedarville Modoc Saturday, August 3d 

Northeast Modoc Monday, August 5th 

Modoc Modoc Wednesday, August 7th 

Davis Creek Modoc Saturday August 10th 

Crescent City Del Norte .. Wednesday August 14lh 

Rivelluttah Humboldt. . .Saturday, August 17lh 

Sable Bluff Humboldt Monday, August 19th 

Fcrndale Humboldt .Wednesday, August 22st 

Mattole Humboldt Friday, August 23d 

Cahto Mendocino. . .Tuesday, August 27th 

Potter Valley Mendocino... Thursday August 29th 

Lakeport Lake Saturday, August 31st 

Cloverdale Sonoma Monday, September 2d 

Healdsburg Sonoma. . . .Tuesday, September 3d 


Editors Press.— At a meeting of Liberty 
Orange, P. of H., held .June Ist, 1878, the fol- 
resolution was passed: 

Whereas, In view of the fact that there are 
now, within a radius of six or eight miles, six 
Granges existing; and 

Wherea.s, There are more organizations than 
the state of the Order will justify; therefore be it 

Resolved, That we proceed to disorganize, and 
that the eflfects of the Grange be sold, and the 
money, together with what we have already on 
hand, be donated to the Ladies' Benevolent 
Society of the city of Stockton for charitable 
distribution, and that demits be granted all 
members in good standing, without cost, in 
order that all who may desire may join neigh- 
boring Granges. 

On motion the Secretary «'as instructed to 
prepare a statement of the above action for 
publication in the Stockton Independent, Stock- 
ton Herald and Rural Press. The Grange 
then adjourned sine die. J. Si homp, 

E. W. S. Woods, Secretary. 

The ^tocVion Independent says: '"In accord- 
ance with this resolution, the officers of the 
Grange sold all the effects of the organization 
on Friday last, and yesterday Mr. .Schomp 
turned over the proceeds, $200, to Mrs. J. B. 
Hall, Treasurer of the Ladies' Benevolent Soci- 
ety. The money came as a God-send to the 
society, there l)eing pressing demands upon 
their charities from poor, needy families, and 
the treasury was quite empty." 

Colusa Coi-ntv Pomona Grange. — The 
members will please take notice that the regular 
meeting of this Grange, which was to have been 
held at Grimes' Landing, Grand island, July 
6th, is postponed until the 12th of July, in 
order to meet the Worthy State Lecturer on his 
visit to Grand Island Grange, and it is hoped 
and expected that every member of the Pomona 
Grange will be present, at 10 o'clock sharp, to 
attend the private meeting of the Order. There 
will be a public meeting in the afternoon, and 
everybody is invited. — J. R. Totraan in Colusa 

Personal. — The Oakland Times makes the 
following announcement which many readers 
will peruse with sincere regret: "Superintend- 
ent Carr lies dangerously sick at Paraiso springs, 
where he has been for some time. His health 
seems to have been broken down. A species 
of chronic rheumatism seems to be the chief 
ailment. His wife is with him. He may soon 
be removed to Oakland." 

In Memoriam. 

SOCIAL GRANGE, No. 271, June 29th, 1878. 

Whereas, The relentless hand of death has been 
laid heavily upon us, and the Divine Master has seen fit 
to remove from our circle, our beloved Sister, and late 
worthy Flora, AooiR Smerfev, 

Resolved, By this Grange, that in the death of Sister 
Aggie Sherfey, we have lost a dear and worthy member, 
and the family a loving and dutiful daughter. 

Resolved, That wc tender our heartfelt sympathies to 
the bereaved family in this sad affliction. 

Rembvd. That our charterbe draped in mourning for 
30 days, that these resolutions be spread on the minutes 
of this Grange, and a copy sent to the bereaved mother, 
also one to the Pacific Ri bai, Press, Califnrnia Patron, 
and Sacramento Vallfy AgrieulturM. with a request for 
publication.[— Sister H. E. Putnam, Sister S. E. Sher- 
wood, Brother Wm. Atkinson, Committee. 

.John McPike, of the west side of the San 
Joaquin river, claims that he will this year, on 
his various farms in this State, raise 140,000 
bushels of grain. He has already marketed 

The New Warehouse Law. 

An act in relation to Warehouse and Wharf- 
inger Receipts, and other matters pertaining 
thereto. Approved April 1st, 1878. 

The people of the State of California, repre- 
sented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as 

Section 1. That no warehouseman, wharf- 
inger, or other person, doing a storage business, 
shall issue any receipt or voucher for any goods, 
wares, merchandise, grain, or other produce or 
commodity, to any person or persons purporting 
to bo the owner or owners thereof, unless such 
goods, wares, merchandise or grain, or other 
commodity, shall have been bona fide received 
into store by such warehousetfian, wharfinger 
or other person, and shall be in store and under 
his control at the time of issuing such receipt. 

Skc. 2. That no warehouseman, wharfinger, 
or other person engaged in the storage business, 
shall issue any receipt or other voucher upon 
any goods, wares, merchandise, grain, or other 
produce or commodity, to any person or per- 
sons as security for any money loaned or other 
indebtedness, unless such goods, wares, 
merchandise, grain, or other produce or com- 
modity, shall be, at the time of issuing such 
receipt, the property of such warehouseman, 
wharfinger,! °^ other person, shall be in store 
and under control at the time of issuing such 
receipt or voucher as aforesaid. 

Sec. 3. That no wharehouseman, wharfiger, 
or other person as aforesaid, shall issue any 
second receipt for any goods, wares, merchan- 
dise, grain, or other produce or commodity, 
while any former receipt for any such goods or 
chatties as aforesaid, or any part thereof, shall 
be outstanding or uncanceled. 

Sec. 4. That no warehouseman, wharfinger, 
or other person as aforesaid, shall sell or in- 
cumber, ship, transfer, or in any manner re- 
move beyond his immediate control, any goods, 
wares, merchandise, grain, or other produce or 
commodity for which a receipt shall have been 
given as aforesaid, without the written assent 
of the person or persons holding such receipt or 
receipts plainly indorsed thereon in ink. 

Sec. 5. Warehouse receipts for property 
stored shall be of two classes: First, transfera- 
ble and negotiable; and second, non-transfer- 
able or non-negotiable. Under the first of these 
classes, all property shall be transferable by the 
indorsement of the party to whose order such 
receipt may be issued, and such indorsement of 
the same shall be deemed a valid transfer of the 
property represented by such receipt, and may 
be in blank or to the order of another. All 
warehouse receipts for property stored shall 
distinctly state on their face for what they are 
issued, as also the brands and distinguishing 
marks; and in the case of grain, the number of 
sacks, and number of pounds, and kind of 
grain; also, the rate of storage per month or 
season charged for storing the same. 

Sec. 6. No warehouseman, or other person 
or persons, giving or issuing negotiable receipts 
for goods, grain or other property on storage, 
shall deliver said property, or any part thereof, 
without indorsing upon the back of said receipt 
or receipts, in ink, the amount and date of the 
deliveries. Nor shall he or they be allowed to 
make any offset, claim or demand other than as 
expressed on the face of the receipt or receipts 
issued for the same, when called upon to deliver 
said goods, merchandise, grain or other prop- 

Sec. 7. No warehouseman, or person or per- 
sons, doing a general storage business, giving or 
issuing non-negotiabte or non-transferable re- 
ceipts for goods, grain, or other property on 
storage, shall deliver said property, or any part 
thereof, except on the written order of the per- 
son to whom the receipt or receipts were issued. 

Sec. 8. All receipts issued by any ware- 
housemen or other person under this act, other 
than negotiable, shall have printed across their 
face, in bold distinct letters in red ink, the 
words non-negotiable. 

Sec. 9. No warehouseman, person or per- 
sons, doing a general storage business, shall be 
responsible for any loss or damage to property 
by fire while in his or their custody, provided 
reasonable care and vigilance be exercised to 
protect and preserve the same. 

Sec. 10. Any warehouseman, wharfinger, 
person or persons, who shall violate any of the 
foregoing provisions of this act, is guilty of 
felony, shall be subjected to indictment, and, 
upon conviction, shall be fined in a sum not ex- 
ceetling five thousand dollars ($5,000) or im- 
prisonment in the State Prison of this State not 
exceeding five years or both. And all and every 
person aggrieved by the violation of of any of 
the provisions of this act, may have and main- 
tain an action against the person or persons vio- 
lating any of the foregoing provisions of this 
act, to recover all damages, immediate or con- 
sequent, which he or they may have sustained 
by reason of any such violation as aforesaid, 
before any court of competent jurisdiction, 
whether such person shall have been convicted 
under the act or not. 

James A. Johnson, President of the Senate; 
C. P. Berry, Speaker of the Assembly. Ap- 
proved April Ist, 1878. William Irwin, Gov- 

It is difficult for the cars to ascend the grade 
in the Tehachepi mountains, on account of the 
myriads of grasshoppers that at times fill the 
air and cover the rails, and sometimes, when 
coming down the grade, the brakes fail to ac- 
complish their purpose. 



Crops. — Record, June 29: A tele^fram from 
Biggs says summer-fallowed grain has suffered 
no injury worth speaking of from rust, but 
winter-plowed grain along the Feather and 
Sacramento bottoms is so damaged by it that 
farmers do not anticipate more than a quarter 
crop from lands thus treated. Reports from a 
number of counties are the same. 

Hendrick's Improved Wagon Derrick. — 
Gazette, June 15: We referred last week to the 
improvements of Mr. W^. T. Hendrick on the 
wagon derrick and fork. The improvements on 
this derrick include a telescoping mast that can 
be instantly raised and secured at any desirable 
hight above the wagon platform, or as readily 
lowered for traveling, to clear overhanging 
trees, telegraph wires or other obstructions, 
and to ride without swaying strain, the raising 
and lowering being effected by a chain, operated 
with a ratchet drum, or spool, on which it 
winds, with a crank lever. The mast guys are 
set up in the same manner, by a turn or two of 
their respective ratchet spools. The gafts are 
so hung with thimbles that they can turn com- 
pletely around the mast, and the fork is tripped 
iiy an iron frame attached to the gaft block, or 
it may be independently tripped by the forker 
with hand line. When dropped on the stack 
the fork is self-locked and remains so when 
hauled back by the guide rope .for reloading, 
and thus avoids the troublesome and vexatious 
tangling and fouling with straw incident to 
hauling back the loose fork by the hand trip 
line. The derrick is worked by the engineer, 
the fork hoist ropes running clear of the ground 
directly to the break shaft, friction drums, on 
the engine, where the engineer is seated so as 
to have a full view of stacks and separator, and 
where he has all the cocks, valves, and working 
parts of the engine under his hands without 
stirring from his seat. Mr. Hendrick has also 
important improvements on the separators, 
which we have not space to describe. 

Mildew on Grapes. — .Sun, June 29: We 
learn that the mildew is playing havoc with the 
grape crop in some parts of the valley. E. Mc- 
Daniel, of Union Township, has a large vine- 
yard so badly mildewed that he does not ex- 
pect to get any grapes at alL It has attacked 
the leaves and the young stocks as well as the 
bunches of grapes. 

Rust. — Rust has made its appearance in our 
section, but it is not thought that it will iujure 
the early sown wheat to any appreciable ex- 
tent, and we find many farmers who doubt if 
it will seriously affect the late sown, unless 
there should be a term of still, foggy nights, 
with hot morning sun upon the wet grain, be- 
fore it gets through the soft stages. So far as 
we can learn the rust has appeared in the grain 
on well drained, gravelly slopes, as well as on 
low lands without drainage, and seems to be 
entirely due to meteorological causes without 
reference to drainage character of the soil or 
situation; and the more general opinion based 
on practical observation and experience is, that 
wheat not yet well hardened and mature, ex- 
posed to hot sun while wet with fog or dew will 
almost invariably be more or less affected with 
rust, most likely from the scalding, blistering 
or steaming effect upon the covering tissues of 
the plant, causing an exudation and oxidation 
of its juices. 

FiRK on fhe Plains. — On Tuesday, the 25th, 
about half-past two o'clock, a fire broke out on 
the ranch of Mr. P. R. (iarnett, which is about 
two and a half miles from Willows. In less 
than half an hour there were 104 men on the 
place with Wet sacks fighting the fiames. As 
all worked with hearty good-will, the fire was 
soon put out, and the neighbors, as well as Mr. 
Garuett, were saved from sustaining a great 
loss. In attempting to move and save the sepa- 
rator, three horses belonging to Mr. George 
Silvey, had to bo abandoned to the fiames, 
which reached the stacks, and made it too hot 
for any one to rescue the poor brutes, which 
wR-e hitched to it and struggling in their har- 
ness. The separator was entirely consumed, as 
well as all the belting and combustible material 
about the engine. Mr. Garuett estimates his 
loss at about §500. 


Editors Press: — This has been an unusual 
wet spring and very bad for making hay, and 
also for harvesting early sown grain. This 
makes times very busy now, still we find time 
to read your most valuable paper. It comes 
every Saturday evening and is a most welcome 
visitor. .Some of our fruit is beginning to 
ripen. We have rather a light crop of apples; 
other fruit about an average. — N. S. Montague. 

Los Nieto.s. — Editors — Many of our 
Nietos grain growers (myself included) are com- 
ing out in debt on our crop. Wheat with me 
failing entirely, and yet the weather continues 
damp. So that we generally cannot run our 
harvesting machinery until afternoon. Corn in 
Nietos is now looking fair. Many farmers 
planted two and three times. The first difficulty 
was rain — crusting the ground and rotting the 
seed. Worms <lestroyed the second planting. 
The third planting generally found the ground 
in splendid condition and the corn started off 
finely. We of Nietos are fast proving the fact 
of "ten acres is enough." The ten-acre farmers 

here are going ahead of us who still persist in 
"sowing broad acres." This is my fourth year 
of farming on the "broad acre" plan in Nietos, 
and I have lost money every year. So why 
deny a fact when the proof is before me. Ten 
acres from this out is suited to farmers of my 
caliber, in Los Angeles county, anyhow. But 
didn't I die hard? I hated to give in. And all 
I have to say to my old friends of the "broad 
acres" is, go in boys; let others shoot; ten acres 
is enough for me. — G. K. Miller. 

The Pavilion.— AV/wcm, June 29: Mr. Holt, 
Secretary of the Horticultural Pavilion Com- 
mittee, informs us that we understated the 
Committee's intentions in the construction of 
their building in our item yesterday. The plan 
is to be drawn for a building to cost eventually 
$12,000 or ,515,000; but, for a starter, a shell 
will be constructed, suitable for present uses, 
which can be improved in architectural appoint- 
ments and added to as the Society's funds in- 
crease. The first operation will be extended 
to the amplitude of tlie subscriptions, whatever 
they may be. 

\ViiEAT Crop. — We have heard some very 
encouraging news from the wheat orop west of 
this city. A gentleman interested in its out- 
come assures us that the rust has not been near 
so damaging as the reports would lead us to 
believe. All the wheat planted in heavy adobe 
soil will turn out a full crop. That planted in 
light sandy soil will not turn out so well. A 
two-thirds crop may be depended upon. It is 
remarked that the Sonora wheat has turned out 
plump and solid, while other varieties have 
suffered more or less. There is a heavy-bearded 
wheat planted in that region which has rusted 
in places, but which has done well on heavy 
land. Our informant says that the experience 
of the wheat growers this season is greatly in 
favor of heavy and adobe soils. But very little 
rust has resulted in these soils and the greatest 
damage to the grain is noticeable in light soil 

Eggs. — Journal, June 26; There are not 
enough eggs brought into San Rafael for home 
consumption. One merchant here brought over 
230 dozen last week from San Francisco, and no 
doubt the other dealers do the same thing. A 
few acres devoted to chickens, near this town, 
if well managed, would pay a higher dividend 
than any of our present industries. 

Crops in the Salina.s Valley. — hidex, June 
27: From personal observation and interviews 
with farmers in different portions of the valley 
we are reluctantly led to believe that, instead of 
"a full average," there will not be half a crop 
of wheat in the Salinas valley this year, owing 
to the great damage from rust that has been de- 
veloi)ed during the past few days. In fact, it 
will indeed be a fortunate thing for the valley 
if the harvest result in half an average yield. 
From Chualar down the damage will not be 
nearly so great as in the upper portion of the 
valley, where many large fields, embracing 
thousands of acres, will in all probability not 
be cut at all, as the cost of harvesting it would 
be almost as much as if the crop were good. 
South from Soledad — in Long, Indian, Peach 
Tree, Priest, Cholame, and other valleys — the 
wheat has, so far as we have been able to learn, 
escaped the rust almost entirely, which is a for- 
tunate thing, as it is a matter of bread with the 
people of those localities. Yet, while the crop 
prospect IS decidedly gloomy in compari.-)on 
with what it would have been this year, had 
rust not interfered, the condition of affairs in 
this valley and county is infinitely better than 
last year. We will have plenty of wheat for 
home consumption and considerable to spare; 
plenty of barley, plenty of oats and a supera- 
bundance of hay. We do not deem it good 
policy to endeavor to disguise the fact of the 
shortness of the crop here or anywhere else in 
the State, as it will have a tendency to keep 
down the price of wheat to the injury of farm- 
ers who have any to sell. Were it not for the 
ravages of rust, the Salinas valley would have 
produced an immense yield of wheat — greater 
than was ever before known. We hope for the 

Fkuit. — RejX>rter, June 28: The fruit crop 
in Napa valley this season is backward from 
one to four weeks. A gentleman informed us 
that he has pear and apple tree on his place 
which laSt year produced ripe fruit by the first 
of July, but this season the fruit will not ma- 
ture before the first of August. 

Plow the New-Made Sediment Land. — 
Record- Union, June 29: A great amount of land 
was made last winter during the high water by 
the deposit of sediment from the rivers. Where- 
ever the deposit is from six inches deep up- 
wards, we call it made land, for the reason that 
the character of the land is changed by the 
deposit, and, in one sense, becomes new land. 
Sediment to the depth of two or three inches on 
black lands adds greatly to the value of such 
lands and does not injure them even fi-r imme- 
diate use, but when the deposit is so deep that 
the plow will not bring up a portion of the old 
soil to mix with the sediment, the value of the 
land for immediate use is injured or destroyed 
entirely. This made land has to be ripened or 
matured by exposure to the air and sun for a 
year or two before it will produce, but then 
becomes very valuable. All such land made 
last winter should be plowed and stirred up 
this summer to hasten the ripening process. 
By the mode of deposit, the settling of fine 
sediment from the water, it becomes so com- 

July 6, 1878.] 



pact that no air or heat can penetrate it. This 
condition must be disturbed and the particles 
loosened up before the ripening process can 
proceed with any degree of rapidity. Such 
land in its present compact condition will not 
even produce weeds, but will, if undisturbed, 
remain barren for years. In such land the 
plow and harrow are valuable fertilizers. As 
river farmers generally have a plenty of coarse 
weeds and barn-yard manure on hand after 
such a season as the last that they hardly know 
what to do with, we would suggest that the 
spots in this new-made land that contain a large 
proportion of white sand constitute good places 
for the deposit of such material. Such materi- 
als will greatly facilitate decomposition of the 
white sand and materially help the land. 


New Hay Press. — Hollister Enterprise, .June 
15: We went out to the Wagner ranch 
Wednesday to see one of the new "Monitor" 
hay presses at work. The press belongs to 
James I. Hodges and is being operated by Tip 
Atcheson & Co. It is the invention of T. .J. 
Corning who is also the patenter and if our 
judgment speaks correctly, it will soon be in 
general use throughout the country. There is 
no question of its superiority over any press we 
have yet seen. It is simple of construction, 
strong and durable and can be run with a large 
saving of cost and labor. The press rests on 
trucks, the wheels being set in the ground a 
foot or so to impart stability. At Hrst glance, 
it resembles a horizontal chicken coop. It is 
Hi feet long, 46 inches wide and 20 inches 
deep; a crank centrally located on the top of 
which is attached a double lever 16 feet long, 
operates the machine. The horse is hitched to 
the end of this lever and pulls it forward and 
backward in ahalfcircle. Each semicircle of the 
crank drives a double headed follower to the 
opposite end. Two bales are made at the same 
time; when the follower starts from one end 
the man stationed there stuffs in hay until it 
returns and while it is returning, the man at 
the other end piles in his hay, this is kept up 
until the bales are completed, when they are 
tied by a neat and convenient process and 
ejected by the same motive power that pressed 

A Prolific Kernel.— J. W. Green brought 
to our office Thursday, a bunch of barley con- 
taining 219 stalks, the product of one kernel, 
grown upon the Spring Brook Farm. The 
stalks will average six feet in length and are 
well headed and hlled. The bunch can be seen 
in this office by any one desirous of inspecting 
this remarkaljle production. 

Harvest. — Enterprise, .June 29: Barley har- 
vesting is in progress throughout the county, 
and the yield will be large and quality very 
fine. Some of the earlier sown wheat is about 
ready for the sickle, but the wheat harvest will 
not begin in earnest for two or three weeks yet. 
It is Hlling finely, and with the exception of 
patches in certain localities, which have been 
injured to some extent by rust, the crop will be 
immense. The late dry and moderately warm 
weather has been very favorably, and it is the 
settled opinion now that less damage will result 
generally from rust than was anticipated a 
week or ten days ago. Two weeks since, we 
did not think wheat was likely to suffer at all 
from this cause, but the continued heavy morn- 
ing fogs subsequently generated in some fields 
considerable rust. The favorable change in the 
weather, however, has about banished all seri- 
ous apprehensions, and now we can safely count 
on the heaviest yield ever produced in the 


Stock Sale. — Stockton Herald, June 27 
This forenoon tiiere was a sale of blooded 
horses on Hunter street square, under auspices 
of the Sheriff. The horses were the property of 
ex-Judge C. M. Creaner, and were sold to sat- 
isfy the orders of the District Court in a matter 
of alimony in a divorce case in which Judge 
Creaner is defendant. The first animal sold 
was a two-year-old colt sired by "Joe Daniels;" 
dam, "Julia," by "Nena Sahib;" grand dam, 
"Lady Hawkins," by "Jack Hawkms. " 
"Julia" is full sister to "Romulus" and "Tom- 
my Chandler," and some years ago, won the 
two-year-old race at a district fair in this city. 
This colt sold for .|205 and was purchased by 
D. W. Kidd. The next animal sold was "Ans- 
lem," a sorrel horse, six years old and untrained; 
sired by "Norfolk;" dam, "Julia," as above. 
This horse was sold for $110, and was purchased 
by E. E. Thrift. When he was a week old his 
owner refused $800 for him. Two other horses 
that were well bred were offered for sale, but 
withdrawn, the defendant having at this point 
complied with the orders of the Court. 


Crops. — Times, June 29: The late grain 
crops on the coast have grown so well during 
the last few days that the farmers are looking 
pleased, and those that had an idea that their 
fields would not return the seed, are now as 
happy as a clam in high water. The fogs have 
done it, which on some days have nearly been 
as heavy as rain. Blight has appeared on 
patches of red potatoes, but so far the white 
ones have escaped all danger. The wheat crop 
will be the largest ever seen on the coast, and 
we can, with confidence, say it never looked 


Bbet Blown Down. — South Coast, June 26: 
Dr. French had a very fine beet blown over and 
destroyed by the wind on the 19th inst. The 

top had grown some 10 or 12 feet in hight, and 
had it matured would have yielded from 15 to 
20 pounds of seed. The whole vegetable, top 
and root, weighed 128 pounds. 


Strawberry Crop. — Mercury, June 27: But 
few people abroad have any idea of the extent 
of the fruit business of this valley. Our straw- 
berry crop alone yields an annual income of 
nearly a quarter of a million dollars. The esti- 
mated yield for 10 weeks of the present season 
is 30,000 chests, averaging about .f8 per chest, 
and amounting to .f 240, 000. The sale of black- 
berries and raspberries, currants, cherries and 
other small fruits, will swell the amount to at 
least a half million dollars. And this inde- 
pendent of our vast pear crops, and our large 
crops of rhubarb, asparagus and other vege- 
tables, of which large quantities are produced 
in this valley for outside markets. 


Bodega. — Argus, June 26: E. H. Cheeney, 
of Bodega, was in town on Tuesday and gave us 
a call. Mr. Cheeney has been many years a 
resident of the Bodega country, and being a 
pra-^tical, well educated farmer, cin converse or 
write upon agricultural topics intelligently and 
forcibly. He informed us that feed in his 
neighborhood has dried up nearly a month 
earlier this year than last, which is owing 
chiefly to the absence of the usual heavy fogs 
and dews in the months of May and June. The 
season, however, has been a tolerably good one 
for dairymen, except that prices for butter and 
cheese have been uncommonly low. The potato 
blight has appeared in Bodega, and the indica- 
tions are that it will be quite destructive. Mr. 
Cheeney has experimented extensively in the 
production of potatoes and now has 14 separate 
varieties growing on his place, specimens of 
which he will exhibit at our approaching fair. 
He is convinced from his observation and ex- 
periments that a change of seed potatoes fre- 
quently is the best safeguard against blight or 
other disease. 


West Side Field.s on Fire. — Neios, June 
27 : Just as we were going to press, news reached 
this place that a terrible conflagration was 
raging in the wheat fields west of San Joaquin. 
The fire originated near Bantas, San Joaquin 
county. The fire is five miles wide and extend- 
ing up the valley. The smoke could be seen 
from the court-house, at this place. People 
were starting from here for the scene of danger. 
There is in that locality a continuous grain field 
up the river for 60 miles. The Stockton Inde- 
pendent says: Yesterday afternoon a fire caught 
in a fine bady of grain lying in the sink of Cor- 
ral Hollow creek, three miles from Bantas, and, 
before it could be checked, 1,000 acres of the 
finest wheat of that section were totally con- 
sumed. We could not learn the names of the 
parties who suffered this distressing loss, but 
understand that the fire caught from sparks 
from the stovepipe of a Chmese cook-house. 
There was a stiff wind blowing at the time, and 
but for the fortunate intervention of a field of 
green wheat, the conflagration might have 
swept through the whole valley. About 300 of 
the farmers and citizens of Bantas gathered at 
the fire and fought it vigorously with wet sacks. 
The wheat was expected to yield about 25 to 
30 bushels per acre. There was no insurance 
on the grain, although farmers on the West 
Side have insured largely this year. The grain 
was just ready to cut. The loss is estimated at 


Trial of a Ditching Machine. — Appeal, 
June 14: Nevill's improved ditcher was given 
a trial yesterday. The first trial was on soft 
bottom land, and the second on hard and dry 
soil. The machine worked satisfactorily to all 
present. It excavated a ditch eight inches 
wide, a foot in depth, and 300 feet long in front 
of Napoleon square in five minutes. It is cal- 
culated to excavate as much earth in one day as 
100 men with shovels. It dug a ditch a few 
days ago on Judge Pratt's ranch, near Durham 
station, half a mile in length, in one day. The 
experiments in this city yesterday were under 
the supervision of Marshal Casad. Four horses 
propelled the machine very easily on soft 
ground, and we should judge it required about 
the same propelling power as an ordinary gang 
plow. The dirt is cut up with shares, forced 
iuto the flange of a revolving wheel, carried to 
the top, and discharged to one side of the ditch. 
It is thrown in or out of gear by a screw gov- 
ernor worked by a man at the tail of the ma- 


Agricultural Progress. — San Jose Mer- 
cury, June 28: Our fellow townsman, Wm. J. 
Cottle, has just returned from an extensive 
tour of eastern Oregon and the Willamette val- 
ley, his former home. Eastern Oregon, he re- 
ports, is being rapidly settled, and is assuming 
the appearance of a much older place. The 
principal industry is stock-raising, which will 
be very profitable this year, as the feed and 
water are in abundance, and the prospects for a 
continuance of the same most excellent. The 
stream of immigration is not at all checked by 
the reported Indian wars, which, he says, are 
of far less magnitude than the startling reports 
would indicate. In the Willamette valley 
everything is comparatively lively, notwith- 
standing the wheat crop is much inferior to the 

News in Brief. 

Gen. Pleasanton is still lecturing on blue 

Baled hay is selling in Petaluma at .f 6 to $10 
per ton. 

There will be an eclipse of the sun visible in 
this city on July 29th. 

Gen. Grant will return to the United States 
next spring by way of India. 

There are heavy arrivals of wool at vSalem, 
Oregon. Buyers pay 18 cents. 

The river is but 14 feet 6 inches above low- 
water mark in front of Sacramento. 

Christian K. Ross has had 497 boys exhib- 
ited to him as his long-lost son, Charlie. 

The hop vineyards at Puyallup, Washington 
Territory, are looking exceptionally well. 

Last Saturday, Kate Lorence walked 50 miles 
in nine hours and 40 minutes at Woodland. 

There were 305 Chinese passengers on the 
Belqic, which arrived from Hongkong on the 
23d ult. 

The Free Labor Exchange furnished 48 per- 
sons with employment last week, 34 of them 
being men. 

Polygamous marriages continue to be fre- 
quent in Utah, 110 having been solemnized in 
one day lately. 

The barrel factory" at Tacoma has received 
an order for 1,000 salmon barrels from New 
Westminster, B. C. 

A portion of a tunnel near Scheveliff, Ger- 
many, fell lately, burying 27 persons. Seven 
bodies were recovered. 

W. W. Stone, the pioneer merchant of Biggs, 
Butte county, died, last week, from injuries 
inflicted by a runaway team. 

The New York Sun reports the veteran edi- 
tor, James Watson Webb, lying dangerously 
ill there. He is over 76 years old. 

David Held, a well-known San Francisco 
merchant, of the firm of Held Bros. & Co., is 
dead, from a stroke of paralysis. 

Judge Venables, of Downey City, Los An- 
geles county, has 150 acres planted in canary 
seed, which is in a flourishing condition. 

The total rainfall at Reading, Shasta county, 
for the season has been 60 inches, as against 
25.78 inches in the previous year. 

Rain is much needed in nearly all parts of 
western Oregon. Without it late sow grain in 
many places will yield little or nothing. 

J. W. Cara, aged about 60, a lecturer on as- 
tronomy and geology, was found dead a few 
days since in a stable at Reno, Nevada. 

There occurred in this city 98 deaths last 
week, against 66 for the preceding week, and 
102 for the corresponding week of last year. 

Notwithstanding the favorable progress 
already made, some weeks must elapse before 
the German Emperor can be removed to the 

The spring run of salmon in the Columbia 
river and also in the Sacramento was a light 
one, and the canneries have suspended opera- 
tions till fall. 

Michael Tobin, a United States soldier, has 
been found guilty of the murder of Peter Albers, 
at West Point. The jury recommended execu- 
tive clemency. 

Swarms of crickets have invaded Paradise 
Valley, Tuscarora, and other places in northern 
Nevada. They are a nuisance, but otherwise 
have as yet done no harm. 

Two hundred Mormons lately arrived at 
New York on their way to Salt Lake. It is es- 
timated that 35,000 have reached that port for 
the same destination since 1855. 

Mrs. George Voorhees, who was thrown 
from a carriage in the vicinity of Farmington, 
San Joaquin county, on Thursday of last week, 
died at Stockton, on Saturday evening. 

Dr. Dio Lewis, the great hygienic teacher, 
is camping out with his family and sleeping on 
the ground in the foothills of the Sierra, now 
in Nevada county, his health nearly restored. 

W. H. Von Schmidt, mate of the schooner 
Ariel, which arrived here last week from the 
South Sea islands, was washed overboard and 
drowned on the trip. He was a son of Colonel 
Von Schmidt, the engineer. 

A PETITION signed by 581 persons of both 
sexes is before the Constitutional Convention 
at Walla Walla asking that the word "male" 
be left out of the portions of the Constitution 
which refer to the elective franchise. 

Bears are reported very numerous in Priest 
valley, Monterey county, coming down from 
the Gabilan mountains. They have killed over 
25 head of cattle, to say nothing of sheep with- 
out number, in that locality this season. 

Antelope are quite . numerous in Siskiyou 
county, especially on Antelope creek. A gen- 
tleman saw a band of 17 one day, and met 
others on the next day. Sometimes they run 
in large bands like droves of sheep, but at this 
season of the year scatter out with their fawns. 

Henry A. Parr, who arrived from St. John, 
N. B., has been arrested in Boston on a charge 
of murder on board the steamer Chesapeake, 
from New York, for Portland, December 5th, 
1863. Parr was one of 17 passengers who took 
possession of the Chesapeake in the name of the 
Confederacy, shooting the second engineer and 
throwing the body overboard. 

Governor Hartranft, of Pennsylvania, has 
appointed Christian K. Ross, father of the kid- 
napped boy, Master Warden of the port of 
Philadelphia, at a salary of $2,500 per annum. 
Mr. Ross had not sought the position, and was 
taken by surprise when his commission reached 
him. He needed the place, having spent all his 
means and much more besides — $80,000 in all, 
searching for his lost boy. 

Fires have occurred in different pan he 
State, destroying a good deal of standi 1: lud 
stacked grain. 

The Internal Revenue collections in this city 
last week amounted to .$23,201; total since the 
first of the year, .$965,300. 

The hottest day of the season thus far at 
Oroville, Butte county, was June 26th, when 
the thermometer reached 110 degrees. 

During the month of June, County Clerk 
Reynolds issued 204 marriage licenses, thereby 
enriching the County Treasury $408. 

The thermometer at various places in the 
interior has been as high as 1 10° in the shade. 
Several fatal cases of sunstroke are reported. 

The weather in New York city continues 
very warm, the thermometer reaching the 
nineties. Several fatal cases of sunstroke are 

Paul M. Michelsen, captain of the sloop 
Jilt, plying between Napa and San Francisco, 
committed suicide by taking strychnine at his 
residence in Napa. 

The wood shipments at Huffaker's, Nevada, 
average about 18 carloads shipped to the Com- 
stock per day. Nearly 100 Chinamen are em- 
ployed as wood-loaders. 

C. F. German, shift boss at the Caledonia 
mine, fell 1,450 feet in the shaft last Monday 
and v/as instantly killed. He was a native of 
Waukesha, Wisconsin. 

Thomas Noble, a son of A. P. Noble, a 
bright and intelligent boy of 11 years old, died 
near Berkeley last week, from getting a barley 
beard in his throat. 

Emperor Francis Joseph closed the Hunga 
rian Diet, Saturday. He took an exceedingly 
favorable view of relations with foreign powers 
and the probability of peace. 

Some Sandwich island wheat is being raised 
this season in Santa Barbara county. It is re- 
ported as standing 11 feet high, the stalk being 
very light in comparison with its hight. 

Heavy failures are reported in the South 
Staffordshire iron trade. H. B. Whitehouse 
& Son, of Bilston, large colliery proprietors and 
owners of several blast furnaces, have sus- 
pended. Liabilities heavy. 

A Short History of Petroleum. — The Lum- 
berman's Gazette gives the following short his- 
tory of petroleum: The production of petro- 
leum as an article of trade dates from the 28th 
of August, 1859, when Col. Drake, in a well 
69^ feet deep, "struck oil," and coined a phrase 
that will last as long as the English language. 
From that beginning it has increased to an an- 
nual production of 14,500,000 barrels of crude 
oil. The first export was made in 1861, of 27,- 
000 barrels, valued at $1,000,000, and the ex- 
port of petroleum for the year 1877 was, in 
round numbers, .$62,000,000. The annual pro- 
duct of petroleum to-day — crude and refined — 
is greater in value than the entire production of 
iron, and is more than double that of the an- 
thracite coal of the State of Pennsylvania, and 
exceeds the gold and silver product of the whole 
country. As an article of export it is fourth, 
and contests closely for the third rank. Our 
leading exports are relatively as follows: Cot- 
ton, annually, from $175,000,000 to $227,000,- 
000; wheat Hour, from $69,000,000 to $130,000,- 
000; pork and its products (bacon, ham and 
lard), from $57,000,000 to $82,000,000, and 
petroleum, from $48,000,000 to $62,000,000. 
The total export of petroleum from 1861 and 
including 1877 (16 years) has been $442,698,- 
968, Custom House valuation. From the best 
sources of information there are at this time 
10,000 oil wells, producing and drilling, which 
at an average cost of $5,000 per well would 
make an investment of $50,000,000 in this 
branch of the business. Tankage now existing 
of a capacity for 6,000,000 barrels cost $2,000,- 
000, and .$7,000,000 has been invested in about 
2,000 miles of pipe lines connected with the 
wells. The entire investment for the existing 
oil production, including purchase money of 
territory, is something over $100,000,000, which 
amount cannot be lessened much, if any, for as 
wells cease to produce new ones have been con- 
stantly drilled to take their place. 

Death of a Worthy Citizen. — We learn 
with deep regret of the death of William 
Tyson, at his home, near Niles, Alameda 
county. Mr. Tyson was one of California's 
'49ers, and was one of the earliest settlers of 
Washington township. He was a quiet, well- 
informed, and universally respected citizen, 
and his loss will be deeply felt. The funeral 
ceremony of the Odd Fellows' was used at his 
burial, Mr. Tyson having been one of the 
charter members of the Alameda lodge. 

Signal Service Meteorological Report 

Week Enalng July 2, 1878. 


•June 25 

June 26 

June 27 

June 28 

June 29 

June 30 

July 1 





















1 73 

I " 






1 55 









1 60 

1 72 



SW 1 





1 SW 







1 457 

1 154 


1 258 



1 Clear. | Clear. 

1 Clear | Clear. 


; Clear 

I I 1 I II 

Total rain during the aeasoD, from Jvl^ 1, 1877, 3S.18 in. 




[July 6, 1878. 

The Captain's Dinim— An Incident of 
the Revolution. 

In Pilgrim land, one Sabbath-day, 

The winter lay like slieep about 
The ragged paaturea mullein gray; 

The April sun yhone in and out. 
The showers swept by in titful flocks, 
And eaves ticked fast like mantel clocks; 

And now and then a wealthy cloud 
Would wear a ribbon broad and bright. 

And now and then a winged crowd 
Of shivering azure flaish in sight. 

So rainbows bei.d and bluebirds fly 

And violets show their bits of sky. 

To Enfield church throng all the town. 

In (luilted hood and bombazine, 
In beaver hat with flarmg crown. 

And quaint \ aiidyke and victorine; 
And buttoned boys in roundabout 
From calyx collars blossom out; 

Bandanas wave their feeble fire, 
And foot stoves tinkle up the aisle; 

A gray haired elder leads the choir, 
And girls in linsey-woolsey smile. 

So back to life the beings glide ^ 

Whose very graves have ebbed and die<l 

One hundred years have Wined, and yet 

We call the roll, and not in vain, 
For one whose flint-lock musket set 

The echi>es wild round Fort Uuquesne, 
And smelled the battle's powder smoke 
Ere Kevolutir)n'ri thunders woke. 

Lo, Thomas Abbe answers, "Herel" 

Within the dull long-meter place. 
That day, upon the paroon's ear. 

And tramping down his words of grace, 
A horseman's gallop rudely beat 
Along the spIa.Hhed and empty street. 

The rider drew his dripping rein. 
And then a letter, wasp-nest gray. 

That ran "The Concord minute men 
And red coats had a fight to-day I 

To Captain Abbe this with speed." 

Twelve little words 10 tell the deed. 

The captain read, struck out for home 

The old quickstep of battle burn, 
Slung on once more a battered drum 

That bore a painted unicorn, 
Then right about as whirls a torch, 
He stond before the sacred porch. 

And then a murmuring of hees 
Broke in upon the house of prayer; 

And then a wind-song swept the trees, 
And then a snarl from wolfish lair; 

And then a charge of grenadiers. 

And then a flight of drum beat cheers- 

So drum aud doctrine rudely blent, 
The casements rattled strange acconl; 

No mortal knew what either meant. 
'Twas double-drag anil Holy Word, 
Thus saitb the drum, and thus the Lord. 

The Ciiptain raise<l so wild a rout 

He drummed the congregation out. 

The people gathered round amazed; 

The soldier bared his head and spoke, 
And every sentence burned and blazed, 

As trenchant as a saber stroke: 
*"Ti8 time to pick the flint to-day. 
To sling the knai)sack, and away ■ 

"The green of Lexington is red 

With British red coats, brother's bUwd ! 
In rightful cause the earliest dead 
Are always best beloved of (.ind. 
Mark time! Now let the march begin ! 
All bound for Boston fall right in 1" 

Then rub-,x-dub the drum jarred on, 

The throbbing roll of battle beat; 
"Fall in, my men I" and one by one 

They rhymed the tune with heart and feet. 
And so they made a .Sabbath march 
To glory 'neath the elm-tree arch. 

The Continental line unwound 
Along the churchyard's breathless sod, 

And holier grew the hallowed ground 
Where Virtue slept and Valor trod, 

Two hundred strong that April day 

They rallieil out and marched away. 

Brigaded there at Bunker Hill, 
Their names are writ on Glory's page 

The brave old captain's Sunday drill 
Has drummed its way across the age. 

B. }■'. Tajilvr. 

"What ShaU we do With Our Girls?" 

We have been bmied these many years tak- 
ing care of our boys. We have endowed great 
colleges for their edunation, built immense fac- 
tories and work shops for their use, invented 
various professions for the development of their 
talents, and opened to tliem every conceivable 
avenue of art, learning, industry, and adven- 
ture. We have even maintained large standing 
armies, at enormous expense, and been eager 
for war, that they miglit achieve distinction and 
make their power felt. Being thus provided 
for, and distinctly recognized as important 
workers in the world, what wonder that our 
boys have, as a rule, grown into worthy, inde- 
pendent and forceful men. .Since the whole ma- 
chinery of human society has been fitted exactly 
to their needs, what wonder that many have 
become eminent both in peace and in war. 
Meantime, how have we cared for our girls? 
We have said to them, in efl'ect: "The only 
really respectable thing for you to do is to get 
married and help the boys along. If you can't 
or won't marry, you can teach an infant school 
•r go out to daily service." The girls accepted 

this doctrine with wonderful patience for many 
years, but, being possessed of considerable 
latent power, began at last to rebel, and, though 
the old theory is still largely advanced, its 
actual practice has been greatly moditied. It 
is true that many colleges are now open to girls 
as well a.s boys; that the learned professions are 
no longer considered fit solely for men, that 
even the skilled handicrafts are yielding slowly 
to the demanii made by woman for remuner- 
ative work, and that society is no longer 
shaken to its very center when a respectable 
woman "frees her mind" in public. 

This is a season of transition from the old to 
the new, and therein lies the danger. The 
young girl of to-day cries "Fudgel" to all her 
grandmother's cherished notions, without paus- 
ing to sift out what are intrinsically valuable 
from what are narrow and prejudiced. That a 
thing is old-fashioned is enough to condemn it. 
.She does not stop to consider that all the im- 
mortal truths tliat have wrought the salvation 
of the human race and lifted it from barbarism 
to civilization, are, to use one of her own con- 
temptuous expressions, "as old as the hills." 
We must recognize the truth that our girls are 
exposed to temptations peculiar to the times. 
Freedom of action and fullness of opportunity, 
increase risk and responsibility. Slang, h.andker- 
chief flirtations, loud voices, boisterous laughter 
and an unseemly freedom of maimer, are, in 
part at least, an outgrowth of the concessions 
that are being so rapidly made to our sex. No 
doubt many of these follies existed before 
women's rights were ever discussed, but they 
were more seriously condemned and more care- 
fully concealed. It is scarcely possible to be 
much with young girls without finding cause 
for anxiety in their thoughtfulness and unat- 
tractive license of manner. If those who are 
older venture to suggest that slang is coarsen- 
ing, that signals with a handkerchief invite 
insult, and that loudness of manner is thought 
to indicate l ick of refinement, they are met by 
an incredulous stare, or a scornful laugh. These 
young people are "wise in their own conceit." 
They know that many by -gone notions concern- 
ing womanly propriety have been proven false 
by later experience, aud they hastily conclude 
that all the old standards are worthless. In 
short, there is a tendency to rush to the op- 
posite e-Ktreme; to mistake license for liberty, 
and to ignore a proper self-respect, as well as 
needless and foolish restraints. All marked 
changes of public opinion are characterized l)y 
similar phenomena. Humanity, reaching ever 
towards a higher level, is apt to sway backward 
and forward between two extremes, before set- 
tling definitely upon the true mean, and finding 
there a solid foundation from which to renew 
the struggle. 

How shall we teach our girls to be free from pride, independent, self-supporting, and, 
at the same time, genuinely modest, reserved, 
and delicate? The fact that a higher education 
is possible to them, suggests one answer to this 
question. True culture is always refining. 
Satan finds just as much mischief for idle minds 
as for idle hands to do. Fill a girl's mind with 
valuable and practical knowledge, and idle 
fancies and empty frivolities will be tjuite 
crowded out. Earnest study will necessitate 
self-denial and industry, two strong factors in 
the discipline that results in character. It will 
also require the giving up of social dissipation, 
another important help to the end we have in 
view. The (juick impulses, keen appetites, and 
ardent imagination of the average young girl, 
make the temptations of gay social life particu- 
larly dangerous to her. • She is a wise mother 
who refuses all invitations for "evenings out" 
for her daughter, until her school education is 
completed, her taste formed, and her judgment 
matured. A higher education must, indeed, be 
preceded and supplemented by the constant aid 
and influence of a "wise mother," if, through 
its means, our girl is to be developed into a 
pure and perfect womanhood. .Such a mother 
knows all the dangers and all the temptations 
to which her daughter is exposed. She can 
enter with full zest into all her enjoyments. 
She can also distinguish, with clear vision, the 
border line between innocent and harmful 
pleasures; in short, she can guide her with 
wonderful infallibility, in the way towards the 
goal we are striving to reach. She can further 
exemplify, in her own busy life, the complete 
harmony between the fullest measure of 
"rights" and tlie most exquisite finish of 
womanly refinement. We believe the two 
should thrive together. Real strength and 
greatness in a woman implies, of necessity, a 
full complement of the virtues peculiar to her 

In the Hist chapter of Proverbs, the rich 
glory of such a character is set forth. Lan- 
guage could not state more explicitly that such 
a woman is worthy of every right and every 
honor she has ever claimed. No one in these 
days has dared to ask more for woman than is 
here demanded for the virtuous wife and 
mother. We can bring our girls to such a 
standard by carefully teaching them that intel- 
lect and culture are etl'eotive and powerful only 
when crowned by modesty, tenderness, and re- 
finement. — Mm. Welr/i, in Coller/e Qiiai-ltrh/. 

A GBSTLEMAN married his servant. A short 
time after their union he gave an evening party. 
Conversation flagging, silence reigned, when 
one of the ladies said: "Awful pause 1" The 
lady of the house immediately exclaimed: 
"Awful paws, indeed ! So would you have 
awful paws if you had done the dirty work in 
your life that I hava. " 

Take Care ot Father on Washing-day 

"How I do hate washing-day," said Miss 
Annie White; "and here comes pap to his din- 
ner and there's really nothing worth coming to, 
the boiler still on the stove and all the white 
clothes not on the line yet." 

"And what are you going to do about it? ' 
asked the invalid mother from the lounge. 

"I hardlj' know. If it didn't take Kate all 
day to make three beds and empty the slops, 
she might help me along with the dinner." 

".•^he is coming now, but there is little time 
for preparation, so just put on what you can; 
there is some cold beef I think. " 

And Annie found the cold meat, a loaf of 
bread, some butter and added a few preserves, 
and while she was thus employed her sister 
Kate had quietly shifted the boiler a little so as 
to give the griddle room, made and baked a 
few cornmeal slappers and also managed to pro- 
duce a nice cup of coffee. 

"And all tliat trouble for a man," said Annie 
White; "cv would be satisfied with anything at 
all on washing-day; and what has become of 
pap anyhow; a man never seems in a hurry 
even when a woman's work is piled mountain 
high. " 

"You known he always goes to the barn be- 
fore dinner, but I hear him on the porch." 

While enjoying the comfortable meal, Mr. 
White said, laughingly, "1 always pity I>ick 
.lones on washing-day; says he rather go any- 
where than home — everything in confusion and 
nothing fit to cat, and I believe he does, mostly, 
dine at the oyster saloon on that day. I xold 
him that my wife always made me just as com- 
fortable that day as any other, but I must con- 
fess to some doubts to-day, knowing she was so 
indisposed, am happy to find that 1 can de- 
pend upon my daughters also; and now Annie 
give me a piece of pie, for 1 must hurry a little 
as we're pretty busy to-day at the store. " 

He saw at onee h<iw it was — not a bit of pie in 
the house. "Well, never mind child, I've 
really had a very good dinner, but mother has 
spoiled me 1 suppose by always having a pie or 
some dainty dessert on the dreaded was-hing- 

With his good-bye kiss, still lingering on her 
pale lips, Mrs. \N'bite said, "now girls, I tell 
you tliis must not happen again; I am not often 
sick and hope to be well in a few daj's, and any- 
how you must understand that Saturday 's liak- 
ing must always include something comfortable 
for washing-day." 

"But, mother, what ever made you spoil pap 
so; just think of the trouble it makes." 

"1 do not call it spoiling your pap, and I 
never considered it any trouble to make him 
comfortable. If I could not make enough pies 
to last over Monday, I would have a nice loaf 
of cake put away, and that, with some good pre- 
serves and cream, would add greatly to a dinner. 
The cold roast beef we all enjoy, aud washing- 
ilay never prevented me from having some good 
hot mashed potatoes and then the cold gravy 
well-wanned up, and a little dish of slaw or 
whatever I could add to make the dinner en- 
tirely comfortable for father. Aud, girls, we 
all enjoy it, now don't we '/" 

"Why, yes, of course we do,'' said Annie, 
"but lots of folks just make out to keep from 
starving on washing-day, sooner than take all 
that trouble or indeed any. ' 

"Yes, I suppose so; more's the pity. Would 
you like your father to dine in an oyster-saloon 
or a restaurant on that day, and tell people 
generally that he never had anything fit to eat 
at home ':" 

"Of course that would never do," said Kate. 

"Well, then,'' said Mrs. White, "you should 
always Ije willing to do your best for your 
father every day ; he is getting on in years, too, 
and likes a little pettiug; indeed most men do, 
and you know father has always been very kind 
and thoughtful for us; more than that you will 
be wise if you ever get good husbands. ' 

"Oh, yes, of course," said Annie; "come 
Kate ictus hurry up with the dishes." — Ger- 
i(iantoirn Telt(jraph. 

Wh.vt S.moking Doe.s for Boys. — A certain 
doctor, struck with the large number of boys 
under lo 3'ears of age whom he observed smok- 
ing, was led to inquire into the effect the habit 
had upon the general health. He took for his 
purpose 38 boys, aged from nine to 15, and care- 
fully examined them; in 27 of them he discov- 
ered injurious traces of the habit. In 22 there 
were various disorders of the circulation and di- 
gestion, palpitation of the heart, and more or 
less marked taste for strong drink. In 12 there 
were frequent bleeding of the nose, 10 had dis 
turbed sleep, and 12 had slight ulceration of the 
mucus membrane of the mouth, which disap- 
peared on ceasing from the use of tobacco for 
some days. The doctor treated them all for 
weakness, but with little effect until the smok- 
ing was discontinued, when health and strength 
were soon restored. Now, this is no "old wife's 
tale," as these facts are given under the author- 
ty of the /ifi/iih Mfdieat Journal. 

Mi siCAL Monthly. — No. 1 .'-l of Ditson & Co. 's 
Mmical Aloiillilii is at hand, with its usual good 
selection of music, vocal and instrumental. Of 
the former we have "Cover them over with 
beautiful Flowers," by Stewart, a quartet for 
Decoration Day, a patriotic song for tenor voice, 
"Our Country's Flag," Molloy's splendid Scotch 
ballad, "Jamie," and the Cuckoo song from 
"La Marjolaine. " For the piano, there is a four 
page "Uevival March" by Sousa, and the six- 
page "Sounds from the Ringing Rocks." AM 
for 3e csnts. 

The Tornado. 

Our exchanges bring affecting stories about 
the tornado which recently traversed Wis- 
consin. Farms that were the abodes of plenty 
are left as desolate as if no stately farmhouse 
and building had ever reared their civilizing in- 
fluences on vale and hillside. Everything that 
old men had worked ,30 years to rear had been 
swept completely away in less than one miaute, 
in some instances not leaving a shingle to tell 
the story. 

A mother stood at the side of the carriage 
and told how two of her precious babes on their 
way home from school crawled under a fence to 
escape the dire vengeance of the mighty storm. 
How she saw them from a window and wildly 
flew to their relief, but was cast back by the 
mighty wave of wind, which caught up the 
house in its herculean grasp, in 
fragments, carrying another daughter, barely 
eight years old, to the top of a small tree four 
rods from where the house formerly stood, but, 
by some miracle, the whipping of a chamber 
carpet around her in the tree so effectually that 
it held her there till relief came, but, alas, to 
find her spine so injured that her future, should 
.she live, will be that of a cripple, the two 
smaller children being miraculouslj' preserved 
from harm. 

A fair-haired Norseman told, in broken Eng- 
lish, how their little home had been picked up, 
as a feather, by the fell destroyer— father, 
mother, and brother — and crushed as with the 
hands of a giant: carried lOO feet in the air, 
and four times as many away, and dashed to 
the ground, where father and brother lay a 
mangled mass, and the aged and revered 
mother, with bones broken and nigh unto 

Everywhere we heard the desolate story of 
loss of home and friends. The tornado has 
been terrible in its effects. Fully 20 people 
have been killed in this county, and nearly a 
hundred seriously injured, besides those at 
Mineral Point and Fort Atkinson. The loss of 
property is almost incalculable. In places its 
track is only five or six rods wide, while at 
others it reached out its mighty arms from a 
quarter to half a mile, demolishing everything 
in its track. 

How a Man will Work for his own 

^\'e lately ma<le a few remarks about the ad- 
Tantage it would be to all if numbers of the 
periodical laborers could be enlisted in perma- 
nent industry by being given a share in some 
productive enterprise which their labor could 
carry forward. All of us have seen contrasted 
cases of men's working for their own, and for 
others interests. Mr. Joseph Harris, the well- 
known agricultural writer, in a recent address, 
made the following allusions: American farm- 
ers, as a class, work harder than any other 
farmers in the world. We occasionally find a 
drone in the hive, but, on the whole, we are a 
nation of workers, and it makes a great differ- 
ence whether a man is working for himself or 
for others. AVe all know what a ditt'orence it 
makes in the amount of work done, whether a 
man is working by the day or by the piece. 
Last autumn 1 had men digging potatoes by 
the day; 1 paid them .*1.25 j)er day. Higging, 
picking up and pitting cost me over six cents 
per bushel. I then told two of the men I 
would give them five cents a bushel to do the 
work. They took the job, and these two men 
dug and pitted 100 bushels every day, and then 
went home; they sometimes got through by 
four o'clock in the afternoon. I got the work 
done cheaper, and the men earned double the 
money. Now just think what this means. 
These men earned ■'Jl.2.5 a day. If we assume 
that it cost them per day for family expen- 
ses, they made 25 cents a day. Now with a 
little more energy and skill they earned ?2.50 
per day, and instead of making 25 cents over 
and above expenses, they made ^l..")0, or six 
times as much. In other words, they really 
made as much money in one day as they were 
previously making in a week. 

I mention this merely to illustrate my idea 
in regard to the great advantage it is to us as a 
nation to have such a large proportion of those 
engaged in agricultural pursuits directly inter- 
ested iu the results of their labors. Thej' are 
the owners and occupiers and workers of the 
land. Self-interest calls out all their energy 
and skill. They make every stroke tell. A na- 
tion of such farmers ought to be a rich nation. 

The Habit ok Obeyiso. — Boys, the habit of 
obeying at once is one of the best habits in the 
world. It makes prompt, active, energetic 
business men. Why, it is "now, [at once, right 
off," what leads all the work to the world, and 
gets the pay for it too. A boy that is prompt 
and ready will be just the boy that will get rec- 
ommended for a place in a warehouse or an 
office, and when he gets the place he will keep 
it until he gets promoted, till finally he becomes 
a member of the firm, probably its manager. 
All this because he is on hand, ready and 
prompt; sees what is ready to be done, aud is 
ready to do it. 

"Anythiso new or fresh this morning?" a 
reporter asked in a railroad office. "Yes," 
replied the lone occupant o' the apartment. 
"What is if;" queried the reporter, whipping 
out his note-book. Said the railroad man, edg- 
ing toward the door; "That paint you are 
leaning against." 

July 6, 1878.] 


"Is the Kahn of Tartary a milk-kahn, contain- 
ing, as it were, the cream of tartar ? 

Samson was an eminent tragedian in his day, 
and in his last act brought down the house. 

To the American boy there is an awful, a 
majestic difference in weight between the butt- 
end of a tish-pole and a hoe-handle. 

After a man gits to be 38 years old he kant 
form any new habits much. The best he kan 
do is to steer hiz old ones. — Jo^h Billings. 

There are beautiful warm soda springs in 
Colorado, and people who go bathing in them 
at once exclaim: "Oh ! but this is soda-licious. " 

The use of the editorial "we" prevails in the 
South. An exchange says: "If we escape the 
hog cholera there will be a large surplus of 
pork next winter." 

Peach brandy enters irtto the mucilage com- 
position on po.stage-stamps; so when you see 
the next drunken man, don't lay it to whisky. 
He may have just mailed a letter. 

The just published report of an Irish bene- 
volent society says: "Notwith.standing the 
large amount paid for medicine and medical 
attendance, very few deaths occured during the 
year. " 

Surely, you must be tired, Aunty. I can't 
think how it is you are able to work so long." 
"Lawks bless you, my dear! When I onst 
sets down to it, like, I'm just too lazy to leave 

A BEAUTIFUL widow of Newport, R. I., hav- 
ing let her chalet for the season, was asked 
what induced her to desert such a charming re- 
treat. "To mu'ch balcony and two little Ro- 
meo," was her reply. 

"Did you ever dabble in stocks ?" asked a 
a lawyer of a witness who was known to have 
fled from his native land to this asylum of the 
free. "Well, yes, / (jol my foot in 'em once, in 
the old country," was the reply. 

At a wedding recently, when the clergyman 
asked the lady, "Wilt thou have this man to 
be thy wedded husband ?" She, with a mod- 
esty which lent her beauty an additional grace, 
replied, "if you please." 

"Is there anything that will make grain come 
up quick ?" asked the gentleman farmer of the 
old husbandman. "Well, no, I don'i know of 
nothin' that'll do it," was the genial old tellow's 
reply, "unless it's crows." Tlicii the gentle- 
man farmer wanted to know where he could 
get some. 

A LITTLE boy, hearing some one remark noth- 
ing was quicker than thought, said: "I know 
something that is quicker tlian thought." 
"What is it, .Johnny ?" asked his pa. 
"Wiiistling, ' said Johnny. "When I was in 
school yesterday, I whistled before I thought; 
and got licked for it, too." 

Opera airs in church are out of place. 
"That's the organ," said the mother to her 
little child, who was at church for the first 
time. "The organ ? But where is the monkey, 
mother?" asked the child. Then, when the 
latest air from the latest opera rolled through 
the building, the mother whispered as slie 
looked at the organist, "I can see him dear, but 
you can't." 

In a rural district of Forfarshire a young 
plowman once went courting on a Saturday 
night. In vain he racked his brain for some 
interesting topic; he could call up no subject at 
all suitable for the occasion — not one sentence 
could he utter, and for two long hours he sat 
on in silent despair. The girl herself was 
equally silent; she no doubt remembered the 
teachings of the ohl Scotch song, "Men maun 
be the first to speak," and she sat patiently re- 
garding him with demure surprise. At last 
John suddenly exclaimed, "Jenny, there's a 
feather on yer apron !" "I widna ha'e won- 
dered if there had been twa," replied Jenny, 
"for I've been sitten' aside a goose a'nicht. " 

"California All Hail!" — A recent visitor 
to this coast, a Rev. gentleman of the East now 
lecturing there on his trip, in his peroration gives 
the following tribute to our golden common- 
wealth: "California is indeed the 'better 
country' of the United States. When I think 
of its scenery, variegated and intersected by 
every element of sublimity; its splendid rivers 
glistening in the landscape; its skies, soft 
and clean as those which bend over the faded 
splendors of Italy; its enlightened and liberal 
press, the magnificent benefactions of its citi- 
zens, the more than princely hospitality of dear 
and esteemed friends — partners of blessed 
memories and glorious hopes — when I think 
of these things, from the depths of my heart I 
say 'California all hail !' " 

The Utica Reptihlican talks thus about jjostal 
absurdities: There are some very queer things 
about our postoffice regulations. Take the 
postal card, for instance. If a man has a steady 
hand and writes close, he may put several hun- 
dred words on a card and send it for a cent. If 
he pastes the least strip of printed matter on it 
the postage is increased to six cents, though he 
may print on it the same matter, and by put- 
ting it in small type get several thousand words 
on the card, and it will go for one cent; and he 
may paste the card all over with printed mat- 
ter, then put it in an open envelope, and it will 
go for one cent. 

A saLoon-keeper, having started business 
in a building where trunks had been made, 
asked a friend what he had better do wtih the 
old sign, "Trunk Factory." "Oh," said the 
friend, "just change the T to D, and it will 
Ruit you exactly. " 

Y®JN*^ pOLks' C©LlJ|^N. 

The "Athenians."— No. 2. 

A Story for Boy.s. 

(Written for tlie Rurai, Prkss by LdRvixc. 1 

After supper, one evening, Hal Dayton dodged 
out the door when his mother was not looking, 
and went out the gate. He looked up and down 
the street, but could not see any boys. It was 
nearly dark and the lamp-lighter was going his 
rounds. Hal watched him while he lit the two 
nearest lamps, and then followed him around 
the corner. He liad no particular object in 
doing so, only he felt rather lonely and wanted 
company or amusement of some sort. His home 
was not a pleasant one, and boys who do not 
have pleasant homes are more likely than others 
to try to find amusement on the streets. 

Fortunately he did not meet either Jim West- 
brook or Tom Hall, two rough boys that lived 
in the neighborhood, and when he came to Will 
Stevens' house. Will was standing by the door 
and asked him in. Hal accepted the invitation 
willingly, as he always enjoyed a visit there. It 
was a cold evening but there was a bright fire 
in the grate, which made the room quite com- 
fortable. Mrs. Stevens sat by the table sewing, 
and Mr. Stevens was reading the paper. They 
said "good evening" to Hal, quite pleasantly, 
and Will's brother and sister made room for 
him by the fire. 

Will sat down by the fire also; he was one of 
the "Athenians," and he and Hal talked for 
awhile about the society. 

"How nice this fire-place is," said Hal, "I 
wish we had one at our house." 

"It's first-rate to pop corn by," said Susy, 
"let's have some pop-corn. Ask mother." 

Mrs. Stevens gave her consent, but advised 
them to wait till the fire had burned down a 
little more, so tliere would be a bed of coals. 

"We can play dominoes while we're waiting," 
suggested Harry. 

"Do you play dominoes ?" asked Will. 

"No," said Hal, "I don't know how." 

"We will show you," said Harry, "If you 
like to play; you'll soon learn." 

Will brought out a stand from the corner, and 
the four got around it and played dominoes till 
there was a nice bed of coals in the grate. Then 
the dominoes were put away, and NV'ill got the 
corn-popper and popped a dish full of corn. 
Father and mother had some first, and then the 
children helped themselves and had quite a 
merry time. 

Half-past eight was bedtime for the younger 
members of the Stevens family, and Hal said 
"good night," and went home. 

He was not always so fortunate in the manner 
in which he spent his evenings, for sometimes 
he was out on the street with rough boys till 
9 or 10 o'clock. His mother always scolded 
when he came home, and threatened to punish 
liim, but the punishment did not follow unless 
she happened to be specially out of temper; so 
lie paid little attention to that or tlie scoldings, 
and went on in his own way. 

Hal's first meeting with the "Athenians" was 
rather an eventful one, although there was little 
for him to do; but everything was new, and he 
was much interested in the performances of 
the others. It seemed odd to see a boy, only 
two or three years older than himself, sitting in 
the big arm-chair as "President," and conduct- 
ing the meeting with the same forms used by 
grown-up men. Fred Whitney was seated by 
a table, with pen and ink, writing in a large 
book, and looked rather dignified and important 
also. Hal felt quite small and insignificant 
when he considered that he had never done 
anything of that sort himself, and resolved to 
be more manly in future, and try to use better 

After the meeting had been formally opened 
and some business matters disposed of, the first 
original "speech" was made by Johnny Elliot 
on "Our Country," and was as follows: 

"Our country was settled by some Spaniards 
in San Diego, in the year 1759. The people 
that live in it now are mostly other people. 
The first people tliat lived in our country were 
miners, and they got a great deal of gold dust 
out of the ground. They bought all their 
clothes and revolvers and provisions with gold 

"Some ranchmen raise a great many hundred 
bushels of wheat, and they sell it and send it 
to Europe. Some of the ranchmen in Europe 
have been fighting, and did not get time to raise 
much wheat. 

"Some ranchmen raise a great many grapes, 
and have orchards of oranges and figs, and many 
things that do not grow in all otlier countries. 
Some people raise a great many strawberries 
and blackberries, which they put in boxes and 
send them to San Francisco to market. 

"Our country is a very good country to live 

Johnny's speech was followed by a select 
reading of the "Boy's Meditations,'" from the 
Youtli's Companion, by Will Stevens, and then 
other speeches and reading followed, and two 
of the boys read essays. 

The speeches and essays were, of course, not 
as good as one would expect from young gentle- 
men in college, or even from those in Grammar 
schools, but as the productions of the boys com- 
posing this society they were quite creditable, 
and the practice of reading and speaking before 
each other was likely to be of lasting benefit to 


An Essay on Soups. 

A lady writing for the New York Tribune, 
gives the following points on soups: A good 
soup, a steak or roast, with two vegetables, 
well cooked and daintly served, and a dessert of 
fruit — - these make a dinner which prejiared 
with taste would satisfy the most fastidious, 
and which is certainly to be compassed by fam- 
ilies with small incomes. Give up your dessert 
of pie or custard and substitute a first course of 
soup; it is far cheaper, more nourishing, more 
healthful, and makes a dinner in every way 
more satisfactory. It used to be said that the 
English were a people ignorant of soups; they 
could never have been worse in this regard 
than Americans. A greasy, watery ttuid with 
pieces of uninviting looking vegetables fioating 
about in it, is the stuff with which under the 
name of soup nine out of every ten American 
households regale themselves. And very sel- 
dom is even this served. That most delicious 
and piquant beginning of a dinner, very easily 
and cheaply prepared in countless fashions, is 
popularly considered among thrifty housewives, 
to be unnecessary, expensive, and troublesome. 
It is in truth none of these things. An excel- 
lent French soup can be made ready with very 
little trouble at odd minutes during the prepara- 
tion of dinner, and will add tnorinously to the 
pleasure and the grace of the table. Here for 
instance is potato soup, a dish so very deli- 
cious that one is in danger of spoiling the rest 
of one's dinner by eating too much of it. Take 
six good sized potatoes, peel and quarter them; 
add one-quarter of a pound of salt pork, 
two leeks or two onions if leeks cannot 
be had, and a few sprigs of parsley. Put 
all these together in a pot with water enough 
to liberally cover them. Let them boil until 
the pork is tender and thoroughly done; by that 
time the potatoes will have fallen to pieces. 
Rub through a coUander, taking out the pork. 
Then add to the mixture, which ought to form 
about a quart of rather thick material, a pint of 
milk and a piece of butter the size of a walnut, 
and salt to taste. Let it boil up once to become 
tliorouglily hot, pass it quickly through a sieve, 
and serve in a tureen previously riused out with 
hot water. This is a soup which would temi)t 
a gourmand and delight a child, and it can be 
cooked in an hour, instead of taking half a day 
or more like the average "vegetable" abomina- 
tion. It is of the thickness of cream and tastes 
creamy. There is no greater mistake held by 
the average housewife than the conviction that 
all soups should be thin. The most exquisite 
French soups are thick, with a creamy consis- 
tency. It IS only the soups with bouillon for a 
basis that are thin. Bouillon is a clear and 
strong beef-tea from which grease is thoroughly 
eliminated. Into this shortly before it is served 
put some green peas and carrots, turnips and 
potato, cut into dainty dice and already boiled, 
and you have a delightful potatje la Printannicr. 
Boiled maccaroni or vermicelli added to the 
bouillon makes maccaroni or vermicelli soup. 
The alphabets cut in "Italian paste" and called 
by that name, previously cooked and then put 
in the bouillon, make a soup quaint and piquant 
to the eye and taste. The variations on bouil- 
lon are innumerable, but grease is fatal to all. 
It is not fat that makes good soup, but lean 
meat, and especially boiled bones. Don't ever 
throw away the bone of your joint of roast beef 
with the scraps of meat still clinging to it — nor 
the skeleton of your roast chicken. Break them 
up and add them to your soup pot, and be re- 
warded by greater richness and a more exqui- 
site flavor. 

West Indian Black Bean Soup. — Take one 
quart of black beans, and let them simmer in 
three quarts of cold water till they crack and 
begin to grow soft, then add one-half pound 
lean salt pork, onions, pepper and salt, and let it 
boil down to the thickness one likes thin soup. 
About fifteen minutes before taking from the 
fire, put in two bay leaves, pinch of thyme (not 
powdered thyme) and four whole cloves. Then 
strain through a colander; add juice of one- 
half a large lemon, and slice the other half; if 
small, juice of one and slice another; also, slice 
up a hard-boiled egg, and serve at once. 

Coarse or Graham Bread. — No. I, or fine 
Graham flour, makes the best bread. The 
sponge is made at the same time, and in like 
manner to wheat bread, except the water used, 
which is ten degrees colder, as coarse flour rises 
quicker than fine. The same proportions of 
milk and water are used. It is generally sweet- 
ened a little with sugar. When sponge is 
added, make as stiff' a batter as can be stirred 
conveniently. When light, mold into soft 
loaves. For this reason, it wants to be placed 
in the hottest portion of the oven. 

Whitewash. — Good lime slaked with sour 
milk, and diluted with water till it is about the 
consistence of ordinary whitewash, is recom- 
mended by the Landwirlh as an excellent coat- 
ing for woodwork. Fences, rafters, partitions, 
etc. , are effectually protected against tlie wuullier 
for at least 10 years by this application. The 
casein of the milk in combination with the lime 
forms a iierinanent film, which dries so quickly 
in warm weather that heavy rains falling directly 
after it has been laid on will scarcely affect the 

Dietetic Experiments. 

A carefully noted experience is that recorded 
in Nature, by Dr. T. L. Nichols, an American 
physician resident in England, who related par- 
ticulars of a "dietetic experiment" upon himself 
which he made with a view to solving a diffi- 
culty as to the quantity of food per diem which 
would best sustain health. He began on No- 
vember 5th, his food being chiefly bread, fruit, 
milk and vegetables. During the experiment 
he had taken no flesh meat, wine, beer, spirits, 
tea, coffee or tobacco. The first week he lived 
on bread, milk, fruit, and vegetables, the total 
weight being 3 fts, 9!, oz., costing 3s. Id. (about 
75 cts.), e., a daily average of 8 3-14 oz., cost- 
ing 5 •21 d. ; this was slightly below his standard 
of 6d. a day. He felt better and clearer and 
brighter than usual. The second week he 
stuilied quality rather than cheapness, his food 
being "Food of Health," milk and fruit. Total 
weight, 4 ftis. 4^ oz. ; cost, 3s. 8d. (85 cts.); 
average per diem, 9 5-7 oz., costing 6 2-7d., and 
nothing could have been better, physiologically, 
than the effect of that food upon him. His di- 
gestion was simply perfect, and the action of 
the whole system as good as it could be. He 
then discontinued milk as unnecessary. For 
the third week the total amounted to 3 lbs, 2 
oz. , equal to Is. 9d. (43 cts.), giving an average 
of 7 1-7 oz. of food, costing only .3d. per day. 
Milk was not so cheap for food as Gloster, 
Dutch, and American cheese, because they had 
to pay for the water it contained. Doctors 
recommended 2 or 3 ttis. of food daily to repair 
the waste of the system; but he asserted that the 
weight of lirain atoms and nerve force could 
not be measured. The food eaten had to be 
disposed of at great cost of life and strength, 
and he believed the wisest plan was to eat the 
smallest quantity that would properly support 
the body. The fourth week, his food being 
similar, weighed 3 lbs. 6 oz., costing Is. 2^d. 
(30 cts. ), giving an average of 8 oz. , equal to 
2d. per day. He considered 8 oz. the minimum 
and 12 oz. the maximum quantity of food that 
should be taken per day. The total weight of 
his food during the four weeks was 14 lbs 6 oz., 
costing 9s. 3kl., (about .$2.30); average per 
week, 3 ttis. 9^ oz. ; per day, 8 oz. , costing per 
week, 2s. 5d, and per day 4 l-7d. He then 
added soups, puddings, eggs, etc., and the fifth 
week his food weighed 3 Itts. 12^ oz., costing 3s. 
4d. , being at the rate of 8 4-7 oz., at 5 5-7d. (or 
12 cts. ) per day. For the sixth week the fig- 
ures were 03 oz., at 2s. Id, or 9 oz. at 3 4-7d. 
per day. He had taken the diet without stimu- 
lants, and had experienced a constant increase 
of health and strength and jjower to work, and 
his weight had remained at about 12 st. 2 fbs. 
(170), except that at the end of the fourth week 
there had been a slight decrease, which had 
since been recovered. 

Fruits in Diseases. 

A writer in the Herald of Health makes a 
strong statement regarding the use of ripe fruits 
in diseases. We cannot say it is not true and 
yet we should apply the "fruit cure " with some 
precautions. He says: "There is scarcely a 
disease to which the human family is heir, but 
the sufferings therefrom would be greatly re- 
lieved by the use of the very fruits which are 
now so strictly forbidden. Further, many of 
these diseases would be conducted to a safe 
termination under the free use of fruits, because 
of the acids they contain. When our troops 
were fighting the Seminoles in Florida, many 
sick with diarrhea and dysentery c red those 
diseases by stealing from the hospitals into the 
fields and eating fruits, blackberries especially. 
Since our very pleasant and profitable excur- 
sion of last month, 1 have sent several children, 
suffering with cholera infantum and with dysen- 
tery, to the peach orchard, with most gratifying 
results — and where they could not be carried to 
the orchards to pick and eat the fruit fresh 
from the trees, I have had the little sufferers 
fed with sound fruit with equally good results. 
In typhoid fever, in the treatment of which 
such extraordinary care is enjoined as rcgard.s 
diet, fruits are not only highly grateful to the 
patient, but even work very favorable results. 
A physician who had been sick some weeks 
witii typhoid fever, says his diarrhea was cured 
by peaches. He says: "I first ate the first 
half of a large peach, and feeling no ill effects, 
I ate the other half, then one or two more, and 
the next day as many as I desired." He adds: 
" My bowels got better at once, and my recov- 
ery was rapid." Since our last meeting, a 
typhoid fever patient, who had been about 
three weeks sick, and though imploring, was 
alowcd no diet but beef tea or milk punch, 
came under my care for a few days. I imme- 
diately ordered the free use of peiiches and 
grapes, and the diarrhea at once ceased, and at 
the end of five days, when I relinquished the 
care of her, she was convalescent. My impres- 
sion is, the disease runs a shorter and more 
favorable course under the free use of fruits 
than under the usual method of treatment, 
and I think the use of stimulants rarely re- 
quired when fruits are freely used. In the 
treatment of scarlet fever and diphtheria, our 
summer fruits and many of the vegetables are 
most useful, and to the best may be added some, 
or, in fact, any foreign fruits. There is scarcely 
a disease accompanied with fever, but grapes 
and bananas may be freely given to the patient. 



[July 6, 1878. 

DEWEY & CO., Publiribei a 

Office, S02 Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 

Aksxal StBSCRimoNS, S4; six months, ?2; three 
monthB, 81.25. When paid fully one year in advance, 
rim' CE.NT8 will be deducted. No new names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances hy rcjris- 
tered letters or P. O. orders at our risk. 
AvgRTisiNO Ratbs. 1 week. 1 month. 3 mog. 12 moa. 

Per line 25 . 80 $2.00 $ 5.00 

H.-.lf inch (1 square). .$1.00 $3.00 7.50 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 14.00 40.00 

Lar^e advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, lefjal advertisements, notices appearing 
in extraordinary type or in particular pai-ts of the paper 
at special rates. Four insertions arc rated in a month. 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent SoUcitors. 



Saturday, July 6, 1878. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS.— The Paris Exposition, 
1-9 The Week; KieUi Notes for Harvest Time, 8. 
Hop Orowini^ on the Pacific Coast; An Injprove<l Fruit 
Pitter; An Improved Scrubbing Machine. 9. The Re- 
sources and Historvof .Shasta County. - -No 3, 12 

ILLUSTRATIONS. -Kird's-eye View of the linildinirs 
and Grounds of the Paris Exposition of 1878. 1 Stock- 
ley's Improved Scrubhing Machine; Gen. R. C. McCor- 
micK; Hatch's Improved Fruii Pitter, 9. 

CORRESPONDENCE.- Merced Connty.-The Far- 
mer's Canal Nearly Completed; The House Si>arrow; 
American .\i,'ricultural F.vhibit at the Paris hxposition,2. 

POULTRY YARD. -Tccbi.ical Terms. 2. 

THE VINEYARD. Notes on European Raisin Mak- 
ing; Keeping (Irajic-s; Unferiuentcd Wine, 3. 

THE DAIRY -How Milk is Made, 3. 

FLORICULTURE. -.Voles, ,n Ko<e Culture -No. 3, 3. 

PATRON.S OF HUSBANDRY. -Disorganization; 
Colusa County Pomona Gr.mge; Personal; In Meuio- 
riam, 4. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of Califoriiia and Oregon, 4-5, 

NE'Wri IN BRIEF on page 5, and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE.— The Captain's Drum-An Incident 
of the Revolution (poetry); "What Shall we do With 
Our Girls ':"; Take Care of Father on Washing-day; The 
Tornado; How a Man will Work for his own Interests, 
6 ('baff , 7. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. - The "Athenians. "- 
N.) 2. 7. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— An Ess.iy on Soups; West 
Indian Black Bean .Soup; Coarse or Graham Bread; 
Wliitcwash, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH —Dietetic Experiments; Fruits in 
Diseases. 7. 

QUERIES AND- REPLIES.-Cicadians on Frui 

Trees, 8. 

MISCELLANEOUS. —Asparagus in Bavaria; A Euro- 
pean Substitute for Clover; Meteorological Summary 
for .lune, 8. Action to set aside Land Patents; Pneu- 
matic Grain Elevator, 9. Friedlander'a Grain Circu- 
lar .12. 


Nash & Cutts' Patent Grain Separator and Fan Mill, Nash 
& Klus Sacramento, Cal ; Partner Wanted, Wm. Niles, 
Los Angeles, Cal ; Palace Restaurant. 218 Sansome St , 
S. F. ; The Cagntal Woolen Mills, Sacramento, Cal.; The 
California Farmers' .Mutual Fire Insutance Association, 
8. F.; Dividend Notice, San Francisco Savings Union, 
S. F. ; Dividend Notice, The German Savings and Loan 
Society, S F. ; Hatch's Fruit Pitting Machine, Grangers 
Business Association, S. F. 

The Week. 

Is there any one whose veins are so varicose 
that the Fourth of ,Iuly feeling cannot enter, 
warm and aet in motion shiggish limbs. Very 
few indeed we are sure. For this Fourth of 
July fever is all-pervading, and it manifests it- 
self in as many ways as there are individuals 
pervaded. It strikes one man in the tongue 
and that member is electrified and the result is 
an oration, a Doem, or perhaps a fervent prayer. 
It strikes another man iu the back and his 
drooping head is lifted aloft, his chest thrown 
6ut, his arms dropped to his sides — and we 
/lave a grand marshal of the day — a peaceful 
citizen turned into a beetle-browed major- 
general until nightfall. Again the. fever 
strikes another man in the stomach and lujuid 
fireworks are hurled iu from mom till night, 
until whisky and patriotism waltz together to 
the brain, and nauglit save a faint "hurrah" 
gives token of the emotional ■whirl within. 
Again the Fourth of July disease strikes a boy 
and he is galvanized, mesmerized, volatilized. 
The disease flies from head to foot like the 
flight of chills and fever. It is in his arms and 
-he pulls the court-house bell from its hangings 
Defore the sheriff has rubbed his eyes twice. 
It goes to the boy's heart and that organ fairly 
chokes him as he listens to the music of the 
band and dreams that far off in the dim and un- 
certain future he too may be drum-major with 
nodding plume and gilded staff. Next the 
fever reaches his stomach and boughten ginger- 
bread, bolognas and pop-corn drop through the 
hatchway as though he were provisioning for a 
three-years' cruise. Still the fever goes on un- 
til it twines his legs around the greased pole 
or sends him in headlong pursuit of the oil- 
coited swine. 

Such in brief is the malady of the Fourth. 
Few organized things are free from it. Even 
the iron cylinder of our press has caught the 
fever and here it is whirling out the papers a 
day earlier than usual to give the office boys a 

Field Notes for Harvest Time. 

Again the season of dry fields brings the ap- 
paling accounts of devastating harvest fires. 
Already these terrible conflagrations have oc- 
curred in several counties as described in our 
Agricultural Notes in this issue. No one who 
has not seen these field fires, fought them and 
suffered by them, can appreciate the terror they 
inspire, the grievous dangers which attend 
them and the depressing losses which they 
cause by their fiendish flights over fields heavy 
with grain and laden with hopes and prospects 
of the grain grower. A telling picture of their 
ravages was lately given in the by Mr. 
Carter, and no line of it was overdrawn. Of 
course the lesson to be drawn from the disasters 
in other's fields is that of the greatest caution 
and most diligent protection in our own. Make 
fire a most abject slave for the coming weeks. 
Regard a man who smokes in the neighborhood 
of your fields .and stacks as an object of suspi- 
cion. And there are other wholesome precau- 
tions to take. Mr. Carter, a few weeks ago, in 
writing an article for us, made the following re- 
marks about prevention of fire from various 
cause-s which should be constantly repeated. 
He said: "Fires sometimes occur from the care- 
less emptying of the old pipe by the tramp along 
the highway. Had the owner of the grain 
adjoining the road plowed a strip between the 
dry .alfilerilla grass and his grain, the fire had 
died out almost at its birth. Had you and 
your neighbors, of making all your sum- 
mer fallow in one body, .and your sowing in one 
body, alternated it in strips across the track of 
the prevailing summer winds, the mark of the 
fire would have been a short one. But here at 
home on your own premises, had you as soon as 
you had placed your precious stacks in the 
midst of combustible material, knee high, taken 
your harrow or cultivator and harrowed for 70 
or 80 feet from the stacks, gathered up the rub- 
Insh and harrowed again, at a cost of about one 
dollar for each setting, your stacks would have 
loomed up on the blackened waste white and 
bright, and, if not better, still more precious in 
your sight for the perilous ordeal your good 
sense and industry had enabled them to pass. 
If there is a farmer in this State who reads 
these lines and heeds them not, he is unwor- 
thy a helping if such misfortune over- 
take him. He owes it to those who have 
helped him in past extremities, to his hard- 
working wife and to his children, to see that 
nothing is left undone to insure the safety of 
his crop." 

We do not hear as as yet of boiler explosions 
in our grain fields, and we hope we may not 
hear of them. Certainly we shall hear of but 
few, if every man who owns or runs an engine 
is wise and careful. It should be remembered 
that it is one of the glories of civilization that 
it places a higher estimate upon the value of 
human life, and yet we are constantly called to 
remember that the agencies which civilization 
has introduced into every day life, are powers 
for harm which the days of ancient rudeness 
did not know. The old-time threshing floors 
were scenes of feasting and rejoicing ; the quiet 
cattle trod their harmless round ; the pounding 
flail broke few heads but those of wheat. We 
live in other days and deal with other agencies 
and powers ; now and then there occurs a 
calamity which seems to indicate that men for- 
get and play with danger like children. There 
is a wholesome lesson to draw, and that is care, 
vigilant, unceasing care for humanity's sake. 
The powerful, soulless force which we employ 
to do the work which a billion of oxen could 
not accomplish between harvest and seed-time, 
must bo most carefully and strongly muzzled, 
or men must pay the penalty of neglect with 
their lives. The practice of agriculture to-day 
reriuires skill which the days of small things 
did not demand. We have entered the field of 
the machinist and have taken his most dangerous 
agencies to serve us. With the agency we 
should secure a machinist's knowledge of it. 
It cannot be denied that in some cases this 
knowledge is wanting, and thoughtless men 
brave dangers which the skilled machinist would 
fly from if he could not remove. Our steam 
threshing engines .ire drawn from place to pLice 
and set up with as little care, sometimes, as a 
man would set up a cider press ; and yet, every 
machinist knows that these small motors need 
greater proportionate care in handling and ad- 
justment the sturdy giants of the shop and 
factory, as they are quick to heat, so are they 
quick to superheat, as they are constantly sub- 
ject to movement and disarrangement, the con- 
sequences of these conditions must be the more 
carefully looked for and remedied. 

It cannot be doubted these facts are 
often lost sight of, and fatal explosions result. 
Men who own threshing outfits often lose sight 
of everything m their haste to gain the money 
which results from quick work. Many of them 
know but little about the handling of steam, 
and if they get a good engineer they hurry and 
force him beyond his own conscience and knowl- 
edge of dangers. Mr. Kamp, of .San Jose, gave 
us some time ago an instance of this kind. He 
said: "I have known a fair engineer ordered by 
a man who knew absolutely nothing about steam 
engines to put on 100 pounds of steam, when he 
(the engineer) protested with all his ability that 
it wae dangerous to carry over 80 pounds. The 

same boiler, on being inspected by a first-class 
engineer, called forth from him surprise and 
wouder that we had not all been ' blown into 
eternity long ago.' " A good enginer is always 
extremely cautious with steam, knowing as he 
does the powerful and dangerous agent that it 
is. It is only the rash and careless man who 
trifles with dangerous things. No man should 
fire an engine before he is sure that everything 
about is ready for the heat and the pressure, 
and when the work is well begun there should 
be no rela.vation of care and watchfulness. For 
humanity's sake do not let homes be robbed 
and friends bereaved so long as the utmost of 
care and watchfulness is not bestowed upon the 
dangers which beset the steam power upon the 

These things and other things which they 
will suggest to thoughtful and cautious men, 
should be well considered now that the time of 
disasters is upon us. Our remarks are only 
general and aimed to call attention to the sub- 
ject. We should like to have our readers give 
us the teachings of their experience as to* the 
best means and methods for coping with these 
harvest dangers and preventing them. 

QiJee\ies \nQ [\eplies. 

Cicadians on Fruit Trees. 

Editors Press:—! inclose samples of a fly. known here 
as the "dry fly." They sting the limbs of both apple and 
plum trees, causing them to die. The microscope reveals 
thousands of eggs in the bark and wood. They some- 
times sting the body of the trees as well as the branches. 
What are they '? What can be done with them ';—R. D. 
Ni'.NSALLV, Etna Mills, Siskiyou county, Cal. 

We recognize the fly as of the genus Cicada. It 
has a family resemblance to the Cirnda stptem- 
derim, commonly called "seventeen-year 
locust,'' but which is not a "locust'' at all. It 
is a large fly, nearly an inch in length, wide 
head and prominent eyes, and body wedge- 
shaped from front of head to extremity of 
abdomen. It has laige transparent wings. It 
has a long, sharp prolmsis, adajited to piercing. 
In order to secure an accurate classification of 
the insect, we sent a specimen to Henry 
Edwards, Esq., and received the following 
reply: "The insect you send belongs to the 
genus Cicada, but as far as I know, it is at 
present an uudescribed species. It is very com- 
mon about Virginia City, and has been found 
from Vancouver to .'"^aii Bernardino. It has, 
of course, the habit of its congeners, and, like 
C. xeptcmdecim, lays its eggs in the buds and 
axils of various plants. The species you send 
me attacks the wild plum in the neighboring 
State of Nevada." 

Here we have another case of the insects of 
wild life invading our orchards as soon as they 
discover that we are growing trees suited to 
their tastes. The species of Cicada are an old 
pest in the East. The seventeen-year species 
IS a busy foe when its periods come in dift'erent 
localities, and other species, which do not wait 
so long, for a generation have been found griev- 
ous enemies to fruit trees. The name "dry 
fly," which seems to be given to the insect on 
this coast, is parallel to " harvest fly," by which 
it is known in New England. 

The life history of this class of insects may 
be briefly described. The fly is short lived, as 
flies generally are. It endures but a few weeks 
in the summer time, living upon juices of 
plants, and its chief duty is to deposit its eggs 
and thus arrange for the propagation of its spe- 
cies. The eggs are deposited in the bark and 
wood of plants by means of a piercer, with which 
the females are furnished. The eggs of one 
species at least have been found to hatch in less 
than 50 days, and the young insect, when it 
bursts the shell, is, according to Harris, one- 
sixteenth of an inch in length, and of a yellow- 
ish-white color, except the eyes and claws of the 
fore legs, which are reddish, and it is covered 
with little hairs. In form it is somewhat grub- 
like, and is furnished with six legs, the first 
pair of which are very large, shaped almost 
like lobster's claws and armed with strong 
spines underneath. When thus young, the in- 
sects are lively and their movements nearly as 
quick as ants. They have under the breast a 
long beak for sucking juice from plants. After 
reaching the air from the egg, they haste to 
reach the ground and deliberately release them- 
selves from the twigs and fall. When they 
reach the ground, they immediately bury 
themselves in the soil, burrowing by means of 
their broad and strong fore feet, which, like 
those of the mole, are admirably adapted to 
digging. In their descent into the earth, they 
seem to follow the roots of plants and are found 
afterward attached to tender and succulent 
roots, perforating them with their beaks and 
thus extracting the vegetable juices, upon which 
they live and grown until they reach full size 
and are ready to bore their way upward and 
come into the air again as full grown "dry 
flies," as our friends find them on their fruit 

This outline of the life of the insects sent us 
is given in general terms, as it is drawn from 
what is known of the lives of other species of 
its genus. Like them it makes its growth 
underground, but how long it dwells there we 
do not know. In one species, as we have said, 
it lives 17 years upon the roots of the trees, all 
the time drawing from their strength to build 
up itself. In this State it is sometimes very 
ruinous. A case is reported in Massachusetts, 
where a pear tree, which showed signs of gradual 
death, was dug up. The larvas of the cicada 

were found in countless numbers, clinging to 
the roots, with their suckers piercing the bark. 
From a root a yard long and about an inch in 
diameter, 23 were gathered. They were of 
various sizes from one-quarter of an inch to an 
inch in length. 

From the foregoing it will appear that the 
harm done by this insect is two-fold and most 
dangerous when least seen. Our querist says 
that the trees are dying from the countless 
thousands of punctures made for depositing the 
eggs and for gaining juice for the fly. If they 
are present in such numbers as this, the trees 
are indeed in a sad state. Generally the trees 
outlive the attack of the mature insects, losing, 
however, twigs and small branches, which are 
weakened by the punctures and broke off by 
following winds. 13ut if they thus escape, it is 
only to undergo the protracted drain of the long 
lived larvK, which hatch from the eggs and pro- 
ceed straightway to th«f roots. It is hard, if 
not impossible, to wage much of a warfare on 
the mature fly. The best prescription we could 
make would be whitewashing, or smearing with 
strong soap suds, the tnink aud all limbs within 
reach, with a view of preventing the fly from 
depositing in the bark, and possibly destroying 
the eggs or the young when hatched. It will 
be an important point after the eggs are de- 
posited to prevent the passage of the larvw to 
the ground. They are so small and lively that 
trapping would be difficult and remedies on a 
large scale would be too expensive. If we had 
a few choice trees, the roots of which we wished 
to save, we would try coating the ground under 
them with a good layer of wood ashes, being 
sure that the ashes would be good for the trees 
if it did not destroy the insects. If ashes were 
not at hand we would try air-slaked lime! 

The cicada, before it reaches its winged form, 
has natural enemies. Ants and birds eat the 
eggs and the insects just as they are emerging 
from the shell. As the full-grown larvse seek 
the surface of the ground to make their exit 
into the air, they are eagerly rooted up and 
eaten by hogs. Blackbirds will snatch them 
when turned up by the plow. 

Asparagus in Bavaria. — We have aspara- 
gus fields in this State from which the owners 
have reaped good returns, as well as delicious 
vegetable substance. They may be interested 
in a report which we find in the London 
Farmer of the gradually extending cultivation 
of asparagus in Rhenish Bavaria. M. Villoroy 
states that it is now grown there on soils 
that are originally sandy and poor, at a very 
small outlay" and at a very considerable profit. 
In illustration of this he quotes the case of a 
gardener, near Saarlouis, who owns about two 
aud a half acresof poor sandy soil which he culti- 
vates with asparagus. At the present time 
this man is cutting 100 or 120 bundles a day, 
which are bought up in advance by agents who 
despatch it to the large towns, at the rate of 15 
cents per bundle, one-half kilogramme, weigh- 
ing (one and one-tenth pound) each. Asa rule, 
the cutting begins on April 15th, and termin- 
ates on June 24th, but taking the season as 60 
days only, and the number of bundles cut daily 
as 100, the gross returns at the rate quoted 
would be 3,750 francs. This would lie equal to 
a gross value of §720 from two and a half acre*. 
How do California receipts compare with this ? 
It is added that the onions grown in among the 
crop more than repay all the cost of cultiva- 

A European Scbstitute for Clover. — Ac- 
cording to a report furnished to the London 
Farmi-r, by a Silesian authority, the common 
goats -rue [Oaltiia ojicinalin) is largely culti- 
vated as fodder iu the Vistula governments as 
a substitute for clover or for esparcet. Being a 
perennial plant it offers considerable advantages. 
In some respects it closely resembles the vetch, 
and will >ield from 3(),00b to -M),000 lbs. of hay 
per dessjatine, doing best on low-lying chalky 
soils. The first year's growth alone will yield 
about 400 lbs. of seed per dessjatine, and by 
the second or third year the crop may be cut 
five or six times in the season. The hay con- 
tains 5.5/, of nitrogenous matter and 1.83% 
of fat, so that one pound of goats'-rue hay 
is in this respect equivalent to al>out 2J 
lbs. of ordinary meadow hay. The crops 
also afford a fine honey-gathering ground for 
bees, and it is said that cows fed upon it will 
give from 30% to 50% more than their or- 
dinary yield of milk. 

Meteorological Summary for June.— Th« 
report of the U S. Signal Service officer, of San 
Francisco, for the month of June is summarized 
as follows: The mean bight of barometer for 
the month was 29.91; mean temperature, 58.2; 
mean humidity, 73.02; prevailing winds, south- 
west; highest barometer, 30.148; lowest, 29.- 
745; highest temperature, 73°; lowest, 5'2°; 
monthly range, 22; greatest velocity of wind, 
34 miles per hour; total number of miles trav- 
eled by wind, 8,711; toUl rainfall, .01 inches. 
Rainfall in June during former yeare: 1872, 
.04 inches; 1873, .02 inches; 1874, .14 inches; 
1875, 1.02 inches; 1876, .04 inches; 1877, .04 

The order formerly issued, authorizing mili- 
tary pursuit into Mexico of cattle thieves, will 
be more rigorously enforced, irrespective of 
Mexican protests, on the ground that Mexico, 
by herself preventing the incursions, can obvi- 
ate the invasion of her soil by our troops. 

Six hundred visitors arrived at Santa Crn» 
on Saturday last. 

July 6, 1878.1 THE FAOIFIO BUBAL FBISS. 9 

Hop Growing on the Pacific Coast. 

It is generally known that our hop growers 
have undergone this year a period of exceeding 
low financial barometer. The course of prices 
has been uniformly downward since the crop 
was baled. Whatever advantage in price would 
have natuially accrued to producers by the re- 
duced production of the dry year has been 
wholly cut oflF by the abundance in other re- 
gions and the consequent low value at trade 
centers. The encouragement now to persevere 
and turn out a good article this year must be 
found in the fact heretofore observed, that there 
has always been a reaction from a year of low 
prices, either because of unfavorable seasons 
elsewhere, or because many have turned their 
backs upon the business. The prize heretofore 
has been to him who continued in the produc- 
tion through thick and thin. Thus we hope it 
may prove this year. We are furnished by 
Philip Wolf & Co. , of this city, with a general 
review of the hop season which is now closing, 
from which we take the following points of gen- 
eral interest: 

It is a well known fact to every person en- 
gaged in the hop trade that this line of business 
during the season just terminating, has been 
extremely unsatisfactory and disastrous to a 
great number of growers, in so far that when 
sales were not made during harvest, or imme- 
diately thereafter, prices depreciated so ma- 
terially, that quite a number of growers were 
crippled, not being able to meet their ordinary 
business obligations. 

For the same reason, many old and well- 
known hop houses in the East and in Europe, 
that purchased in anticipation of an improve- 
ment in price as the season advanced, had to 
succumb and fail in their business. 

In atldition to low prices during last season, 
while {European and Eastern yields, on the av- 
erage, were abundant and of fine, heavy 
quality, California hops were short as to quan- 
tity, and the entire crop of the coast was not 
up to quality in previous years, attributable, 
no doubt, in California, to the extremely dry 
weather of the winter of 1876-77. 

The average quality of California hops was so 
inferior that we are under the necessity of re- 
cording the fact that they were neglected to a 
large extent in the New York and London 
markets,, entailing a loss in nearly every in- 
stance to exporters. 

The product of our neighboring State of Ore- 
gon was particularly inferior. The growers 
having had extremely unfavorable weather dur- 
ing picking time, sent to this market nothing 
but badly cured, tough, rusty hops, of coarse 
texture. On the other hand, we are but too 
glad to report that the hops of Washington 
Territory, grown on the sound, have shown a 
material improvement as to flavor, color and 
cleanliness, over previous pickings. The 
proper li(j/it pressed bales, furnishing such of 
160 to 170 pounds, have also, in most instances 
been adopted, and if our friends in tliat section 
will continue to improve, their hops will soon 
enjoy a tine reputation. We again caution grow- 
ers in the last named section, and Oregon, not 
to use wrapping paper of any sort inside bales, 
a proper baling cloth is sufficient to protect 
hops against emergencies. 

Frices in the Sau Francisco market for the 
season under review, commenced for early va- 
rieties at about 15 cents, receding however, 
in September and October, before any lots of 
note were taken for export, to 10 and 12 cents, 
and subsequently ruling at seven to nine for 
California choice and seven to eight for Wash- 
ington Territory. Inferior grades of all sorts 
sold as low down as three to tive cents, and 
were a bad "buy" at that price, as inferior hops 
in a year of plenty are almost worthless. 

As stated before, the crop of our entire coast 
fell short and did not reach 12,000 bales of 200 
pounds each. Present stock, mostly in ware- 
houses at San Francisco, about 1,500 bales, the 
largest portion of which, however, is of very 
inferior quality. While, as we stated at the 
outset, the past hop season has been a very un- 
profitable one to growers as well as to mer- 
chants, we would, at the same time, say to 
those hop growers who have been fortunate 
enough to weather it through, that there is still 
no cause to despair. Adverse seasons will oc- 
casionally come up, but a change for the better 
often steps in when we least expect it, and we 
give as our advice to farmers who have not lost 
all faith in hop-raising, to persevere and take 
the best of care of their yards, harvest and cure 
in the best possible manner, and send nothing 
but a choice article to market. 

Our reports from the most important hop- 
growing districts in Europe and the Eastern 
States, are that the weather has not been very 
propitious for the growing plants, and as we, in 
this section, are solely governed by prices of 
the London and New York markets, a deficient 
or bad crop elsewhere would enhance prices for 
our product here materially, provided the 
quality of our crop will be up to the mark. 

The National Festival in honor of the Paris 
exposition was a great success. Hundreds of 
thousands of people poured into the city, and 
when the inauguration of the statue of the Re- 
public began the mass of the spectators was im- 

The Paris Exposition. 

(Continued from page 1.) 

the Seine, 700 feet from the quay. The general 
plan of the building includes three pavilions, 
divided by two galleries extending between 
them and their whole length. At the four cor- 
ners of the rectangle rise higher pavilions, sur- 
rounded by domes, which reach to a hight of 
132 feet, and are constructed in a semi-Oriental 
style that is decidedly pleasing. In front of 
it are beds of rhodendrons, grass plots, statues, 
fountains and conservatories. Tiie terrace is 
280 meters in length by 20 in width. At inter- 
vals are placed gigantic sculptures, symbolizing 
ttie principal participators in the exhibition. 

France has reserved for herself a large part of 
the space provided for exhibits in the Champ 
de Mars building. She occupies one-half of the 
vast edifice — all the galleries on the left of the 
central portal, besides a large part of the middle 
gallery are set apart for fine arts. On the right 
side, the visitor on entering will come upon 
the English exhibit. Next to France, England 
occupies the largest space — one-eighth of the 
palace — allotted to any nation. Next to Eng- 
land in the main building comes the United 
States. The space allotted to the United 
States is about one-fifth of that occupied by 


Great Britain. Although our exhibitors were 
among the last in the field and have been ham- 
pered by the meager appropriations of Con- 
gress, our department is among those which i 
were the first ready. The quality of the ex- 
hibit is reported 4S quite creditable, and in 
some particulars as beyond competition. Our 
contributions are arranged in eight groups, 
which may be briefly indicated as follows: 
Works of Art, Educational Apparatus, Furni- 
ture and Accessories, Textile Fabrics. Mining 
Industries and Products, Mechanical Indus- 
tries and Apparatus, Food Products and Agri- 
cultural Implements. 

The American Exhibit. 

Whatever of excellence there may be found 

GEN. R. c. Mccormick. 

in the American exhibit is largely attributable 
to the labors of Commissioner General McCor- 
mick, of whom we give a small portrait on this 
page. Richard J. McCormick, who is well 
known as ex-Governor of Arizona, and as in- 
cumbent of other responsible positions, was ap- 
pointed Commissioner General to Paris very late 
in the day, because of the slowness of Congress 
to provide for any representation at Paris. He 
went to work with a will and succeeded in 
drawing out a good list of exhibitors by his di- 
rect efforts. He was early on the ground at 
Paris with his exhibits and succeeded in early 
finishing of the American exhibit, as described 
above. He is aided at Paris by a corps of as- 
sistant and honorary commissioners, appointed 
by the Qovernment. . 

An Improved Fruit Pitter. 

We illustrate herewith an improved device 
for pitting fruit, recently patented through the 
Mining and Scientific Press Patent Agency 
by Mr. A. T. Hatch, of Cordelia, Solano 
county. The machine is designed to divide 
and remove the pit by a single motion and with 
but a small amount of waste of material, while 
the fruit will be prepared for drying and pre- 
serving in a rapid and simple manner at small 

The device, as will be seen by the engraving 
consists in the construction of a pair of peculi- 
arly-shaped and flanged knives, formed on 
hinged metallic handles, which are kept in a 
closed po-sition by a spring placed between the 
handles. These metal handles have knives 
made at their other ends by shaping the metal 
properly. The handles are hinged together at 
the sides where a portion of the metal projects, 
as shown, forming ears at the central part 
lengthwise the machine. A spring between the 
handles keeps the knife blades in position for 
entering the fruit. The blades are formed with 
a curved portion to encircle the pit, and a 


straight portion to divide the fruit as shown, 
and have also extension or guide lips which 
work in corresponding slots. By means of these 
lips and the shake given to the knives, the 
fruit will be cut in pieces and freed from the 
pit; the latter enters the hollow part above the 
knife blades and is shaken out through openings 
where the metal has been cut away as shown, 
the sides being bulged or expanded to allow a 

The fruit to be preserved or pitted is placed 
on a table, stem downwards. The machine is 
taken by the hand and pressed into the upper 
end of the fruit; and by reason of the shape of 
the knife blades, they pass around the pit, cut- 
ting the fruit in pieces and removing but a 
small portion of the fruit with the pit. As the 
spring causes the blades to hug the pit in pass- 
ing, the latter is shaken out of the machine 
through the sides as it is raised, and the pieces 
of fruit are brushed to one side by hand. The 
operation being accomplished in a simple and 
effective manner, may be done with speed by a 
skillful person. These devices are made in dif- 
ferent iizes for peaches, plums, etc. Further 
information may be had by addressing the in- 


ventor as above, or the Grangers' Business As- 
sociation, 106 Davis street, San Francisco. 

Silk in Sp.\in. — The cocoon harvest begun in 
Spain about a month ago, and, according to al) 
reports, falls considerably short of the expecta- 
tions that had been formed of it, a good deal of 
disease having occurred at the latter end of the 
season. Prices are low. 

Poultry. — Wm. Niles, the well-known poul 
try dealer, advertises in the Rural Pkes.s for a 
partner, having found it impossible to secur*- 
trustworthy help. This is a good opportunit.\ 
for a live business man. — Los A ngeles Repuhlkan 

A RUMOR has been received that Emperoi 
William has intimated a disposition to abdicate. 

An Improved Scrubbing Maca 

The apparatus herewith illustrated is an in- 
vention for scrubbing and mopping floors, re- 
cently patented through the Mining and Sci- 
ENTiFiu Press Patent Agency, by Dr. A. F. 
Stockley. This new household implement is 
self-acting, the operator having merely to propel 
it. It heats its own water, projects the same 
in spray form, works a scrubbing brush, and 
finally applies a mop or wiping cloth. 

^ is a water tank of any desired size, the top 
of which is closed by a suitable cover, and 
.which is mounted on a truck. Underneath is a 
box, B, in which the lamp or stove for heating 
the water is placed, the chimney passing 
through the tank and protruding above at O. 
At the front end of the frame is the scrubbing 
brush, to which a quick reciprocating scrubbing 
motion is imparted by the rock shaft, levers, 
and other simple mechanism, actuated by a 
pinion which gears with the wheel, D. This 
brusli is so place<l that it receives the entire 
weight of the front part of the machine. Con- 
nected with the forward end of the tank is a 
horizontal sprinkler, E, in the pipe leading to 
which is a valve, F, by means of which the 
supply of water, which escapes in divided form 
upon the brush, may be regulated. To the 
handle of the apparatus is secured a clamp for 
holding mop rags or cloths, as shown. When 
the machine is set in motion the valve, F, is 
opened by a nut on the short arm of a vertical 
rod striking against the shaft, G, as it recipro- 
cates with the brush, and water from the tank 
is admitted to the sprinkler. A spring closes 
the valve when the m.achine is not in motion. 
A filter, //, serves to remove all dirt from the 
water as it passes to the supply pipe, and the 
mop clamp can be adjusted to either side of the 
handle arms, so as to run close to the side of 
the floor or surface which is being cleaned. The 
brush may be of any suitable size, shape or ma- 

This new household implement will be found 
very useful where large floors are to be scrubbed, 
in rooms or halls. The inventor. Dr. Stockley, 
is at present in this city, at 429 Bush street, 
where he may be addressed for further informa- 

Action to Set Aside Land Patents. — -A 
dispatch from Washington dated June 29th 
contains the following item of news on public 
land matters: "Secretary Schuiz to-day offi- 
cially requested Attorney-General Devens to 
institute proceedings against the Central Paci- 
fic Railroad Company to set aside the patents 
issued to that Company for about 20,000 acres 
of land situated within the claimed limits of 
the Manuel Dias grant, in Marysville land dis- 
trict. This grant was rejected by the Supreme 
Court in March, 1873. The lands were pa- 
tented to the railroad Company under dates of 
March, 1872, March, 1875, and December, 1875. 
Secretary Schurz holds, that under the prin- 
ciples announced by the Supreme Court in the 
case of Newhall vs. Sanger, these lands, being 
within the limits of a private grant, were ex- 
cepted from the operation of the railroad grant, 
and patents were issued for them erroneously, 
without authority of law. He also invites the 
Attorney Geneiars attention to the decision of 
Secretary Chandler in the California case of 
J. W. Harbison and others, in which it was 
held that the patents for lands then in ques- 
tion were erroneously issued, and the Commis- 
sioner of the (Jeneral Land Office was instructed, 
.July 12th, 1876, to call upon the Central Pacific 
Railroad Company to return them. Schurz 
informs the Attorney-General that this re- 
quest has not been complied with." 

Pneumatic Grain Elevator. — The Revue 
Industrielle gives a description of a new pneu- 
matic grain elevator, constructed by Ren- 
haye. It consists of a centrifugal ventilator, 
the suction pipe of which is carried to a 
receiver placed upon the level to which 
the grain is to be carried. From the same 
receiver the supply pipe runs to the 
place from where the grain is to be lifted. 
Between the openings of the suction and the 
supply pipe of the receiver is an inclined 
plane, which throws the grain downward. A 
screen prevents the grain from entering the 
suction pipe, through which only the dust is 
carried off'. A piston regulator at the lower 
end of the supply pipe acts in such a manner 
upon an adjustable nozzle that the proper pro- 
portion between the amount of air and grain 
admitted is automatically maintained. The 
principle upon which this pneumatic elevator 
acts is that when solid particles in movement 
in a pipe are nii.xed with air, a semi-fluid is 
formed in which the pressures vary in accord- 
ance to the laws governing ordinary fluids. 

The Los Angeles Republican learns of a recent 
fine strike of oil at a depth of about 1,000 feet 
in the well of the Los Angeles Oil Company, in 
tlie Sespe District. The well is said to yield 
30 barrels per day of a fine quality of oil. 

A BIG deposit of ice has been found in the 
Olympic mountains, Washington Territory, and 
tlie Vispatch says it can be brought to Seattle 
at a cost of $5 per ton. Ice now costs $80 per 
ton there. 

Warren Leland has, according to rerort, 
retired from the management of the Phlaco 
hotel, in this city. 



[July 6, i5;8. 

American & Foreign Patent Agents 

OFFICE, 202 SANSOME St., K.E.Cor. Pink, S. F. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent Reissues taken out 
Assignnients made and recorded in legal form; 
Copies of Patents and Assignments procured; 
Examinations of Patents made here and at 
Washington; Examinations made of Assign- 
ments recorded in Washington; Examinations 
ordered and rei>orted by Telegraph; Kejecteil 
cases taken up and Patents obtained; Inter 
ferences Prosecuted; Opinions rendered re 
garding tlie validity of Patents and Assign- 
ments; Every legitijnatc branch of Patent 
Agency Business promptly and thoroughly 
•conducted. , 

Our intimate knowledge of the various inven- 
tions of this coast, and long practice in patent 
business, enable us ,to abundantly satisfy our 
patrons; and our success and business are 
constantly increasing. 

TJie shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, wlio fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in Itringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, tirst-class journals — 
thereby facilitating tiieir introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secure, 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Baden, Peru, 
Russia, .Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Bra/.U, Bavaria, Holland, Denmark, 
Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemburg, New Zealand, New South 
AVales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Grauivla, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
-where Patents are ol)tainal>le. 

No models are reipiired in European countries, 
but the drawings and specilications sliould be 
prepared with thoroughness, by able persons 
who iU'e familiar witli the requirements ami 
changes of foreign patent laws — agents wh( 
are reliable and permanently established. 

Qui- schedule price lor obtaining foreign patents 
in all cases, will always be as low, and it 
some instances lower, tlian those of any othei 
reaponsil)le agency. 

We can ami do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pivcilic States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country) 
MouNKR than any other agents. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. We are familiai 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more correctly judge of tlie 
value and patentability of inventions discov- 
ered here than any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the seat of government, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacitic Coast than to applicants in 
the l^astern States. \'aluable patents may be 
lost by extra time consumed in transmittiiig 
gpecihcations from Eastern agencies back to 
this coast for the signature of the inventor. 


We take great pains to preserve secrecy in 
all oonliilential matters, and applicants foi 
patents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions will be held 
strictly conHdential by us. Circulars free 

Home Counsel. 

Oar long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are freiiuentlj 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing to them the same 
tlimg already covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise applicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous applicants 
which will interfere with their obt-'uing a 

Wj invite the acquaintance of all pa.ties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents or pur- 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short call 
at our olhce. 

Re uittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the (iovermnent, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
applicants have not oidy lost their money, but 
their inventions also, from this cause and con 
sequent delay. We hold ourselves responsible 
for all fees entrusted to our agency. 


We have superior artists in our own office, and 
all facilities for producing tine and satisfactory 
illustrations of inventions and machinery, for 
newspaper, book, circular and other printed il- 
lustrations, and are always ready to assist 
patrons in bringing their valuable discoveries 
into practical and prolitable use. 

United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub 
Ushers Mining and Scientihc Press ami the 
Pa<.llic Rural Press, 202 Sansome St., N. E 
corner Pine, S, F, 

/fi co)iscqitcncc of spur ton -> iinitnti'ons of 


■which arc calculated to deceive flie Public, Lea and Pcrrins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Signature, 


ivhich is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without which none is genuifie. 

Ask for LEA PERRINS' Sauce, and set Name on Wrapper, Lab,!, Bottle and Stopper. 
Wkolesale and for Export by the Proprietors. IVorcesier ; Crosse and Blackwell, London, 
&-V., i5rV. ; and by Grocers and Oilman throughout the M'orld. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO., San P ranclsco. 

^^•A Book for all That Have a Garden. SS 


Culture of the Strawberry. 


Culture, Propagation, Management 
and Marketing of Strawberries. 

Illustrated with Photographs, representing 
the average size of best varieties. 
Especially adapted to the 
Family Garden. 

Nevada City, Cal. 


Fragurioiilture; Description; Varieties; Selection; The 
Soil; Prcitaraiion of the Soil; Manures; Time of Setting 
Strawberries; Setting out Strawberries; Culluro in Rows 
and Hills; Matted Row System; Mulching; Irriijatioa; 
t 'lire of Plants after Setting; Propagatiuii; PropiHraiion In 
.Seed; Resetting; Exposure; Ainiual Varieties; liiunnial 
Varieties; Ever-bearing, or Wood Varieties; Bush-alpine 
Varieties; Suiniinate and Pistillate Plants; Hybridization; 
Fnrcing Strawberries; Care to Plants Forwarded by Mail; 
Duration of Strawberry Beds; Mode to Perpetuate Straw- 
berry Beds; How to make Strawberries Last; Spring 
Work on Strawberry Beds; How to KaiKC Very Large 
Fruit; How to Pick and Keep Strawberries; Packing and 
Shipping; Insects Injurious to Strawberries; Maladies ol 
the Strawberry: Th« Art of Preparing Strawberries; Pre- 
serving Strawberries; Medicinal Properties of Strawber- 
ries; General Hints on Fragaricullure; Explanation of 
Photographs, and list of best varieties, 


Each photo^rap! represents a ^Toup of strawberries— 
tlirue to five — and not a single one. and is Bix inches by 
(our inches. 

Note.— It is the most complete, practical, interesting 
treatise on Strawberry Culture ever published in the 
United States. Address 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 

202 Sansome Street. S. 
P. S.— Also, for sale by A. W:ildtenfel, in San Jose. 

Lands for Sale and to Let. 


A llioroujch training school lur the best collejjes. Also, 
offers a solid, practical, l>usiness course, incluoin^j boolt- 
keepinff. Location unsur|iasscd: methods most approved; 
healtli preserved and physical development secured by 
daily t-yninastic and brief military drill. Preparatory dc- 
demrtment lor l.ids in successful operaliim. Attention 
invited to methods and terms, .\ddress for p.articulars, 
D. P. SACKETT, A. M , Principal, 

Oakland, Cal. 

N. I!.- The next school year will comniuine .luly ;iOtli. 


that Mrs. C. H. Spratrue, at the California Poultry 
Yards, at Woodland, Yi>lo County, keeps the choicest lot 
and the greatest and best variet.v of Thoroujfhbrcd Fowls 
of any one west of the Mississippi river, and that one can 
Ifet just what iu waiitdd by sending; orders to her. 

rOL'R NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
. T«n Cent*. STKVE.NS UltOS , Northford, Conn. 

"Faith and Confidence." 

LiVEKMORK, Oct. 1st, 1875. 

Mkssrs. Pkwkv & Co., Patent Solicitors: Gentlemen — 
Yours of the 2Uth ult. , containinK my patent to Elevated 
K. K. duly received, and I hereby return my sincere 
thanks to the and Scientific Press Patent Agency 
Ji>r your promptness and honesty in rejrard to our business 
connections. 1 have received a flood of circulars from 
Kiislcrn firms, desiring to deal with me, but I have de 
ciinod any communication with them and prefer lus soon 
as circumstances will permit, to neK'otiate with and j>al 
ronize a home instituiion; one in which I have faith and 
lonfidcnce— Uewet & Co. 

A^ain thanking you for yoiu* promptness in aecurin^ my 
patcut, I renmin, obediently yours, 


Land for Sale in Napa County. 

I am ofFerins^ my lands in Foss Valley, ten miles north 
of Napa City, for sale, as follows— to wit: 

One tract of t^OO acres, including my homestead. 220 
acres of which is choice valley land, the balance pood 
^Tazini; land, is well watered, has a lar^^e supply of w<x)d, 
is well improved, hasa etimfortabledwejlinyof nine rooms, 
barn. g:r.inary. sheds, etc. Also, a good orchard and 
choice ve^fctablc irarden. Price, $15.00 per acre. 

Also, une tract of 1,020 acres, about 100 acres of which is 
valley, the )>alance yo<Ml graz nj? hills, is well watered and 
has enough wood on it to pay for it. Price, *5.00 peraere. 
Also, one tract of 300 acres, 40 a';rcs tillable, a portion 
can be irrigated from springs, has a large amount of wood 
on it and 500 rods of stone fence. Is well suited to run- 
ning a small dairy, and raisingiiigs and chickens, by which 
a good living can be made. i)riee ^2.000. The climate is 
choice, being shut in from the chilly coast winds, but has 
just breeze enough to make it pleasant, title perfect. The 
above lands lay eontiiruous. I will sell the whole or either 
one of the above tracts on eas3 terms- a liberal portion 
can remain at 10 per cent, per annum. If desired, will sell 
with the land, 1,500 head of Spanish Merino sheep. Come 
and see me, a^I am determined to sell. Address the im- 
dersigned at Napa City. WILLIAM CLARKE. 


One thousand six hundred acres of deeded land, in 
T. P. 10, N. R. 6 W., in Colusa County, situated near 
Stoney Creek, on the county road, from Leesville to Klk 
Creek, compribing No. 1 farming land, and first-olass 
grazing lands, all enclosed. Go<m1 house, seven roums, 
well finished and painted. Two large banis, one wagon 
house, one wool house, large store house, wood house and 
other small buildings eomplL'te. Two goijd wells of jmre 
cold water and a large hprmg of never-failing water run- 
ning about one mile through the ranch. I hc house is 
surrounded with shade ami unuimeiital trees. Alt the 
farming utensils and about 50 tons of ha3' will be thrown 
in if purchased soon. Any one wishit'g to engage in the 
dairy, or stock business ot any kind, cannot find a better 
location in the State. Price, ST.oO per acre, one half down 
and the balance to suit purchaser. For further particu- 
lars, apply to James W. uood, Colusa, or the undersigned. 

Elk Creek P. O.. Colusa County, Cal 


$4,000.- Two Hundred Acres of 
Land in Mendocino County. 

Thirty miles from the county seat, and 20 miles from 
the Coast, one of the localities in the Slate, 
especially for consuniplivcs. The pi vcc is fenced off in 
six different fields Pleniy of water and timber for all 
purposes. A (rotxl ()rchard. Vegetables of all kinds 
yrowwell. A (food dwelling with six rooms, ceiled and 
painted inside, good frame barn, jfranary, storehouse, 
smokehouse, etc. 

Also, Six Hundred acres of gnzinic land, well fenceil, 
three miles from the above farm, plenty of water ami 
timber for all purposes. Price, i:i!,'J60. 

Fur further particulars, address "B. T.," care of 
UEWKY .V CO , P.iciFic Ki K.^L Press office, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

■■■■IHi^P IV San Framntco. Cal. 

The largest atd best Business Colle^ in America. Its 
teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of youn;; men in the State. It makes 
Business Eilucation a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
conflneil to Itook-keepingand Arithmetic merely, butjfives 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
struction is gi\'cn in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Modern Languages are practically taught. The 
discipline is excellent, and its system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladiks* Dkpartmest. — Ladies %vill be admitted for in- 
stniction in all the De|>artment8 of the College. 

TELKuRAriiic Departsiknt.— In this Department yoimg 
men and youni; ladies are practically and thoroughly fit 
ted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, B. P. HBALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco, Cal. 

Farmers and Others Attention ! 

If favored with your orders we will furnish you with 
flrst class farm hands of any kind you may wish. We are 
men of experience and know how to select good help. We 
have also constantly on hand, Black.smiths, Milkers, etc., 
and in short, skilled and unskilled labor of all Classen, 
male and female. Trj- our agency before sending else- 
where. French. Gennan and Scan<linavian spoken by the 
proprieUirs. C. R. HANSEN Si CO., 

New Employment Oflice, 626 Clay Street, next door to 
Frank G. Edwards' Carpet Store, 

PGR SALE.— A Good Type-Writer. Price, $60 
For further information, address "COPYIST," thl« 

IS t - 


Sure Crops Every Year. 

The Reading Ranch, 

In the Upper Sacramento Valley, originally em- 
bracing over 26,000 acres of 

Choice Grain, Orchard and Pasture Land, 

Is now offered for isale at low prices and on 
favorable terms of payment, 

In Sub-Divisions to Suit Purchasers. 

The ranch M a.« selected at an early day by 
Major P. B. Heading, one of the largest pioneer 
land owners in California. It is situated on 
the west side of the Sacramento River and ex- 
tends some 20 miles along its bank. 

The average rainfall is about 30 inches per 
annum, and crops have never been known to 
fail from drouth. 

The climate is very healtliful and compar- 
tively desirable. The near proximity of high 
mountain peaks give cool nights during the 
" heated terms " which occur in our California 

Soft well water — remarkably sweet, pure and 
healthy — is obtainable at a depth of from 15 to 
35 feet. 

AVood is plentiful and easy to get. 

Figs, drapes, Peaches, Prunes, Almonds, En- 
glish Walnuts, Oranges and other temperate 
and semi-tropical fruits can be raised with suc- 
cess on most of the tract. Also, Vegetables, 
Corn and all other cereals ordinarily grown in 
the State. 

A considerable amount of the rich bottom 
land has already been cultivated. 

Deep Soil With Lasting Quilities. 

The soU throughout the tilled portions of the 
ranch proves to be of great depth and enduring 
in its good qualities. It is quite free from foul 
growths. The virgin soil among the large oak 
trees on the bottom land is easily broken up 
and cultivated. 

The California and Oregon railroad traverses 
nearly the entire length of the tract. There 
are several sections, stations and switches, be- 
sides depots at the town.s of Anderson and 
Reading — all of which are located within the 
limits of the r: nch. 

For Colonies. 

l^and suitable for settlers in colonies can be 
olitaiiied on good terms. 

Town Lots 

Are ottered for sale in Reading, situated on the 
Sacramento River, at the present terminus of 
the railroad. It is the converging and distrib- 
uting point for large, prosperous mining and 
agricultural districts in Northern California and 
Southern Oregon. Also, lots in the town of 
Anderson, situated more centrally on the 
ranch. Lots in both these towns are offered 
at a bargain, for the purpose of building up the 
towns and facilitating settlement of the ranch. 

Purchasers are invited to come and see the 
lands before l)uying here or elsewhere. Apply 
on the ranch, to the proprietor, 

Anderson, Shasta Co., Cal. 

July 6, 1S78.I 



p0rcha8er8 of stock will find in this dirbctort thb 
Names of some of thb Most Reliable Breeders. 

Our Rates. — Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



thoroujfhbred Jerseys. 

Downey City, Cal., breeders of 
Bulls and Bull calves for sale. 

A. MAIL.LIARD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal., 

breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 302 Davis street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.), Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 

R. G. SNEATH, San Bruno, Cal., breeder of Jersey 
cattle. Has Jersey bulls for sale— various ages — at $40 
to SIOO. 


L. U. SHIPPBE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder 0/ Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 

M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown 
Sheep. Rams and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, $20 each; 
Lambs, 815 each. 


M. FALLON, corner Seventh and Oak streets, Oak- 
land. Bronze Turkeys. Choice Eggs for Hatching 
from Pure Bred Fowls. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importers 
and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs tor 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pckin Ducks, etc. 

C. P. STONE, San Francisco, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of High Class White Leghorn Fowls. 


ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana ' s Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 

A. J. TWOGOOD, Riverside, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Pure Bred Poland-China Hogs. 


N. S. AMES, Napa City, Cal., Importer and Breeder 
of Italian Queen Beeg. Queens Imported from Europe, 
SilO each. Tested Queens, g3. 

J. D. ENAS, of Sunny Side, Kapa, Importer and 
Breeder of Italian Queen Bees from the best districts 
In Italy. Light or dark, tested homebred Queens, 
Nucleus, three frames if desired. Address as above. 



Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland 

Constantly on hand and for sale, choice specimens 
of the following varieties of Fowls; 

Dark md Llgrht Brahmas, Buff 
White and Partridge Co- 
chins, White & Brown 
Leghorns, Dork- 
ings. Polish Ham- 
burgs, Plymouth Rocks, 
Game and Sebright Ban- 
|tams, Bronze Turkeys, Pekin, 
Aylesbury and Rouen Ducks. 


No Inferior Fowls Sold at any Price. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 
^■For further information send stamp for Tlustrated 
Circular, to 


P. 0. Box, 659 San Francisco, Cal. 


116 Acres 

devoted to 



Unlimited Range. 

Healthy Stock. 

Largest Yards 
on the Coast. 

Brahmas, Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, Bronze Tur- 
keys, Geese, Pekin Ducks, Guinea Pigs, Etc. 

IS'Safe arrival of Fnwls and Eggs Guaranteed 

^"Pamphlet on the care of fowls- -hatching, feeding, 
diseases and their cure, etc. , adapted especially to the 
Pacific Coast. Sent for 15 cents. 

Send stamp for price list. Address 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 



Pamphlets free. Office, Yobk, Pa. 


lijrat-claas 16-page Illustrated Agricultural Weekly, filled 
with fresh, valuable and interesting reading. Every 
farmer and ruralist should take it. It is im- 
mensely popular. Send for a sample copy. 

DEWEY & CO.. Publishers. S. F. 

Hand Pbintino Press Wanted.— Parties having a sec- 
ond band Washington or other hand printing press which 
they wish u> dispose of, will please address thiii oifice, 
stating price, size and conditisn. 


Incorporated Feb. 10th, 1875. Capital Stock, $1,000,000. 


LiANIEL INMAN, (President). 
A. D. LOGAN, (Vice President). 
AMOS ADAMS, (Secretary). 

W. W. GRAY. 

JOHN LEWELLING, (Treasurer). 




Grangers' Biiilding', 

106 Davis Street, S. F. 

Consignments of Grain, Wool, Dairy Products, Fruit, Vegetahles, and other Produce solicited, and 
Advances made on the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, Produce, Merchandise, 
Farm Implements, Wagons, etc., solicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a Strictly Commission Business, and place our rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis the will 
enable the country at large to transact business through us to their entire satisfaction. 

Consignments to be marked "Grangers' Business Association, San Francisco." Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. 



IsAl. Cr. ZP^ILHij^I^/ID & CO. 

Manufacturers and Importers of all kinds of 


Holiday, Birthdayj 

Wedding Presents, 


Holiday, Birthday 

Wedding Presents, 


Our stock embraces the latest novelties, the newest and most pleasing airs, and the most approved appliances 
for rendering them with every shade of musical expression. 

^^We offer this season many new improvements that must be seen to be appreciated, therefore buyers coming 
to San Francisco are invi ed to examine our stock- the largest in the city. 

i^Medal and diploma awarded at the Centennial txposition to our estiiblishment in Switzerland for excellence 
in manufacture, durability, volume, purity of sound and superior workmanship. Also, medal awarded at the Me- 
chanics' Institute Industrial Exhibition, San Francisco. 

RhPAlR DEPART.MENT. — Our workmen are especially educated to all kinds of intricate repairs, so that all 
ri pa rs entrusted to us will meet with careful, skillful and prompt attention. We are recipients of many special 
pumnts for improvements in musical boxes. 

M. J. PAILLARD & CO., No, 120 Sutter St., (Rooms 5 and 6) San Francisco. 
680 Broadway, New York, and St. Croix, Switzerland. 


Have located in Grass Valley, Wasco County, on the line of the Dalles Military Road, 20 miles from the Columbia 
River, between the Deschutes and John Day Rivers; 31 miles from the Dalles. 


Is located on a small stream, fed by numerous springs, in the center of a beautiful rolling prairie, 60 miles long by 
30 miles wide, ol the very richest soil, heavily covered with fine bunch grass. 

A Plenty of Government Land for All. 

The climate is (unlike Western Oregon) dry and delightful, .tII kinds of Grain, Fruit and Vegetables, etc., grow 
perfection. Average wheat crop — 4(5 bushels per acre. 

640 Acres Secured for a Town-site and Called Lockville. 


Hotels, Stores and a large number of Houses already in course of construction. Immigrants will do svell to look 
at this location before going further north. 

A .Stage will soon leave the Dalles, (from the Pioneer Hotel,) daily for Lockville. 

DR. C. R. ROLLINS, Pres. J. B. DOW, Treas. G. M. LOCKE, Sec'y. 












The Strongest Barrow Made. These li^n-ows are made by Superior Workmen, and of tlie best material, 
All sizes kept constantly on hand, 

Lap-Welded Pipe, all Sizes, from Three to Six Inches. Artesian Well Pine. Also, Gal- 
vanized Iron Boi.ers, from Twenty five to One Hundred Gallons. 

Iron Cut, Punched, and Formed for making pipe on gi-ound, where required. All kinds of topis supplied for 
making pipe. Estimates given when required. Are prepared for coating all size of pipes with a composition of 
Coal Tar and Asphaltum. • 

Office and Manufactory, 130 BBALB STREET, San Francisco, Cal. 



Coffee and Spices Have no Superior. 

Twenty-Five Years Experience 


Ask Your Grocer for Marden's Coffee and Spices. 

Stock Notices. 


Breeder and Importer of the "Crown Prince," 
"Sambo," and "Bob Lee" families of Berkshires. 
Also, pure Suffolk hogs and pigs. Short Horn and 
Jersey, or Alderney cattle. Merino and Cotswold 
sheep. Prices always reasonable. All animals sold are 
guaranteed as represented and jjcdigi'eed. 
PETER SAXE, Russ House, San Francisco, 
and Los Angeles City, Cal. 

[TUITRV n&Y Is warranted usii g JILZ 
M>^J C»uni I WELL AUGERS and 

DRILLS. Took the first premium at the Great Exposi- 
tion. They bore any diameter and dej)th; 100 feet a day, 
through earth, sand or rnck. Pictorial auger book free. 
Address Col. I'ETER SAXE, Los Angeles, Cal., Agent for 
Pacific States. 



200 Extra Rams 

For sale. Yearlings and two-year- 
olds. In size, quality and condi tion 
unsurpassed. Also, 100 ewes at 
prices to suit the limes. The nu- 
cleus of this flock was from a pur- 
chase made from Severance & 

Peet in 1873. My ranch is at Haywards, Alame<la county, 
and may be reached by rail from San Francisco, seven 
times daily. Parties desiring choice sheep should see 
this flock before purchasinu elsew here. 



I have a few fine Lancastershire pigs for sale, now 
about four weeks' old. Bred from choice^ imported 
stock. Addre 

Eighth Street, near Broadway, Oakland 


Employment Agents, 

Nos. 623 & 625 CLAY STREET. 
The Pioneer Office of San Fr.mcisco, Estnblished in 1857 

A personal e.vpericnce of over ten ycai>-, and an ex- 
tended acquaintance with the wants of employers and em- 
ployees of the Pacific Coast, give us facilities not easily 
acquired for meeting the requirements of the public in 
every department of labor. Special attention given to 
procuring/rtnn help of every kind, both male and female; 
experienced men for f;i.rm machines; Milkjien, Butter 
AND Cmf.esemex, Millmen, Blacksmiths, Carpknters, 
Wheelwrights, Quarrvsien, SiiEErHERDERS, Orciiardists 
and Gardeners. 

We take special pains also to furnish the best of Scan- 
dinavian, German, Frencu and Irish Do.viestics. Gen- 
tlemen connected with the office, and speaking these lan- 
guages, give us extended acqunintance with this class of 
help, and enable us to furnish the best to be had in 
San Francisco at rcn/ s/mri 7(0(icf?. All orrf»cs promptly 
attended, free nf coat to the eini'loycr. Address by letter 
or in person, 

CROSETT & CO., 623 and 625 Clay St. 


valuiil>l<Mo A^VV I»a-:R«1»?if oontoiiiplat- 
fing; tSB<' inii*<*SiaNe of ixity arti<*l<' for I*<^r- 
rioiial. Family o"' Ak:"''*'"^'""'^*! w«*'. We 
liavo clone a largje Ira*!** t\\v V*^**^ season 
in tlie remote part** of the 'Territorien, 
anU Iiave, witli few exceptions, execed- 
e<l t!se expectations of ttie jpiircluiser, 
many claiming; to have macie a saving 


to sen<l t'oi- our 
C'atalas:u<>. It 
contains \i rices 
and description 
of iiioKt every 
article in areii* 
we.anrt in 

We mail tlic 

c'ATAi>«KJinl:s TO AXY ai>ii»kV;ss, 

ot Ht »o «0 per c< 

our g^ooilH to nil inaiikiiiU at ivIioICHale 
pi'iccK ill quaiititiew fo Migit. Kei>reiice, 
First Xatioiiai Bank. <:iiicag;o. 


Original Orange »4upply House, 
«37 & 1fA9 Wabash Ave., Clilcago, lU. 

Commission Merchants, 


All Kinds of Country Produce. 
404 & 406 Davis Street, San Francisco. 

IST Consisfuments Solicited ISJl 

c7 & F. NAUMAlNTsTca 
Wholesale Commission Merchdits, 


Farm and Dairy Produce Sold on Coromie- 
sion. Butter, Eggs, Poultry and 
Game a Specialty. 
231 WASHINGTON STREET, San Francisco 

(Between Front .and Davis.) 
Chas. Nauman. Frank Nauman. 


No. 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce. 

Rf.firbnck.— Tradesmen's National BanK, N. Y. ; Ell 
wauger 6l Barry, Rochester, N. Y.; C. W. Reed; Sacra 
mento, Cal. ; A. Lusk & Co. , San Francisco, CaL 



[July 6, 1578. 

The Resources and History of Shasta 
County— No. 3. 


This is a comparatively new town, 12 miles 
south of Reading, on the railroad. It has a 
location about three-quarters of a mile from the 
river, ami second only to Reading in point of 
beauty. The largest body of tiue farming land 
in the county lies near this town, below it, <m 
the river, so that as the land is settled up the 
town must grow considerably. Quite a ship- 
ping and freight business is done from this 
place. One of the two stores in the place does 
a business of about ^80,000 per annum. There 
is one hotel and will soon be another. Its citi- 
zens are hopeful that a change of route by the 
railroad company, or the construction of a nar- 
row-gauge road to Millville, may make Ander- 
son the leading town, it being most central in 
the farming interests. 


Is a lovely little mining town, some 12 miles 
west of Anderson. The immense gravel mines 
of Alvinza Hayward, which have cost over half 
a million, are situated here. A number of 
beautiful ranches lie near it and little orchards 
and alfalfa patches predominate. Water can 
be bought from the mining ditch at a low rate. 
Much mining on a small scale is done. There 
is some black-oak government land in this 
section, which is well worth taking up. 

Has for a long time been the farming region of 
the county. It is some 14 miles east of Read- 
ing, at the base of the Sierras, .and near a num- 
ber of charming streams. A glance at the map 
will show that this is a well-watered region. 
The Mdlville country is full of interest. The 
town site is pleasant and there are numerous 
little farms up all the creeks. The town has a 
stone church and school-house, a newspaper, 
the Record, thriving stores, hotels, etc. 

The early history of the town is full of inter- 
est. Saw-mills were built in the mountains, 
and men began raising hay and potatoes at a 
very early date. Various Indian troubles fol- 
lowed, the great Oregon trail of the tribes 
being a few miles east. Gradually settlers 
came in, taking up the rich bottom lands. 
Millville is now a healthy and hopeful town, 
with the best kind of people to help her along. 

In the Northern Part 
Of the county are several fertile valleys — Burney 
valley. Big valley, etc. ; also the famous Fall 
river, where enough water-power to turn all the 
mills of Lowell goes to waste. 

Leading Interests— Mining. 

Of course the mines come hrst. Shasta has 
had her full share in the gold production, and 
only the surface has as yet been touched. 
Quartz mining is coming to the front of late 
years, but fully one-tliird of the whole area of 
Shasta abounds in hue gold, more or less 
abundant, and a great many persons make 
wages, and often better, by working on small 
claims through the winter. 

The writer has personal knowledge of places 
where from %'i to $8 can be safely counted on. 
Silver mines are comparatively new, but promise 
to become a leading industry. The After- 
thought, owned mainly by A. J. Loomis, the 
mines at Copper City, Peck's mine and a mine 
near Igo, show ore of the very best quality. 
Capital has taken hold and erected mills, which 
will begin work soon. The ore body at Copper 
City is immense, and, although by early pro- 
cesses refractory, yet there is every reason to 
believe that the present " leaching " system is 
a success. 

The Extra mining company, at Copper City, 
are busy grading and laying the foundation of 
their mill, the location of which is very advan- 

The Winthrop mining company will also put 
up a mill this summer, and no doubt arrange- 
ments will be made by other companies to put 
up mills soon. The cause for all this business 
and expenditure of money is apparent to per- 
sons who^ visit these mines. From the pros- 
pecting already done and the developments 
made, we are justitied in saying that Killinger 
hill is uearly a solid body of silver ore, which 
assays, so far as it has been practically tested, 
an average of $140 to the ton, about 8% of which 
is gold. 

Shasta has mines of marble, coal, copper, 
quicksilver and indications of almost every 
other valuable mineral. Most of the prospect- 
ing has been done with a view to the precious 
metils only, so there is a vast field in other 
directions. The mining region of Shasta covers 
the western third maiuly. There is a prosper- 
ous camp of placer miners at Buckeye, a few 
miles north of Reading. A portion .of the 
lieading grant, and that which is offered for 
sale at the lowest rates, is valuable gravel for 
))ro3pective hyilraulic mining. 

The lumber interests of Shasta are large. No 
other county contains so much virgin forest of 
sugar and yellow pine. The entire eastern 
thml is densely timbered mountains, full of clear 
streams, healthy, and, when cleared, fertile. 
The Sierra Flume Company, working north 
from Tehama, has got hold of large tracts, but 
thousands of acres are as yet uiisurveyed, un- 
claimed and unsettled. These Sierra mountain 
laniis, when cleared, produce the best of hay, 
grain, potatoes and fruits. 

THES mthern express from Philadelphia was 
thrown from the track near Claymout, Del., 
on the first inst., and the engineer and fire- 
man were killed. 

Friendlander's Grain Circular. 

Mr. I. Friedlander hsis issued his Annual 
Grain Circular, dated San Francisco, June 30, 
1878. After reviewing the wheat market for 
the past year, the Circular says: 

The only other noticeable features of the 
wheat market during the year were the ship- 
ment of a few cargoes of wheat and flour to the 
west coast of South America, and a few to the 
Cape of Good Hope; but these were ventures 
on the part of merchants there, and it is ques- 
tionable whether any of them left much profit. 
A great deal of dissatisfaction has arisen among 
our merchants during the year, caused by the 
unusual number of arbitrations called for on 
California cargoes arriving out, and the singular 
unanimity with which allowances have been 
made against shippers. During past j'ears it 
has not been unusual to ask reclamation against 
quality, but it never before reached the point 
it did last season, when in some cases notice 
was given absolutely before the hatches had 
been removed. Our exporters have been so 
annoyed by this system that they have been 
forced to take steps to protect themselves, and 
it is to be hoped that they will prove effective. 
The Oregon crop of 1876- 7 was better than an 
average one as far as yield was concerned, but 
the quality was hardly up to that of previous 
years. Low steamer freights, brought about by 
opposition, resulted in large shipments to this 
port, but in addition, seventy-two vessels 
cleared from the Columbia river for European 
and other ports, bearing away about 150,000 
tons of wheat. The new crop will be reaped iu 
August, and promises to be a good one in every 
respect, although of late some complaints have 
been heard of unseasonablj' hot weather. 

We now hand you our usual statistical tables 
of receipts and exports, running through a 
series of years, as also detailed tables of ex- 
ports, showing the various points with which 
we did business during the cereal year just 

Receipts of Grain and Flour (California Pro- 
duce Only) at the Port of San Francisco. 

Wheat. Barley. Oats. Flour 

Year Endin;;. ctls. clla. ctls. bbls. 

July l3t, 1SU2 1,451,4«5 612,014 343,808 lll,2ti« 

.luly 1st, 18IS3 1,8M0,777 435,1)45 172,8iHJ 14tf,825 

July Ist, 18tf4 1,843,840 623 266 304,504 •M.tJi 

July 1st, 1H65 609,163 415,044 2.53,S39 61,670 

July Ist, 1366 2,142,212 998,724 .•!2u,769 16«,»43 

Jlllv Ist, 1867 5,218,536 7.0,664 327,954 300,397 

July 1st, 1868 5,041,194 702,105 337,177 206,176 

July ist, 1869 <i,341,383 626,855 284,399 207,980 

Jufv Ist. 1870 6,565,066 7.55,361 317,920 171,108 

July Ist, 1871 4,780,253 760.956 317,.506 120,913 

July 1st. 1872 2,395,008 794,093 384.085 146,749 

July 1st, 1873 11,148,500 1,095,309 237,4,50 228,990 

July let, 1874 8,073,291 1,211,062 252,516 470,631 

July 1st, 1875 9 837,660 1,266,808 284,707 448,419 

July lat, 1876 6,6.53.728 1,175,270 237,099 473,568 

July, 1877 11,155,601 1,530,320 233,679 515,014 

July Ist, 1878 4,883,297 835,827 128,599 379,456 

In addition to the above, we have received 
from Oregon, 558,995 centals of wheat, 7,766 do 
of barley, 179,946 do of oats and 97,070 bbls of 
flour. Our total receipts, therefore, foot up: 
4,942,292 centals of wheat, 843,59.{ do of bar- 
ley, 308,545 do of oats and 476,526 bbls of 

Exports of Grain and Flour f^om the Port of 
San iirancisco. 

Wheat. Barley. Oats. Flour 

Year Ending. ctls. ctls. ctls. bbls. 

June 30th, 1862 775,5.53 132,805 149,822 82,601 

June 30th, 1863 1,159,748 30,424 39,511 141,488 

June 30th, 1864 984,941 42,292 85,951 158,225 

June 30th, 1865 23,818 8,104 3,511 62,424 

June 30th, 1866 1,044,826 338,106 115,818 249,857 

June 30th, 1867 3.642,605 166,212 88,414 485,493 

June 30ih, 1868 3 773,002 3i,414 4,987 426.157 

June 30th, 1869 4,373.213 91,880 22,499 4,59,9'J3 

June 30th, 1870 4,864,590 300,621 13,868 354,106 

June 30th, 1871 3,583,124 132,095 12,508 194,763 

June 30ih, 1872. 1,404,355 16,286 11,240 292,398 

June 30th, 1873 9,835,571 226,922 5,401 264,529 

June 30th, 1874 7,289,278 599,109 26,617 674,698 

Jni\e 30th, 1875 8,833,880 702,173 67,944 625,614 

June 30th. 1876 6,113,695 426,031 5.695 503,513 

June 30th, 1877 10,627,064 554,291 3,141 507.486 

June 30th, 1878 3,942,612 85,891 11,618 442,358 

Wheat. — The first new wheat of the season 
made its appearance iu this market June 14th. 
Since then, as is usually the case, receipts have 
been very light, and we cannot expect them to 
become any way free until the middle of July. 
The important question of yield and surplus is 
a very vexed one, and it is difficult to find two 
people among judges who arrive at the same 
conclusion. The planting season was deferred 
to a very late date in consequence of absence of 
rain, and when the season really opened (Jan- 
uary 11th), the outpour was so continuous and 
lasted so long, that in many districts it was im- 
possible to get the land in tillable shape until 
it was too late to give any certainty of a crop. 
As is always the case, a large portion of the 
.State had been seeded to summer-fallowed land, 
and consequently had the benefit of all the 
rains, but such was the wonderful outpour of 
water during the months of January and Feb- 
ruary, that while many of the finest districts 
were so "washed" as to destroy a considerable 
portion of the growing grain, other large sec- 
tions were entirely overflowed by the rivers, 
and the crop utterly destroyed. Still for every 
acre destroyed or rendered unfit for cultivation, 
it is probably safe to say that five were brought 
into bearing. The outlook for the largest crop 
ever harvested in the State continued most 
favorable until within the last fortnight, when 
rust made its appearance in many sections, and 
in some has worked great injury. It is impos- 
sible, as yet, to say how much damage has been 
done, but it undoubtedly is considerable, and 
will in many districts materially curtail the 
yield. Still, taking everything into considera- 
tion, it seems probable that we will export as 
much wheat as we did from the harvest of 1876, 
which was within a trif e of 600,000 short tons. 

Sales of new crop have been made to the extent 
of say 20,000 tons to load ships now here or to 
arrive in July, at $1.70 to .f 1.65 for July de- 
livery, and $1.65 to §1.62J for August. Farm- 
ers, however, are naturally indisposed to sell, 
at least until their wheat is harvested and they 
know what they have for sale, and meantime 
with a declining market in England, and the 
prospect of another magnificent crop in the 
northwest, buyers are by no means auxious for 
wheat, and we look for a dragging market for 
several months to come, unless unfavorable 
weather in England and the Continent during 
harvest time should cause an advance there, 
and consequently higher prices here. We have, 
however, a large amount of tonnage here and on 
the way, all of which will have to be loaded 
with whe.-vt, and this will place our market, to 
a great degree, in an independent position, no 
matter how large our surplus may be, and shift 
the profit or loss on shipments on to the freight 
instead of the wheat. As regards the quality 
of the new crop it is too early to speak with 
much confidence, but the long continued rains 
of the early spring, render certain a large 
amount of foul wheat, while the rust of the lat- 
ter part is sure to pinch a great deal of good 
grain and render it unfit for shipment. Still we 
have some immense areas of perfectly clean 
wheat which will produce an atlmirable crop, 
and we have little doubt that the bulk of our 
exports will be up to the standards of former 

Barley. — The unfavorable character of the 
season of 1876-77, was manifested more partic- 
ularly in the yield of barley than in any other 
of our cereals, the districts best adapted to the 
culture of that grain having been subjected in 
an especial degree to the drouth that in that 
unfortunate season scourged our whole State. 
The crop was a very poor one in the best of 
these sections, and, in most, was an entire fail- 
ure. The business of the year was consequently 
a very poor one, and almost entirely local, our 
exports amounting to hardly a sixth of those of 
the preceding year. Our list of exports show a 
lamentable falling off' in all directions, .South 
America taking almost nothing, and Australia 
very little, while none at all was sent by rail 
to the Mississippi valley, these having been in 
previous years our great points for shipment. 
The crop now being harvested is undoubtedly 
one of the largest, if not the very largest ever 
raised in the State, and much of it will be of a 
very superior quality. Such samples as have 
reached market indicate excellent color and 
weight; but late rains are reported to have 
damaged a good deal of grain in the southern 
coast counties. New feed opened at 85 cents 
per cental, and the impression is general that 
extremely low prices will rule. It is to be 
hoped that openings will be found for our sur- 
plus, and with fair rates of freight to Australia 
(by steamer) and to Chicago and St. Louis (by 
rail) we hope to see much of the grain utilized. 
At best, however, it is difficult to see how the 
crop can prove a profitable one to producers. 

Oats. — Dealers are looking forward to a pos- 
sible trade with Australia during the coming 
three or four months, but no orders have ap- 
peared so far, and the whole business at the 
best will be insignificant. As far as we can 
learn, the growing crop promises to be better 
than an ordinary one. 

Flour. — Our exports of Flour during the past 
year show a falling off of some 60,000 bbls., 
which is not surprising when we consider the 
high prices that ruled for wheat during that 
period. The decline has been chiefly in ship- 
ments to Liverpool, to which port we sent but 
116,000 bbls., against 250,000 bbls. the year 
before. This trade has not been a very satis- 
factory one, and is not likely to assume as large 
proportions as it did in 1876 for years to come, 
the shipments l>eing made by one milling estab- 
lishment which thus seeks an outlet for its 
goods. The trade with China and Japan on the 
other hand shows a considerable increase, while 
we have made a decided gain in shipments to 
South America and have held our own in our 
trade with Mexico, Central America and the 
Islands of the Pacific. 

Farmers I Farmers 1 1 

Throughout California are requested to send 
their orders for any kind of labor to the "Free 
Labor Exchange," 33 and 35 O'Farrell Street, 
San Francisco. All hands cartj'ully selected free 
of charges to employers and employees. 

"Cash Paid Promptly." — May Bros., Gales- 
burg, III., want to hire agents for their late im- 
proved Windmills, the cheapest, strongest and 
best in use. Retail price, $50. Write for 

WooSward'a Gardens were never more attract- 
ive than at present. Besides three lions already men- 
tinned, six luunster livinjf alliiraturs, several iguana« and 
a boa-constrictor have just been added. New svars are 
constantly engaged for the Pavilion exercises. Rates of 
admission as usual. 

Popular Mi'sic— Make your Iioines merry and popular 
with choice music from Gray's Music Store, S. F. We 
c.Vn recommend this large, first-class, standard and popu 
lar establishment. Examine bis advertisement, a|>pear- 
ing from time to time in this paper. Mr. Gray deals in 
nstruraents possessing the very highest and most perma- 
nent reputation. Call at 105 Kiarny Street. The Ulral 
Press can offer to introduce you there. 

Hearing Restored. Great Invention by one who 
was deaf for 20 years. Send stamp for particulars. Vxrkv 
d! MARr£K, Luck Box 80, Madisou, Ind. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Fra.vcisco, July 2d, 1878. 

The grain circles are not a little agitated by 
the reports of rust in various parts of the State, 
and estimates of aggregate yields are being 
reduced. In our "Agricultural Notes" col- 
umns m!iy be found reports from several coun- 
ties on this subject. Wheat is slow to arrive 
and the market cannot be called open yet. 
Everything concerning ruling price is uncertain 
and liable to be greatly affected before the trade 
really begins. 

Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation for 
Wheat to the Produce Exchange during the 
days of last week has been as recorded iu the 
following table: 

Ual. Avbraok. 


lOs — @108 





9g lld@10^ 





99 lld@lOs 






9s lld'alOa 





9s lldi^lOs 






- -<3 - 

-@ - 

To-day's cable quotations to the Produce 
Exchange compare with same date in former 
years as follows: 

Average. Club. 

1876 98 lld@108 2d lOs 4d@10a 6d 

1877 129 5d(gl29 8d 128 10d@13B 2d 

1878 9s lld(£gl08 3d 10s 3d@10* 8d 

The Foreign Review. 

LoMDON, July 2d. — The Mark Lane Exprtu 
says. There is a decided change for the better 
in the appearance of growing Wheat, which is 
now in full bloom. At first sight the fields 
seem to promise large crops, but in many fields 
the ears are small. With the exception of 
Barley and Oats, appearances at present point 
to a fair average yield of cereals, but the qual- 
ity is likely to be mediocre. Insignificant sup- 
plies of Engli^h Wheat at Mark Lane and pro- 
vincial markets indicate a rapid depletion of 
stocks in farmers' hands and that little or noth- 
ing will be left over at harvest time. Imports 
of foreign Wheat into London have been more 
moderate of late, but supplies go into the gran- 
ary rather than into consumption. Small lots 
of white Wheat have been taken off' the stands 
for continental account, principally for Belgium 
and north of France, where the crops are unsat- 
isfactory and prices several shillings higher 
than in London, but no further sales of cargoes 
off coast have taken place. Maize has not 
undergone much change on spot, but new mixed 
American to arrive was offered at 22s 6d per 
quarter, ex ship, a price hitherto unknown for 
this article. \Vith liberal arrivals at ports of 
call, the floating cargo trade for Wheat is dull 
and prices declined fully Is per quarter. Maize 
and Barley receded fully 6d per quarter. 

Freights and Charters. 

There is no present demand for tonnage, and 
rates entirely nominal at say 50@55 for Wheat 
to Liverpool July-August loading. There are 
in port engai{ed for Wheat 45,221 tons shipping, 
disengaged 51,500, loading general merchandise 
3, 178 tons; on the way to this port, ao far as 
known, 224,000 tons. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 
New York, June 29th. — The excessive heat 
of the last three days has not been conducive to 
business activity, and the markets have been 
quiet all through the week. Merchandise prices 
have ruled quite steady, but most kinds of 
produce show a further decline. This is notably 
the case with Wheat, which has fallen to the 
lowest point in a long period, No. 2 Spring hav- 
ing sold down to 97@98c, under the depressing 
influence of an overwhelming harvest and peace 
in Europe. The whole range for Wheat is 90c 
to $1.15, the latter price for handsome White 
Michigan. Samples of new Winter Wheat and 
also of new Flour from the border States have 
been received and are of excellent quality. 
Shipping Flour is down to $3.90@4. 75. Com 
is worth 40c(a45, and Oats 29c(3:.37. These low 
prices have promoted exports, the shipment) of 
the week having been quite evenly divided be- 
tween the United Kingdom and the Continent, 
rates of freight varying from Ss 6d to 6s 3d per 

Chicago, June 29th. — The closes with Wheat 
decidedly low er than last week, with Corn rather 
firmer. Oats higher, and the Provision Market 
strongly tending to old prices. Wheat, for 
July, sold at 86|c@91i. The market was 
active, unsettled and irregular, with a good 
speculating demand and a heavy downward 
pressure on certain days, reaching the lowest 
point for nearly two years. Corn was very 
steady, but ruled higher and closed firm. Sales 
of July at 35Jc(3 365f. Oats were steady and 
firm, with sales of July at 23Jc@23i. The 
grains have been growing at prodigious rates 
during the past two weeks, under the effects of 
splendid warm weather, and it is estimated that 
it is worth $4,500,000 per day to the North- 
west to have it continue. Farmers, even, are 
satisfied with the prospects. Kye, for cash, 
sold at 49c@52, closing at the inside. Barley, 
under the influence of a large "short" interest 
which has begun to buy, advanced from 48c to 
49c. Provisions were in only fair demand, but 
prices were unstable, with tendencies to hop 
up. Pork, for July, sold at «9.07i@9.50. 
Lard, for July, $6.80@6.97i. The closing cash 
prices are: Wheat, 82ic@89; Com, 36c{ 0*U, 

July 6, 1878.] 




24cj Rye, 49c; Barl«y, 49c; Pork, $9.30; Lard, 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, June 29th. — The market, 
though not showing increased activity, presents 
a much firmer appearance, which is due to the 
extreme rates paid in the country, and not to 
any improvement in the goods market. The 
latest advices state that the excitement has in a 
measure subsided, and although farmers are ap- 
parently firm in their demands, buyers are hold- 
ing back for a lower range. Considerable new 
Wool has been received from States other than 
Ohio, but buyers manifest no disposition to pur- 
chase liberally, being unwilling to stock their 
mills with material that will not be needed for 
perhaps some months to come. The following 
cable has been received from the London sales: 
"The competition was exceedingly spirited, 
with considerable excitement current. Average 
Port Phillip, 13d; Bradford, strong. Sales for 
the week include 150 bales Cordova, at 17c, 
gold: 45,000 lbs Spring California, 22i@25c; 10,- 
000 lb-) slightly burry do, 20c; 10,001) tbi Color- 
ado, 16c; 55,000 lbs Western Texas, 15@17c; 70,- 
500 lbs Spring do, 18@24ic; 30 bags Domestic 
Noils, 40c; 15,000 lbs X (and above) Ohio, 35c. 

Boston, June 29th. — There was a fair busi- 
ness done the past week, the total sales com- 
prising 1,296,000 pounds. The comparatively 
high prices of new Wool in the Western States 
have led to a firmer feeling for desirable lots of 
old, and holders are now quite indifferent about 
selling, as they feel that their Wool cannot be 
replaced at present rates; but while buyers are 
rather more free purchasers at previous prices, 
they are not disposed to pay any advance. 
Good average lines of XXXX Ohio and Pennsyl- 
vania fleeces could be sold quite freely at 35@ 
66, and Michigan and Wisconsin at 33@35, but 
any advances on these prices would put a stop 
to business. Combing and delaine fleeces are 
in better demand than for some time past, and 
manufacturers are now ready to purchase. 
Sales for the week include Ohio fleeces No. 1, 
X and XX, at 35@38; Michigan fleeces, S'i^fo) 
36; delaine and combing, 37i@45; unwashed do, 
23@31; Texas, 20@29; unwashed fleeces, 20(5)20; 
scoured, 45@70; super and X pulled, 2.5@:43.);. 
Transactions in California VVool footed up A(>3,- 
000 pounds Spring and F.iU, at 29(3;.30 for 
Spring, and 17i@20 for Fall, the latter mostly 
at 18. 

Domestic Produce. 

The following table shows the S. F. receipts 
of Domestic Produce for the week ending at 
noon to-day, as compared with the receipts of 
previous weeks: 






June 12. 

June 19. 

June 26. 

July 2. 

Flour, quarter sacks . . 





Wheat, centals 









Beans, wcka 

















Onions, sacks 
















BAGS— To-day grain Bags are a fraction lower 
than last week. Dealers say that various mo- 
tions are in progress, and both "bulls and bears" 
are at work in the trade. Some change will 
doubtless occur soon, but the wise do not know 
whether the price will go up or down. 

BARLEY — There is no change in Barley. 
New Barley is arriving but sales are not large. 
A cargo of new is reported sold at 90j: 1,160 
do fair old Feed at 92Jc, and 250 do old Brew- 
ing, weavilly, at f 1.05c; 1,000 ctls fair new 
sold at 87ic, and 1,000 old ordinary Brewing at 
$1,074 ^ ctl. 

BEANS — Small lots are still arriving and 
selling at last week's prices. 

BUCKWHEAT— The ruling price is still 
$1.50 ^ ctl, but a lot of 100 sks is reported sold 
at $1 65. 

CORN — Corn from the prairie States con- 
tinues to arrive and goes to meet the Mexican 
demand. Four car loads from Omaha sold for 
Mexico at .S1.92J ^ ctl; 100 sks large yellow 
California brought $2.02Jt |j? ctl. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— Butter is unchanged 
either in supply or price. Receipts are fairly 
taken at the low prices. Cheese is unchanged. 

EGGS — E^gs are a shade weaker. There has 
been a small lot of eggs brought in from Omaha 
on a passenger train, which sold at 224c. @24c. 
^ doz. 

FEED — An advance of $1 per ton is made on 
bran by the millers. Hay sells within former 
range, most receipts being only of medium 
quality. We note Hay sales: Cargo fair wild 
Oat at $9.75; 20 tons Stock at $7; 8 tons do at 
$8; cargo of wild Oat at $10.50, and a mixed 
cargo at $11; cargo of choice wild Oats sold at 

FRESH MEAT— Fresh Meats of all descrip- 
tions are low and the supply abundant. We 
note a reduction in prices of mutton and un- 
dressed pork. 

FRUIT — Fruit is coming in freely, and prices 
reach mid-summer cheapness. Our price list 
below shows particulars in this direction. 

HOPS — There is no change in Hops. The 
amount here is small and some will doubtless 
be held to work in with the new crop. Better 
prices may be expected in the future, for, unless 
the advance comes before harvest, there will be 
a disposition against harvesting some fields, and 
thus the supply will be decreased and future 
values enhanced. Emmet Wells reports the 
New York market for the week ending June 
21at, as follows: "Crop reports on the whole 

are somewhat more favorable this week, the 
warm weather coming just in time to give the 
vine a fresh start; though it must be admitted 
that the damage it has sustained throughout 
the great Hop districts of New York by frost 
and cold is more serious than was at first sup- 
posed, and cannot be wholly retrieved bv 
any amount of fine weather from this 
time out. Many contend that this State 
will not produce more than half as 
many Hops as last year. From Wisconsin 
conies the news that the vine is in very poor 
condition; but this is ofFiet by favorable ac- 
counts from the Pacific Co isf. The Times, pub. 
lished at Waterville, N. Y., (The great Hop- 
producing center of America,) has nothing to 
say this week, from which it is inferred that 
everything in that district is coming on all right. 
Holders here have put up the price 2 cts ^ lb 
all round, and buyers have submitted to the ad- 
vance, but the stock to choose from is very 
mixed and indifferent." 

ONIONS — The best Onions now in are Sil- 
verskins, from San Leandro, which sell for 
$1,124 to-day. Stockton's and Sacramento 
River's are .$1 ^ ctl for good. 

POTATOES — An advance is noted in new 
Early Ruse; the extreme, $2.50 ^ ctl being for 
choice lots in boxes. 

POULTRY— The hurry of harvest restricts 
the shipment of Poultry somewhat, and prices 
are a little firmer this week all round. 

PROVISIONS— The supply of Cured Meat 
products is moderate; prices are firm at quota- 
tions, and show an advancing tendency, par- 
ticularly in Bacon, which is relatively much 
lower than Hams. Moderate invoices are now 
arriving from Oregon by each steamer. 

VEGETABLES— There is a cheapening noted 
in String Beans, Peas, Cauliflower and Sum- 
mer Squash. Melons are just in; Musk Mel- 
ons selling at .'$2. 50(5)$3. 50 ^ doz. Watermel- 
ons came in to-day but we did not learn selling 

WHEAT — The market is without change and 
no large transactions are divulged. The fol- 
lowing are among the sales reported during the 
week: 1,000 sks fair new, sold at .S1.62.'s, and 
200 do at $1.60; 200 ctls at §1 52.^; 1,000 (deliv- 
ered at Oakland wharf), at $ I 60, and 5,000 (at 
Vallejo), at $1.60; 20,000 ctls good new for im- 
mediate delivery at .§1.62.^; 900 ctls old Walla 
Walla at $1,624; 750 fair new Shipping at$l.55; 
and 3,000 ctls, July delivery, as $1.65 ^ ctl. 

WOOL — Dealers report a better demand for 
good Wools, but no material change in price, 
excepting for some choice lots, which brings a 
shade higher. The highest point reported tons 
is 254 for choice Humboldt county. We note 
sales 250,000 lbs good to choice, 20@254; 50,- 
000 lbs low grade and common, 14@17 lb. 



Tuesday m., July 2, 1878. 


Bayo, ctl 5 75 @ti 00 

Butter 4 25 (c(4 50 

Pea — @4 75 

Red — (a - 

Pink 6 25 @6 .'.0 

Sm'l White — ai 75 

Lima 4 25 aH 50 

BKOO.n l'OK.\. 

Old 3iia 7 

New 411* 8 


California 4 @ 4{ 

Uerman 6i(a 7 



Cal. Kresh Roll, lb 

Western Reserve. 


Cheese, Cal., lb. ... 

N. Y. State 

Gilroy Factory 


Cal. fresh, doz 

19 @ 


24 <a 




12 <§ 



- @ 


8 @ 


10 @ 


- @ 


26 @ 


23 & 


22 @ 


16 & 


- m 

— (c(15 00 

do Pickled 


Bran, ton 

Corn Meal 42 00 iffl43 00 

Hay 7 00 ;ai4 00 

Middlings 21 00 ig522 50 

Oil Cake Meal.., 34 00 m 

Straw, bale 25 g 60 


Extra, bbl 5 25 (85 50 

Superfine 4 25 w4 37* 

Graham, lb 3J@ 3S 

Beef, Ist qual'y, lb 5i.3 6 

Second 45(3 5 

Third 3 (3 3 J 

Mutton 34^ 4i 

Spring Lamb 5 @ 6 

Pork, undressed... 5J(3 

Dressed 7i<g 7s 

Veal 6 @ 8 

Milk Calves 6 71 

Barley, feed, ctl... 80 @ 95 

Brewing 1 \.\tdi\. 20 

Chevalier 1 50 — 

Buckwheat 1 30 (« — 

Corn. White 2 10 (g2 25 

Yellow 2 00 m 05 

Small Eound....2 00 <&2 10 
Oats 1 25 «1 45 

Milling 1 55 'iil 65 

Rye 1 121^1 15 

Wheat. Shipping..! 60 val 65 

MiUing 1 70 @1 80 

Hides, dry 14 @ 15 

Wet sal ted 8i@ 91 


Beeswax, tt> 30@ 31 

Honey in comb.... 14(3 15 

do. No 2 12 J@ 14 

Dark lO @ — 

Strained 6J@ 8 


Oregon 4 @ 5 

California 4 @ 7 

Wash Ter 4 @ 6 

Walnuts. Cal 8 (* 9 

do Chile 7 (j» 8 

Almonds, hd shl lb 7 (a 8 

Soft sh'l 14 ® IS 

Brazil 14 @ 16 

Pecans 13 @ 14 

Peanuts 5 @ 6 

Filberts 15 @ 16 


Alviso — <it — 

Union City, ctl — (* — 

San Leandro 1 12j(rr — 

Stockton 1 00 (a — 

.Sacramento River. 1 00 (3 -- 

San Ped.-o 75 ca — 

Oregon — @ — 


Petaluma, ctl — @ — 

Humboldt — a — 

Cuffey Cove — @ — 

Karly Rose 2 00 vu2 50 

Half Moon Bay,..l 60 (32 00 

Kidney — (3 — 

Sweet — (3 — 

Salt Lake — (* — 


Hens, doz 7 50 (3 !1 OO 

Roosters 7 50 (a 8 00 

Broilers 2 .SO (a 5, nO 

Oucks. tame 5 01 (3 7 5i 

do, Mallard — @ 

Jeese, pair 1 25 <3 1 75 

Wild Gray. doz.. — (3 

White do — g. 

(Mrkeys 21 @ 23 

do, Dressed — (3— — 

•Inipe, Eng — — @ 

do, Common — 

flabbits 1 50 @ 

Hare 4 00 (£ii 4 50 

Cal. Bacon, Hvy, lb 11(3 lU 

Medium lU® 121 

Light 125(3 13 

Lard 11 (3 13 

Cal. Smoked Beef 10 @ lOJ 

Eastern — @ — 

Shouldei s, Cover'd 75@ 8 

Hams, Cal llj® 121 

Dupee's 15 (i? 16 

Boyd's 14 @ 15 

Davis Bros" 14i@ 151 

Noni Such 15 (3 154 

Ames ■ (3' — 

Whittaser 15 (B 15! 


Alfalfa, 5 (8 12 

Canary 6 <a 8 

Clover, Red 16 @ 18 

White 50 @ 55 

Cotton 6 @ 10 

Flaxseed SJia — 

Hemp 6 @ 

Italian Rye Grass 35 (a — 

Perennial 35 @ — 

MiUet 10 @ 12 

VInstard, White... 4 @ — 

Brown 24@ 3 

ilap^. 3 ^ 4 

Ky Blue Grass 20 (3 — 

2d finality 18 @ — 

Sweet V Grass 1 00 @ — 

Orchard 25 @ 30 

Red Top 18 @ 20 

Hungarian 8 @ 10 

Lawn 50 @ — 

Mesquit — 

Timothy 9 @ — 


Crude, lb 7S@ 8 

Refined 9»ia 10 



S Joaq'n,12mofree 17 % 19 

do 6 & 7 mo do 15 S 18 

Burry, 12 mo 13 @ 16 

do 6 mo.. 14 (3 16 

Scabby 12i(a 16 

South'n Coast, free 16 (3 lit 

do do burry 14 (3 16 

Northern, f re ■.. .. 23 1* 25 

do. seedy & burr/ 20 fuJ 22 

Nevada 18 (^i 23 

Oregon Valley.... 22 C* 24 

do. Easte.m... 17 20 



Tuesday m., July 2, 1878. 

BAGS— Jobbing. '3114 
Neville & Co's 
Hand Sewed, 22x36 . 11 (gUJ 

24x3(i -@- 

23x40 13 @131 

Machine Swd, 22x36. -(311 
Flour Sacks, halves.. . . 8J(a'101 

Quarters 55(3 6} 

Eighths 4 @ 4J 

Hessian, 60 inch 15 (3— 

45 inch 9^(310 

40 inch 9 @- 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand Sewed, 34 lb..474@50 

4 th do 624(3— 

Machine .Sewed 474(3— 

Standard Gunnies 14 (315 

Bean Bags 7(88 


Crystal Wax 17 (@- 

Eagle 12 @— 

Patent Sperm 30(g34 

Assorted Pie Fruits, 

24 lb cans 2 75 (33 00 

Table do 3 75 @4 25 

Jams and Jellies. .4 25 (3 — 

Pickles, hf gal 3 50 (3 — 

Sardines, qr boi..l 65 @1 90 

Hf Boxes 3 00 @ — 

Preserved Beef. 

2 lb. doz 4 00 @ — 

do Beef, 4 tb.doz.e 50 @ — 
Preserved Mutton, 

2 lb. doz 4 CO @ — 

Beef Tongue 6 50 @ — 

Preserved Ham. 

2 lb. doz 6 50 (3 - 

Deviled Ham, 1 lb, 

doz 5 50 @ — 

do Ham, *tb doz. 3 00 (3 — 
COAL— Jobbing. 
Australian, ton.. 7 00 @ 7 25 

Coos Bay 6 50 @ 7 00 

BelUngham Bay. 6 50 @- — 

Seattle 5 50 (3 6 Se 

Cumberland 14 00 @ 

.Mt Diablo 4 75 (3 6 00 

Lehigh 22 00 (3 

Liverpool 7 00 (3 8 00 

West Hartley. . . 7 50 @ 9 00 

.Scotch 6 50 @ 8 00 

Scranton 13 00 (316 00 

Vancouver Id . . . 7 50 @ 

Charcoal, sack... 75 @ 

Coke, bbl 60 (3 


Sandwich Id. lb. 214@ 

Costa Rica 18 (3 181 

Guatemala. 17 @ 181 

.lava 221® 23 

Manila 174 3 

Ground, in cs. . . 25 @— — 

Sac'to Dry Cod.. 5 (9 51 
do ill cases. . 61@ 7 

Eastern Cod 7ia— 7 J 

Salmon, bbls.... 9 00 (310 00 

Hf bbls 5 00 (g 5 50 

1 !b cans 1 25 (31 30 

Pkld Cod. bbls. .22 00 (3 

Hf bbls 11 00 @ 

Mackerel, No. 1. 

Hf Bbls 9 50 @10 51 

In Kits 1 85 (3 2 10 

Ex Mess 3 25 (3 

Pkld Herring, bx 3 00 (3 3 50 

Boston Smkd Hg 70(3 

LI HE, Etc. 

Lime, Sta Cruz, 
bbl 2 00 @ 2 25 

Cement, Rosen- 
dale 2 75 (g 3 50 

Portland 4 75 (3 5 50 

* 3 25 
|12 50 


|1 30 

Plaster, Golden 

Gate Mills.... 3 00 
Land Plaster, tn 10 00 

Ass'ted sizes, keg 3 25 (g 4 00 

Pacific Glue Co's 

Neatsfoot, No 1.1 00 
Castor. No 1 1 10 

do. No. 2 1 05 

Baker's A A 1 25 

OUve, Plagnlol....5 25 @5 75 

Possel 4 75 (35 25 

Palm, lb 9 (cp - 

Linseed, Raw, bbl. 72 (g — 

Boiled 75 ® - 

Cocoanut 5.t @ — 

China nut, cs 821(3 — 

Sperm 1 4iJ (3 

Coast Whales 40 @ — 

Polar, retined 45 @ — 

Lard 90 §1 00 

Oleophine '6 (3 27 

Devoe s Bril't 26 (S 28 

PhotoUte 29 

Nonpariel 35 ^ 



Eureka 40 @ 

Barrel kerosene. . . 20(3 

Downer Ker 40 ^ 

Elaine 424® 

Pure White Lead. 95@ 

Whiting l|(3 

Putty 4 ca 5 

Chalk 11® - 

Paris White 2!@ — 

Ochre 31(3 - 

Venetian Red 34@ - 

Averill Mixed 
Paint, gal. 

White & tints. . .2 00 (gi2 40 
Green, Blue & 

Ch Yellow 3 00 @3 50 

Light Red 3 00 (33 50 

MetalUc Roof. ..1 30 (gl 60 
"hina Mixed, tt). .. 6J@ — 

Hawaiian 7 (g — 

Cal. Bay, ton.... 15* 00 (»22 50 

Common 10 00 (Sl2 00 

Carmen Id 13 00 «?22 60 

Liverpool fine. . .20 00 (322 50 

Castile, lb 10 @ 101 

Common brands. . 41(3 6 

Fancy brands 7 (g 8 


Cloves, lb 45 @ 50 

Cassia 224(3 25 

Nutmegs 85 (3 90 

Pepper Grain 15 @ 17 

Pimento 15 (3 16 

.Mustard. Cal., 

4 tt. glass 1 50 @ — 


Cal. Cube, tt) \\\® - 

I'owdered lii® — 

Pine crushed lU® — 

.j^ranulated 11 ® — 

Golden C 91® — 

Cal. Syrup kgs... 70 @ — 
Hawaiian Mol'sses 26 @ 30 

Young Hyson, 

Moyune, etc 35 @ 

Country pckd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 50 @ 

Hyson 30 ® 

Fooo-Chow 53 @ 

Japan, 1st quality 40 


2d quality 25 @ 35 



TUESIJAY M.. July 2, 1878. 


Apples, basket . . — 30 @— 

do, box I 00 @ 1 

Apricots, lb — 3 @— 

Hauauas, bncb.. 1 00 ® 3 
Blackberries, Hi.- 9 (3- 
Cocoanuts. 100.. 5 00 ® 6 

Cherries, lb — 174(3— 

Cherry Plums. . . — 4 (3 — 
Currants, chest. 5 00 @ 6 

Figs, lb - 8 @— 

Gooseberries, lb. 6 (3 

Limes. Mex 10 00 @12 

do, Cal, per M @ - 

Lemons. Cal M.15 00 ®20 

Sicily, bx 9 00 ®10 

Mangoes. ^^100. . 3 00 (3 4 
Oranges, Mex, 

M 22 00 a25 

Tahiti 10 00 @20 

Cal ®— 

Peaches, box — 75 ® 1 

do. basket. — 40 ®— 

Pears, box — 75 ® I 

Pineapples, doz. 4 00 ® 6 

Plums, box 1 00 @ 1 

Raspberries — 8 ®— 

St'wberries. ch'st 4 00 ® 5 

Apples, tt> 54@ 

Apricots 10 @ 

Citron 23 @ 

Dates 9 @ 

Figs, Black. 

4 O 



6 @ 


8 (S 


4 ® 


3 (3 





14 (« 


Raisins. Cal, bx 


00 @ 1 66 

do. Halves. .. 


60 @ 2 00 

do. Quarters. 


50 ® 2 50 



75 ®- 


75 ® 3 00 

/{ante Currants.. 

8 (a 


1 00 


Asparagus, box.. 75 <l 

fieets, ctl 1 00 (§ 

Beans, String... 2 ® 3 

(.'abbage. 100 It.s Sr. @ 

Canteliiupes.doz 2 60 «» 3 60 

Carrots, ctl 631 ® 75 

.'aulifiower. doz 50 @ 75 

Cucumbers, bx. .— 50 ® 

Garlic, New. tt>. . \\<^ 2 

Green Peas li@ 11 

Lettuce, doz 10 (a 

Parsnips, lb 2 @ — — 

Horsera<lish 7 ® — 8 

tihubarb 1 @ 

■iquash, MarrovF 

fat, tn 18 00 @ 

Summer do, bx.. 25® 40 
Tomato, 30 Itis bx- 30 @— 40 

White . 


1 60 ( 
50 (3 

Presentation to Lord Beacons 

A number of British residents in California, desirous 
of evincing their hearty appreciation of the policy pur- 
sued by the Earl of Beaconsfleld with regard to British 
and European interests in the Eastern question, have re- 
solved to present his lordship with a testimonial as a 
mark of their esteem and confidence. . It has therefore 
been proposi d to purchase a SILVER BRICK mounted 
in California woods, as the most appropriate and charac. 
teristic form for such a token coming from California. 
But the nature of tt e testimonial to be determined at a 
meeting and by a majority of the subscribers. 

ALEX. FORBES, Pres't. 
W. G. HARRISON, Vice-Prcs't, 
T. V. WALTER, Hon. Treas. 
WM. PATON, Hon. Sec'y. 
Subscriptions may be sent to T. V. WALTER, care of 
Bank of British North America, the Bankers for the fund. 
San Francisco, July 18, 1878. 

Is reference to the essential iron work in the Steinway 
piano, the jury noted 'U iheir report, "highest jierfection 
of finish in workmanship, the greatest firmness and 
sounding quality," a strength exceeding 5,000 pounds to 
the square centimeter, an unequaled degree of resis- 
tance to the pull of the strings, etc. 



List of U. S. Patents bsued to Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

(From Official Repohts yoa thb Minino and Scientific 
Press, DEWEY & CO., Publishers and U. S. 
AND Foreign Patent Aoents.] 

By Special Dispatch from Washinfrton, D. C. 

Week Fndixo June 18th. 

Trace and Pad Buckles — George E. Bales, Seattle, 

Washington Ter. 
Book Holders.- James D. Brown, Suiain City, Cal. 
Trusses. — Duncan Deverun and Herman Lackmann, S. F. 
Wardrobes. — Michael Doyle, S. F. 
Vineyard Plows —Milton Ross, San Jose, Cal. 
Seed Sowers.— William A. Horrall and Joseph J. Verck- 

ler, Chico, Cal. 
Ammonia or Ether Machines.— Eugene Moreau and Jas. 

W. Haggerty, S. F. 

Carbonate of Soda.— Charles R. Burrage, S. F. 
Cream ofTartar.— Charles R. Burrage, S. F. 
Medicinal CoMPocND, — Charles R. Burrage, S. F. 
LOAL Oil — John E. Miles, S. F. 

Vertical Feed Victorious. 


Sewing Machine! 

The result of an immense outlay of money and years of 
labor and experiments by the best mechanics to be found. 

Composed of but twelve working parts 

(others require from thirty to forty | arts), each part of 
direct action, reducing friction to a minimum Si.mplicity, 
Strength, Durability, Ease ok Operation, Great Range 
OF WORK Co.mbined, Constituting the only Perfect, Com- 
of the earth. The New 

Lock-Stitcn Sewing Machine. 

Lightest running Shuttle Machine in the world. 


.Which is as far in advance of the old feed used on all 
other machines as steam is ahead of horse-[iower, and 
is the exclusive property of this company , is the 


In all De2>artttietits of Setfing, that we make the 
f(jlluwing offer; 


Will be given to any person (sewing machine experts 
included) who will, with any other sewing machine, fol- 
low the "DAVIS VERTICAL FEED" through its vast 
range of practical work. 

All lovers of progressive science and mechanical perfec- 
lion should see it, and every lady in the land should ex- 
amine and try the "DAVIS VERTICAL FEED" be'ore 
deciding to purchase an inferior machine, or a tingle- 
thread plaything without a tension. 

iC^ It is impossible tn make a strong, elastic, or lock- 
stitch with any but a shuttle machine. 

We are seUing- WHEELER & WILSON, GRO- 
Mactimes for $10 Each. 

For descriptive circulars, price lists, samples of work 
and terms, apply at the office of the 


130 Post Street, San Francisco, Cal 


^^Underfeed Machines taken in exchange as part pay- 
ment. Our prices are very low for cash. Branch Office, 
1208 Broadway, Oakland, Cal. 



TVe are now offering for sale, at $10 EACH, the fol- 

owinK machines: 





Guaranteed to be in Perfect Order, 

And many of them NEW. 

.Parties in the country can have them packed and ship- 
ped free of any extra charge. Address 

WILCOX & GIBBS Sewing Machine Co., 


JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 

Mr. W. J. WooDLEY, who took out a Canadian Patent 
some four years ago, is requested to call at the J)iNi.\a 
AND SciBNTiFic Pbbss Patknt Aoenct OFFICE. Busiuess 
of importance. 




[July 6, 1878. 

Agricultural Articles. 


Ttius. PowcIU Klec- 
tric Klevator is tho 
most speedy stacker 
, in thc'w.irlil, Moii- 
i ey, time ami labor 
i s ivtil by the use of 
i this maclitm;. on)y 
I one iiiiiiutt' re<inir- 
: ed to unload the 
: largest header wag- 
on. The tntire loud 
is taken up in a 
center 'opening net with a portable derrick The load is 
raised by horse power, by the use of this machine, high and 
large stacks can be built of hay. straw and grain uitht ut 
hard labor or wasting cf grain. The time occupied unloading 
is so short that one derrick w ith nets will .«!tack for one, twy 
or three headers. The succe.sM of tliis machine is will estub- 
lishcd from the great Sill and trstiinoniaU of th" last two 
seasons. Farm rs or those wishing trt purcha-'e should m>t 
hold back, but send iu tii-^ir orders early to b_- sure of secur- 
ing a rig bt^fore the rush in Iiarvest time. Orders for uia- 
chioti or price list circular, address, 

TH(»H, rOWKLU Patentee. 

Or H. C. SHAW Plow Co., ,aT(Kh.i<JN. Lai,. 

The Famous Enterprise 

Self Regulating 


Pumps & Fixtures 

These Mills and Pumps are 
relialde and always <rive sat- 
isfaction. Simi»Ie, stronjf and 
durable in all parts. Solid 
wrought iron crank shaft with 
double hoariiujK for the crank 
to work in, all turned and 
run in babbitted boxes,. 

Poaitiveh/ n'-lf rffftdafinff, 
with no coilsprintrors{irin;;s 
of any kind. No little roiis. 
joints, levers or balls to ijet 
out of oruer, as suuh thin^^'s 
do. MilU in usf* six to nine yeara u, 
have never cost one cent f<ir repairs. 

All sizes of Pumpinfj and Power Mill**. Tiiousands in 
use. AH warranted. Address for circulars and infftr- 



ALAMEDA CO.. CAI,. Alw. Itet Feed Mills for sale. 
Saa Francisco Agency, LINPORTH, BICE 
<K CO., 401 Market Street. 

uw, that 


Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match 
in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow i» thorouj^hly marie by practical men who 
have been lorifj in the business and know what is required 
n the construction of Gani^ Plows. It is quickly adjusted. 
Salficient play is given so tliat the tongue will pass over 
cradle knolls without changing the working position of the 
shares. It is so constructed that the wheels themselves 
govern the action :,i , he Plow correctly. It hits \Mriou8 
IKiints of suiwriority, and can be relied upun as the best 
and most desirable Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular t^i 


Akt Piiotoukai'IIKk having a large Cimura Box for 
sale will please notify "'S. S.," at this office. 

Adjustable Grain Lifter for Headers. 

All farmers who wish to save grain without waste in 
cutting'. '*l»ouId examine theiiie. Tliey can he run at any 
inclitiation to the ffround, as neen at D in cut. Are light, 
strong' and liurable, and can be adjusted in 15 minutes, or 
removed in five when not required, by drawing bolt in 
matlcablc shank H. Set of 8 (or 10-foot header, (in put- 
tiuK' on which bore witii i-inch bit for la^ screws) are the 
cheapest and {five the satisfaction of any in use. 
Parties can save additional the cost of a set in one day's 
cuttiiii;, where jirrain i.s hHi;;ed or trinkles down. Price. 
S*0. Also, Grain Belts. Header Sticks, etc. Manufactured 

y Francisco and Sacramento, Sole Aj^ents. Pacific Coast 



Centennial & Eagle Hay Presses, 



Are the best made, combining Str..iigth, Durability, 
and C'ompactueas. Send for Circular. Post 
Otiice Box, 1122. Also, for sale by 

David N. Hawley, 201 & 203 Market St., 

Cor. of Main, San Francisco 

Peerless Corn Sheller. 

It is bt) cheap (cost- 
ing only $0), that al- 
most any tnie can af- 
ford to buy one. It is 
BO rapid, it will shell 
almost as fast as a S40 
machine, and seven or 
eight bushels |)er hour 
is not above its capac. 
ity. It weighs only 13 
pounds and is simple 
and durable. K<ir par- 
ticulars, address 


17 New Montgom- 
ery St. , S. 1". 

Blowers' Patent Fruit Drier, 

I'rospcctive View, Showinjf Draft Chimney, I'urnacc 
and Drying Rooms. 

Traiis\ erse Section Showing Heatinc and Drying Cham- 
bers and Currents of Heated Air. 
The Only Successful Fruit Drier in the World. 

Profess(.r I). M. Mell.ird, invcntur of the celebnucd 
Mefford process of dryini; Iruit and vegetables witbonl 
loss of CI ilor or flavor, says of the Blowers' Drier: "Yonr 
Drier is really Ihe only Fruit Drier in the world, and com- 
pared with which every drier I have seen (and I have 
seen them all,) is really wurthless for successful faet4>ry 
work. If fruit driers wish to make a success of their 
work thi!V must use vour house. '--D. M. Mkkkukii, To- 
ledo, Ohio, .March 2d,' 1x78. 

Fur deseriptive circulars, address 

R. B. BLOWERS, Woodland. Cal. 


(.\ Preparatory- School u^ the I'niversity.) 

A Pirst-Class Boarding" School, 

KsjtabUshed in the interests of htjfher education, and in 
opiHmition to the crammin<r s' stem of small coIIe;fes and 
niiliiar\ academies of the State. Tlie next 

Term Will Commence July Twenty- Fourth. 


July Twenty-Second and Twenty-Third. 

By re(iuest, instructions have been provided during 
the summer bionths for students preparing for the .4u- 
•rust examinations at the University. For catalogues or 
particulars, address 


Berkeley, Cal. 

.NoiK \Vc desire to call special attention to the or- 
'.■anization of our Grammar Department, seiiarate from 
the Academical, and solicit the patronage of. parents and 
i;uardians of small l)ov8 



iK'l liHihf.l p .It (^-Iltl•tlri^ll Exiiosllion for 
Hue chrrinq Qrihliex nn<t eri-i-Vfnrr. mid ladling cliiir- 
aclrr nf meef ■i-iij wi'l finvnr:,f/. TIio hfft toliaoco 
ever midf. At onr hl'i»> strin t^Bde-innrlc Is r)o>ely 
Imilatoil o-i Inferl'.r ffooils. fee that Jnrkttf'e ItrtI is 
on everr pliic Sold hT nil rteaLTi-. Semi for sample, 
free, to C. A. Jacksos 4 Co., Mfrt., Petersburg, Vn. 

L. & E WERTHHEIMER, Ag'ts, San Francisco. 




We invite attt utiou to oiur large stock of 

Fruit Trees and Ornamentals, 

Of the mont approved varieties. AUo. Coffee. Cork Oak, 
Oiires, (iuava.s, Knglish and lilack ArVuIniits, Ma^iotiaa, 
Lo<iuat3. BntternutB. Small Fniil«, Kvcrgreens. Etc. We 
liave a choice stock of the Dionpyros Kaki iJapoufse Perniui- 
m'^/j.y of oiir own growing, aiiU also, (grafted stock imported 
direct fr<jm several Japan Xursericii. Address for catalo(;\ic 
and terms, 

DR. J. W. cr-ARK, No. ils Oalifoniia St., San Francisco, 
Or JAMES SHINN, Niles. Alameda Co., Cal. 


Awarded the 



U. S. Centennial Grand Medal & Dip'oma 



And the only one that proves a success in 
and the Choicest Fruit at the 
least expense. 

Driers of all sizes put up and no pay asked until ttstcd. 

GEO. A. DBITZ, Manager, 
Sacramento, Cal. 


Lamb's Family Knitting Machine. 


Tliat liiiit.s tlat or tubular work of all si/i s; 

Nanows and widens on ln»siery or tubular work; 

Kni'8 a regular righl-auglod heel, as by Iiand; 

Narrows olf the toe; 

Knits a idck or stocking complete; 

Knitjj luitteus or gloves «>f any size without seam; 

>*t)nus genuine Uibbid Scaur d work; 

KnitH the Double. Flat, or Fm cy webs; 

Knits ati ehustic Huauied-stitch Suspun<ier with hutt^m holes; 

Knits the Afghan Rtitch. Cardigan Jacket utitch, Fancy 
Ribbed stitch; the Rai[(c<l Plaid stitch, the >'ubia stitcli, 
ShtU stitch, l*ni.iuc stitcli. Tidy atitch, etc. 

It in now the standard laachine for niaiiufacturing. and the 
only family knitter that iill-s the bill. Local agents wanted. 
Send for circulars to 

J. J. PFISTER & CO.. General Agents. 

ManuiacturerB of knitted jfoods and dealer in woolen yarns. 
SI TTEK STKKET, Kooni 4ti, San Francisco. 

Ha Ha Ha 


D. D. T.-1868. 

As a home medicine it is superior to any liniuicnt ever 
invented. For Ri.vofloSK, Si'AviN, .Swkb.vky, Callois 
LuMi's. and all oi,i) ikikks, ajiply freely so as to blister, 
from three to live (lays in succession, and in four or five 
davs, if not cured, repeat aa at first. Skkacns, Stifp 
loivTS, Bri isks, Wisdoalls, and .all slight ailments, apply 
a small quantity so as not to blister. Saddle Sores, Cuts, 
.,nd all other sores where the skin is broken, mix the lin- 
iment half ami half with any kind of oil, .and apply in 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Proprietors, 


nursbr'Yman wanted. 

A practical anil i-xiiericnced nurser\ man is wanted to 
establish a nursery in a ijood location in Teliaina county. 
The ow ner of the land has the best of soil and i)lenly of 
water, one mile from the railroad station. He wants a 
srood man to put out a few acres xf cranberries, and raise 
ill kinds of ornamental and forest trees. The owner of 
the land wi.-ihes to lake an interest in the proposed nui'- 
sery and believes (food sales of trees can be made- (!ood 
men, experienced and trustworthy may address us on 
this su>>icct. 

DEWEY cfe CO. 
'202 Sansome Street, San Franc sco. 



Any printer having au Ei;clith or Quarter Medium 
Job Press for sale, will please address J. P., care of Dewe 
& Co., Si f. State condition and lowest price. 




Sweet Corn. 

Crosby's Extra Early ^ 
Marblehead Mammoth I 
StoweU'3 Evergreen i" 
Mexican Sweet, New ) 

Snutt^^l Yellow FUnt Corn. 

Longr Red Mangel Wurtzell 

Yellow Globe [ BOOt SOOd. 

White Sugar ) 



No. 317 Washington Street, San Francisco 




Growers, Importers, Wholesale tuid Retail 
Dealers in 

Comprising the Most Complet« Stock 

Prices Unusually Low. 
*„*'*Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden - 
will be sent kkek to all Customers. It contains in- 
strtictions on the culture of Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental 
lYee Seeds, Alfalfa, etc. 

419 and 421 Sansome Street. S. F. 



Continually arriving, NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
VERNAL, MKZyUITE and other Grasses. 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
SEmD; together with all kinds o FRUIT, 
and evervthing in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 


Importer and Dealer in Seeds, 
425 Washingrton Street, - San Francisco. 


Importers, Growers and Dealers in Cardcn. Field and 
Flower Seeds, I>utch RnPioua Roots, Snminer Flowerinn 
Bulbs and (Jardeti Kequisites of every description. Cat4i- 
loi^ues maile<l to all appltc-ants. Address 

B. K. BLISS SONS. 34 Barelay Street. N. Y 



1 1 


Choice iniporte<l Ilaliun t^'ueena, frnm best districts in 
Italy, ¥7 each. Tested Italian l^neen Bees, fmni se- 
lected mothers. Bek KkeI'Kkb Tk\t Book, just issued 
after being thorou^'hly rewritten atid eidarged. now fonns 
the only standard work on ajiiaculture. price, jiaper cover, 
(10 cents: niusliii. >«1.2.'>; old edition, 40 c-ents. l/uinby, 
S1.50; "Langstroth oil the Honey Bec>," *i Other works 
on apiaculture and ajrricultnre fur sale at publishers' 
prices. /Jfc-A'.c/w/v" .\fagaziin', SI .^O per annum. 
Kind's New Bellows .Smoker, ft>r subduini^: bees, by mail, 
jil.L'S. Hives and other bee-keepers' supplies for sale. 
For iMirticulars, aildrcss 

W. A. PRYAL, Oakland, Cal. 



L.\\- UK D U R E D I IUdic«llv, 
Si KK.iiiLV anil Wirnoi r l'\is '. "Dr 
Pi«rce's Pile Truss and Remedy" liiie 
instant relief in all cases. By means 
of this new appliance the Piles have 
_ ;i ciinsunt and agreeable Bup(jurt and 

ntirelil ili'iiap/'i-ai- if the Truss is worn and the Rem 
cdv applied as directcHl F.)r particulars i-.M or adilress 
ramento Street, (up sUirs), San tYancisco. 

Stale in wha aper you saw this notice. "Si 

inLnl/C Rooms are exceedinglv iiop"!'"'- The best 


NO. 218 SANSOME ST., S. F. futv 

everything; on the tables. 
iHier furnished at the low 


CENTS, from five to eight r. M. 
try the Palace 

Visitors to 8. F. should 

Agents Wanted. 

Able and reliable canvassintf agents, who wish steady 
employment and good wages fur good sen ices, are Invited 
to address this office and send references 

July 6, 1878.] 



To Threshers. 

Hold Your Bags 





Shake Them Down. 



Simple, Cheap, 

Adjustable to any 
Size [Bag. 




Or Narrow. 

Completest Device Ever Invented 
and Lasts a Lifetime. 

^^Discount to the trade. General Aifeiicy for the 
Pacific Coast, 


No. 806 Davis Street. San Francisco. 


At Gray's No. 105 Kearny Street, 

On receipt of the amount in postage stamps, any of the 
following pieces will be mailed, post-paid: 

BABY MINE, (Song) Smith, X, cts 

BABY MINE, (Schottische) Stuckenholz, 35 cts. 

EMMETT'S LULLABY, (Piano Solo). . . .Far West, 35 cts. 

LITTLE TORMENT, (Schottische) Far West, 35 cts. 

THE SNOW LIES WHITE, (Song) Harriott, 35 cts. 

ALCANTARA, (Galop) Chauncey, 75 cts 

GOLDEN OPHIR, (Galop) Yanke, oO cts 

Send for complete Catalogue of Music and Descriptive 
list of the 

SS" state where you saw this advertisement. "SJi 




Awnings, Tents, Twines. 

119, 121, 123 Clay Street, S. F. 

Winchester Repeating Rifle 

MODEL 1873. 

Oiie-Lhii d by Dr. E. H. l ardce. 

The Strength of All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, ^. . . , , f , 

' string measunug from ceuter or tar' 
gt!t to center of each shot, 32 

The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, ^tc^ shttTf lofinXl"' 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting, 

Defense, or Target Shooting. 
The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 

Round baiTcls, plain and set, 24 inch— blued. Octa^fon barrel, plain, 24 in«h— blued. Octagon barrel, se 
24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set, 24 
26, 28, 30 — extra finished, case hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch- 
extra finished— C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— beautifully finished— C. H. & C. S 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Militarj' rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, muskets and carbines, 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Nlanufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market 

Sole Agent for Dupont's Mining, Blasting, Cannon, and Celebrated Brands 

of Sporting Powder, 

JOHN SKINKER, No. 115 Pine Street, San Francisco 



G-rangers' Bank of Caliiomia, 

42 California Street, 


Authorized Capital - $2,500,000, 

In 25,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $405,000. 


President G. W. COLBY. 

Manager and Cashier, 

Secbetakt FRANK McMULLEN. 

The Bank wag opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banlcing business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pre- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
the best market raies. 


Hanford, Tulare County, - - California. 



And Pure Brown Leghorn Fowls. 

aS"Scotch Colley fShepherd) Pups for sale. Imported 
parentage on botli sides. 


The best Trap in the World for catching 

One bai t wil I catch 
Twenty Fiflh. 

No. T, for ordinary fishine.smallgame, &C.3SC 
No. 2, for large fish, mink, musk-rats, &c 75c. 
^SentbymmU. J, BRIDE A CO., 

Mfrs., 297 Broadway, New-York. 
6c&d for CatalogQO of aseful noTeltlei uul mention ihl» paper* 


Special. Attention to Fitting Eyes. 


(Bbtwekn Broadway and Washinotox.) 

C nrvmtlinrY Superior Wood and Metal Engrav. 
pnyrrtVinS ing, Electrotyping and Slereotyp. 
haiiQi Ml "'O" ingdoneat the office of the Mi.mnc 
ASO SciRNTiFic PRESS, San Francisco, at favorable rate 
Send stamp for our circular and samples. 

One Man Can Easily Lift 
1,000 Pounds. 

Load Always Suspended; it 
can never "Run Down" 

Lowering- Effected by Pulling 
the Slack Chain. 

One Man With This Tackle 
is Better than Four or 
Five with the Ordina- 
ry Double Block. 



Ihe general utility of this Pulley and the many 
different ways in which it can be applied, render 
it especially serviceable for agricultural inirpotes 
It can be used successfully as a Stump Puller and Remover of Heavy Stones. To Farmers and Woodsmen thi.i 
Pulley is invaluable, as it economizes both time and labor. In half the time it enables one man to accom 
jilish work which formerly taxed several to perfoim. For sale by 


Blunt's XJniversal 

Surface and Deep- Well Pumps. Send|for Circulars. 






• McAPEE BROS., Real Estate and Loan, 
a02 Sansome Street, - San FVancisco. 

Calvert's Carbolic 


$2 Per Gallon. 

After dipping the sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc T. W. .lACKSON, 
S. F. , Sole Anient for Pacific Coast. 

WATfiR. TAJNKCJ of any capacity made entirelj 
machinerj-. Materials the best in use; construction 
excelled. Pan Staves, Tubs i^id Oak Guides foi 
mining purposes a specialty. 

Mechanics' Mills, Cor. Mission dud Fremont Streets 

West Berkeley Lumber Yard, 

(Successors to Z. B. Heywood & Co.) 

Lumber. Shingles, Sish, Doors, Lime, 
Brick, and Builders' Hardware 

Sold at the Lowest San Francisco rates. Strict atten- 
tion given Country Orders. Boats loaded at 
wharf for all points on the San Joaquin 
and Sacramento rivers. Cars of the C. P. R. R. 
Co. loaded at the yard. Orders received at 22 California 
Street, San Francisco, or at the hardware store of G. W. 
Babcock, 955 Broadway, Oakland. 

JOHN F. BYXBEE, Proprietor. 


Do you want to buy, sell or exchange lands or other 
property in anv part of the V. S. or Canadas? Are yon a 
Soldier or Sailor, in want of a Patent? Why not r>bt:iin 
more Bounty or Pension ? Do you want to locate Goviin- 
ment or State Lands without settlement'.' Why not? 
When I have the Will-known A))proved Soldiers Addi- 
tional Homcsleads, under seal of tlie General Land OB ce, 
and that can be located without settlement, upon i>ny 
Government .$1.25 or §2.50 lands, subject to homest' ad. 
The Sioux Half-Brecd Scrip, for location upon unsurvcyed 

Land Warrants and Scrip of all Kinds 

For cash, or part on time, tlood title given or no pay. 
Have you any lands with an imiierlect title to sell, or 
choice vacant lands you know of which could be located 
to advantage; or claims not lawfully held, w inch we could 
contest. Let me hear from you in full, and I will do my 
best to inform you what is to your advantage. 

I will mail you a circular explaining all, and a copy of 
the new Pension Law. Address, (plainly) 


General Land, Scrip and Warrant Broker, Sioux City, Ja. 

M. COOlfE. R. .1. COOKE. 


Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 


Fruit & Packing Boxes Made to Order, 


^g" Communications Promptly .\ttended to. 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Coohr & Grkoorv. 


A thoroughly studied and ab.y written on this 
subject by Hon. li. U. Redding, appears com])lete in the 
P.iciKic lii'RAi. for January 2tith, and also the MiN- 
iNd AND Scientific Pkbss. Based upon facts, figures and 
careful and e.vtcnsive observations made in various parts 
of the State on this importunt subject, it is a volume of 
reliable information, interesting to every resident of the 
State. The information is condensed in a paper read be- 
fore the California -■Vcademy of Sciences, and is published 
in the Press as read before that Society without any al- 
terations or omissions. Extra copies, post-paid, 10 cents. 
Address DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 202 Sansome Street, 
San Francisco. 


Fasionable Cards, no two alike, with name, 10c 
postpjid. GEO. I. REED & CO., Nassau, N. Y 



[July 6, 1878. 


Prepared Ready for Use, is the Best, Most Durable, Beau- 
tiful and Economical Paint Known. 

Ai is proven by the numerous Medals received over all other J'amts, as well as by thousiinds of 
testimonials from those who have used and thoroughly tested it. 

It is of Pure White and any Sliade or Color Desired. 


It is the most perfect substance kno«Ti, possessing unsurpassed beauty, great brilliancy of color, adher- 
ing tirmly to the wood, and giving the richest, most agreeable and uniform tints. 

It is equally as good for inside as outside work; over old work as well as new; in fact where any 
Paint can be used the AVERILL PAINT will be found superior to any other. 

Houses painted with it are distinguishable for years by their mperior brilliancy of jinith, over those 
painted with any other paint. 

Our Wagon and Machinery Paints 

From the finest Vermilion, to the more common and cheaper colors, are spfcially Jine, and being ready 
mixed, meet the wants of the public completely. Every person owning a wagon, or any kind of ma- 
chinery, should occasionly give them a fresh coat of paint. It would add to the durability and appear- 
ance of the articles a hundred times its cost. 

Our Metallic Paint 

Comes the nearest to being actually Fire Proof of any Paint ever made. For 7V« Roofs it lias no equal, 
it being entirely impervious to air or moisture — rust or corrosion is impossiVjIc, while its use on shnigle 
roofs not only fills up the cracks and prevents the shingles from warping, so as to preserve the roof and 
prevent its leaking, but its f re /)roo/' qualities are such, that a roof thoroughly coated with it is nearly 
as safe from fire as if made of iron. This feature, together M'ith its cheapnenn, makes it most desirable 
for warehouses, bridges, miniixj buildinijs, and for all purposes where durability and fire proof qualities 
are desired. 

Ask your dealers for it and take no other. Sample Cards of Colors and Price List mailed free on 
application to 

California. Paint Company, 

No. 329 Market Street, San Francisco^ Gal. 

Tbomas Flint, President. .T. W. FoAao, Manager. 

Ferd. K. Ri le, Secretary. 


The California Farmerb' Mutual 


209 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

At a meetinff of the Board of Directors of the California 
Farmers' Motual Fire Insurance Association, held on the 
10th day of April, 187S, a resolution was a<lo|)ted apixiint- 
ing J. W. Foard, Esq , late Insurance Commisaionerof the 
State, General .Manaf;er of the business of the Company. 

Ferc. K. Rdlb, Sfic'y. Tuo.mas Fli.vt, President. 

Office ok Insurance Commi.ssioner, ) 
San Francisco, May 24th, 1S78. \ 

r, John C. Mavnaud, hereby certify that I am Insurance 
Commissioner of the Slate of California, and have super- 
vision of Insurance business in the state, and as such 
Commissioner further certify that the California Farmers' 
Mutual Fire Insurance Association of San Francisco is a 
corporation properly organizt-d uiider the laws of this 
State, and possessed of a paid-up capital of two hundred 
thousand dol ars («200,000), eijual to gold coin of the 
United States, is authorized to do business in the State. 

Anil i further certify that upon an examination of the 
books and papers of the said Company, it is shown to be 
po«jsessed of good, valid assets. aniountin;r to the sum of 
three hundred and twenty-six thousand six hundred and 
seventeen dollars and twenty cents (J:i2(),'iI7.20); and has 
outstandmg liabilities, as defined by the laws of the State, 
amounting to one hundred and twenty thousand three 
hundred and two dollars and thirty-seven cents (*120„'»02.- 
37), exclusive of capital stock 

As witness my hand and official seal, the day and year 
first above written. 

[Seal.) [Signed.] J. C. .MAYNARD. 

Insurance Commissoner. 

Presentinar the above Certificate of the Insurance Com- 
missioner, the Company would call the attention of the 
public to the fact that in this, the fourth year of its exist- 
ence, and after prompt p iymcnt of all its lossis, amount- 
ing in the aggregate to *lio,fi48, it shows a clear surplus 
for the bcnetit of policy holders of 320ti,:il4.83 over ami 
above $115,721.32, set apart as required by the law, as a 
re-in*urance reserve. 

Within the p.ast half year radical changes having been 
made in the management of the Company's affair,-, a con- 
tinuance of the public patronage hitherto accorded it, is 
solicited at 209 Sansome Street. 

TuoMAS Flint, President. J. W. Foard, Manager 

Ferd. K. Rule, Seeretarj-. 


Being unable to find trusty, reliable help, I will sell an 
interest in my Poultry business to a live man. Only those 
meaning business need apjily to WM. NILES, 

Importer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry, I,o8 
Angeles, Cal. 

THE BEST IS THE CHEAPEST. The fewest Music Books. 

!! ONWARD !! 


BEST Mixed Cards, with name in case, 13.-, or 2.5, 
uo two alike, 10c. Outfit 10c. Dowd & Co. , Bristol, Ct. 

THREE SIZES-WarranteJ to Clean from 
60 to 200 bushels per hiur, perfectly. 

PRICES -$40, $50 and $75. 
The Nash & Cutts' M.ichine is the only machine that 
has taken the First rremium at California State Fairs in 
1870. 1871, 1S72, 1873, ls74, 1S7.1, 1876, 1877. 

Nash ai Cutis' M.achine will thoroughly separate .Mus- 
tard Seed, Cheat. Barley, Oats, Cracked Wheat, etc , from 
Wheat in a rapid and satisfactory manner. 

No zinc sieves used in the Nash .t Cutts' Grain Separa- 
tor and Fan Mill; therefore we can 
Clean Paster, Better, and with Less Work 
and Trouble, 
Than any other machine now in use. 
The Nash i Cutis' .Machine is the only one that will 
clean Alfalfa Seed, All we ask of any one in >vant of i 
Grain Separator is to give the Nash & Cutts* a trial, 
The Niish & Cutis' Machine is for sale by all Agricultu- 
ral Implement Dealers in California. 
For further particulars address 

No. 264 K Street, Sticramento, Cil. 
Only manufacturers of the Nash & Cutts' Grain Separa- 
tor for the Pacific Coast. 


248 J STREET, 



San Francisco Savings Union, .'i32 California street, cor- 
ner Webb. — For the half year ending with Juiie 3o, l)t6, 
a dividend has been declared at the rate of eight (."*) ot 
cent per annum on term deposits and six and two-ihi dsi 
(6^) pi-r cent per anT>uin on ordinary deposits, free 01 Fei- 
eral Tax, payable on and after Tu«^day, July 16, 1S78. 


On-ward is the name of L. O. EMERSON'S 
book for SINiilNG CLASSES for the season of 1878 711. 
A new and fresh collection of the best Secular and Sacred 
Music, with a full Instructive Course. Teachers will 
please examine. .^2 Glees, 5*t Sacred Turifs, and 15 An- 
thems are provided. Price $7,60 per dozen. 


Compiled by J, P. COHR, and designed for Musical 
Conventions, Societies, Festivals, etc. A seli ction of a 
number of the bC't Choruses, Sacred and Secular, 144 
large pnges. ,$12 per dozen). 


Bv L O EMEKSON. As this fine hook contains a Hun- 
dred .Xnthems, Motets, etc . all of the best quality, it is a 
fine book for any choir, and will be extensively nscd as an 
Anthem Book. It* first design, however, is tor the use 
of Uplncoiial Chuim, and it ha-4 the greatest variety ever 
brought together of Anthems, \'enites, Cantatates. 
Jubilates, Glorias, and of all other pieces used in the ser- 
vice Should be universa le used. (412 per dozen). 


C. H. Ditson & Co , 843 Broadway, New York 


The (lernian .Saving" and Society For the half 
year ending .lune 30, 1878, the Bonrd of Directors e)f the 
tJcrman Savings and Loan Society has declared a dividend 
on Term Deposits at the rate of eight (8) per cent per an- 
num, and on ordinary dejMisits at the rate of six and two- 
thirds (6ii) per cent per annum, free from Federal Taxes, 
and payable on and after the l.Sth day of .Inly, 1878. By 
order. GEO. LETTE. Secretary. 


Let all 

San Francisco 


and all 

Palace Restaurant ^t^^. 


At the most reasonable price. Grand dinners from 
FIVE to EIGHT o clock p. M., for FIFTY CEN TS. 

Don't forget the number, £^218"^ Sansome street, 
south of California Si.. S. F. 

The Agents of this Paper and some of the 
Best and most careful Railroad men carry 


NONE ARE BETTER. Prices reasonable. Ask yonr 
Jeweler about them. Buy them of Geo. W. Finck, N. W. 
corner of Kearny and Geary Sts. , S. F. 

A.vT person receiving this pajier after giving an order to 
stop it, may know that such order bos failed to reach us, 
or that the p.tper is continued inadvertently, and they are 
earnestly reiiue^ted to send w.iiten notice direct to 'us. 
Wc aim to stop the paper promptly when it is ordered dis- 


Those who desire a cheap and practical device for pit- 
ting Plums, Peaches, etc., will do well to examine the 
Hatch iDachine. recently invented and successfully ap- 
plied. It is simple in construction and operation, and not 
liable to get out of order. 

The fruit is laid on a table and the pitter taken in the 
hand; by simply striking the knife on the fruit the pit ig 
removed without waste of fruit. 

A single motion of the hand will remove the pit. 
Tlie machines are cheap and effective, and will he found 
useful to every nrchardist and every family. 

.Address for circulars. 

Grangers' Business Association, 

106 Davis Street, San Francisco. 

''Latimer Farm" Bei kshires. 



Choice pigs of all ages and of the best quality and 
breeding constantly 01. hand. Have sold a great many 
pigs, (10 with.n a few days, including a trio to the State 
Insane .Viylum at Stockton), and have yet to receive 
one word of dissati-factioii. Corie.-pondence solicited 
and cheerfully answered. Address 


San Joaquin County, Cal. 





No. 433 Montgomery Street, S. P 

Fine Jewelry Made to Order Complicated Watches 


Fashionable Visiting Cards— no two alike, with 
name, 10c. Nassau Card Co., Nassau, N. y. 

This paper is printed with Ink furnished by 
Chas. Eneu Johnson & Co., 509 South lOtb 
St.. Philadelphia & 69 add St., N. Y. 

Volume XVI.] 


Number 2. 

Burdens of Debtor and Creditor. 

We wish every reader of the Kural Press 
were out of debt, and we have enjoyed the hope 
that this year's abundant crops would lift the 
burdens which many of them are carrying. 
Thus they may do for many, but the losses from 
overflow, from excessive water in the soil, and 
last of all, from that savage sapper of strength, 
the rust, will consign many again into the re- 
gion of anxious hope for another year's good 

We have often deprecated the too prevalent 
system of store credits which prevails among 
our farmers. We know that credit is the life 
of trade; when credit means general confidence 
in a man's ability to pay. We know also that 
there are many cases where men are in such 
desperate straits and so reduced in resources 
that they would well nigh starve were it not for 
the country merchant, who carries them over 
the unproductive months, and yet we fully be- 
lieve that this reliance upon the country mer- 
chant is more prevalent than it ought to be. As 
a rule, perhaps, our farmers buy too much; 
they buy what they ought in many cases pro- 
duce. Our ranches are not self-sustaining to 
the extent they ought to be and our farmers are 
not masters of their own living, as many might 
be, if they would devote more time to diversify- 
ing their productions, with a view to furnishing 
their tables from the field instead of from the 
grocery. It is this neglect to nrovide which 
pinches our farmers harder than anything else. 
There has been times in some parts of this 
country when farmers suffered infinitely more 
from depression of prices than anything which 
now is known. Wlien eggs, for instance, sold 
for three cents a dozen, and a wagon loaci of 
wheat would only bring a few dollars, and that 
payable in "white dog" and "blue pup," depre- 
ciated State currency, which was only worth a 
few cents on the dollar. When all a farmer 
could sell would only bring money enough to 
pay taxes and to buy a few groceries and new 
shoes all around for his family. And yet, dark 
as were these days in the prairie States, the 
farmers lived well. Clad in homespun, and 
with tables furnished with home-grown pork 
products, beef, milk, poultry, eggs and vegeta- 
bles, the farmer and his family were well nour- 
ished, and children raised to settle and develop 
the farther west. From such surroundings, 
many of us have come, and yet we have forgot- 
ten the lessons of home supply for simple 
tastes, economy and resulting independence 
' which we learned in childhood. We do not 
mean to say that the times of depressed prices 
and depreciated currencies were desirable. Far 
from it; but if the policy of home sup- 
port, which was then an absolute necessity, 
could be more generally grafted upon our more 
generous surroundings, does it not appear that 
so much heavier would be the farmer's purse at 
the end of the year, because some of the most 
grievous drains upon it would be closed up. 
The greater would be the saving, because so 
much less the spending, and in good years there 
would be handsome surpluses for home and 
farm improvement, and in bad years there 
would be at least sufficient to eat and to wear 
without mounting the back of the country 
merchant. He will carry you in a bad year, 
but when the tide of prosperity returns, it will 
take nearly all you can reap to pay for this 

These remarks are all trite. They have been 
made, in substance, many times, and yet they 
are true and prove true in the experience of 
many of our provident farmers, who, by their 
enterprise in diversifying their productions and 
fitting their land for this diversification, have 
made themselves independent, free from debt 
and filled their homes with plenty and com- 
forts. They have had full laiders, even when 
their pockets were lean of coin, because staple 
crops had failed. This is the surety of success 
and safety in farming operations everywhere. 
First, when the farm is yours in fee simple, 
make it supply your daily wants as far as pos- 
sible. The other method ia to neglect this and 
risk all on the staple to be sold. When this is 
the plan adopted, the first unfavorable year 

claps a mortgage on the farm to pay for living 
expenses, and the interest, growing faster than 
future crops, soon puts the land in the hands of 
the bank or the merchant. This sequence of 
affairs has too often prevailed. 

We do not remember to have seen the 
merchant's side of this question stated before 
and yet it seems that he would prefer a dififerent 
order of affairs, which would give him quicker 
returns even at the cost of reduced sales. The 
Pacific Grocer, which is established as the organ 
of the country merchants, recently made these 
remarks: " To the merchant, the anticipated 
system of indebtedness, though seemingly 
favorable at times, turns out the reverse. The 

Design for Gothic Cottage. 

There is now great demand among house 
builders for departures from the old log cabin 
or parallelogram model of a dwelling, and fea- 
tures are borrowed from the architecture of all 
times and lauds to secure the coveted diversity. 
Although the result secured is often very taste- 
ful and beautiful, there are many instances in 
which the builder has made a jumbled mess of 
his design and his work offends all correct 
tastes. We have seen linkings together of dif- 
ferent styles of architecture which are almost 


farmer, if continually in debt, cannot rest or 
improve his land. Crojjped continuously, the 
yield and quality of the grain decreases. With 
no hope of getting permanently out of debt, the 
farmer often loses his ambition. Seeing no 
prospect of relief, he often becomes reckless, 
and, in many instances, when possible, evades 
his liabilities to the merchant who has trusted 
him. High prices will not justify hazardous 
risks nor will poor farmers make a prosperous 
trade. It is time our people should base their 
expenditures upon what they have in hand, and 
not what they hope to get, if a favorable season 

as out of place as would be a sawed bracket on 
the Parthenon. We have seen dwellings made 
up of a mixture of light and heavy orders; as 
ridiculous as light basket wagons hitched to an 

It is commendable . to diversify our styles of 
buildings, but it should always be done with 
due regard for two things, first the symmetry 
of the design, or the harmony of all parts with 
each other; second, the concord of the whole 
structure with the surroundings. A picturesque 
site calls for a building which shall be in sym- 
pathy with our character. An ornamental cot- 

l— c c j 


occurs. Until this habit of discounting the 
,1'iiture is done away with, all kinds of business, 
mercliaudising and farming, will continue haz- 
ardous, and hard times when they come will be 
all the more severely felt by our people." 

It is not to be wondered that a system which 
is wrong in principle should injure all who are 
in any way connected with it. There is a better 
way than "discounting the future," and that is 
in providing for it. If our farmers could free 
themselves more fully from the absolute risk of 
liome and livelihood, which is now too often 
incurred, they would cast off many burdens, 
and each era of prosperity which dawned would 
exert its full force in pushing them forward 
into the enduring possession of comfort and 


tage on a rooky promontory would be no more 
out of place than a light-house on a pretty, 
flower-laden slope. Let each one consider these 
things as well as the contents of his purse when 
he gives the builders orders for his new habi- 

The gothic cottage, of which we give an en- 
graving on this page, was designed by Isaac H. 
Hobbs & Sons, architects, of Philadelphia, to 
meet a demand for something a little out of 
the common line of cottage designs. It is grace- 
ful and picturesque, and is a harmonious design 
throughout. Of course it is a matter of taste 
whether it is pleasing to the beholder or not, 
but it is a, cultivated taste would approve the 
correctness of the design, even if it did not 
choose it. This gothic style has been adapted 

to cottage designs in several different ways by 
Messrs. Hobbs & Sons, and in the hands of 
skillful designers it gives opportunity mould 
and modify according to the demands of indi- 
vidual needs, and still retain its truth. 

The cottage shown in the engraving is frame 
and the roof is of slate or shingles as desired. The 
estimated cost is in the neighborhood of $3,500. 
The following explains the lettering on the 
floor plans and gives the dimensions of the 

First floor— H. hall, 10 by 10 feet; P. parlor, 
14 by 14 feet; D. dining room, 14 by 14 feet; 
K. kitchen, 14 by 15 feet. Pantries and clos- 
ets are also shown on the diagram. 

Second floor — C. chamber over parlor, 12 by 
14 feet; C. chamber over dming room, 14 by 14 
feet; C. C. chambers over kitchen, 10 by 14 
.eet. Closets are also shown. 

Fruit Tree Frauds in Germany. — It seems 
that this country is not alone in the evil of 
irresponsible and unscrupulous venders of 
worthless trees and plants. We have already 
commented upon the evil use which is made of 
colored plates on this coast. It seems that the 
business as practiced on the continent is not so 
glaring a fraud in its method, but no less evil 
in its results. We read in the London Farmer 
that some of the Continental agricultural jour- 
nals are doing their best to put a stop to a form 
of swindle that is being carried on with con- 
siderable success in various .towns in Germany. 
Certain astute gentlemen go about from town to 
town, hiring shops for short terms in the most 
frequent thoroughfares. In the front windows 
are displayed some genuine .specimens of extra- 
ordinarily fine fruits and plants, purporting to 
have been raised from seeds and cuttings such 
as are to be sold within. Catalogues are lib- 
erally distributed, containing full particulars of 
cherries that run only twelve to the pound, 
rasplierries as big as hen's eggs, Jerusalem fig 
trees bearing four crops a year, everlasting 
asparagus, and similar tempting wares. Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main was the last place these 
gentry honored with a visit, and they drove a 
roaring trade for a considerable time before 
their impostures were detected. 

Aged Olive Trees. — The advocacy of the 
olive as a fruit worthy the wide attention of 
our orchard planters is proceeding. In the 
June number of the Southern California Horti- 
culturist, Mr. Kimball, of San Diego, gives 
some entertaining figures of the opportunity for 
profit in olive growing. The ultimate results of 
Mr. Elwood Cooper's experiments in olive oil 
will be looked for with interest by many. It 
may be interesting, when we are discussing the 
olive, to remember that the trees we plant may 
carry our fame far down into the centuries. 
The last issue of the London Farwer mentions 
several historic trees. In the neighborhood of 
Beaulieu may be seen an olive tree which as far 
back as 1515 was already noted for its extreme 
age. Its trunk measures 12^ meters in circum- 
ference at the base, and more than 6J meters at 
a bight of 40 inches above the ground. This 
tree, called "Pignole," is the only one that sur- 
vived the terrible hurricane of 151G, since 
which time it has yielded on the average about 
a hundred kilogrammes of oil a year, and some- 
times, in good seasons, as much as 150 kilo- 
grammes. Still more celebrated are some trees 
growing in the Garden of Olives at Jerusalem. 
They are eight in number, measure about six 
meters in circumference, and acgording to Bove 
must be at least 20 centuries old. And on the 
banks of Lake Trasimeno are other veterans, 
some of which may doubtless have witnessed 
the expedition of Hannibal. 

The Mechanics' Institute Fair. — A meet- 
ing of the managers of the Mechanics' fair was 
held on Tuesday evening, July 9th, and the 
date of the opening of the fair was fixed for 
August 13th. The Superintendent's report 
stated that arrangements for the exhibition 
were progressing satisfactorily. Two hundred 
and fifty applications for space had already 
been received. The enterprise will be taken 
up with full zeal and activity on the part of the 
managers, and a creditable exhibition of indus- 
trial interests will doubtless be secured. It is 
time that all who have good things to display 
should begin at once to prepare for the fair. 
Let them apply for space early and prepare 
their exhibits in attractive form. 




[July 13, 1878. 


We admit, unendorsed, opinions of corrcsiX)ndent8.— Eds 

Wheat and Cheat. 

Editok.s Prksh: — I have thought it best to 
await the forthcoming of all the arguments 
which the believers in the transformation of 
wheat into cheat could bring forward, before 
saying anything more on the subject. I think 
it may be fairly presumed that the statements 
of Messrs. Alexander and Crabtree, in your pre- 
vious issues, embrace about all that can be ad- 
duced in favor of that improbable theory, ex- 
cept in so far that experiments and conclusions 
equally fallacious have been over and again 
formed the subject of discussion in agricultural 
circles. Only in one respect is there anything 
novel in the present case: the old-time asser- 
tions made in regard to chess, properly so-called, 
are now repeated with respect to another plant, 
differing from chess as widely as it does from 
wheat itself; namely, the well-known old-world 
weed, the bearded or poison darnel. It seems 
admitted on all hands, that the case of both 
kinds of "cheat" is e(iually cogent. 

To those accustomed to the rigorous methods 
of scientific reasoning, which have brought the 
magniticent achievements of modern science out 
of the (juagmire of mingled dogmatism, super- 
stition and superficial observation of past centu- 
ries, tlie simple fact above recited bears the 
refutation of the cheat-chess-theory on its face. 
If the transformation of wheat into one other 
kind is improbable, of the total absence 
of any analogous case authenticated by accurate 
observation, the improbability becomes over- 
whelming when it is claimed that in California 
a totally difTerent plant results from the action 
of the same circumstances which in the Atlan- 
tic States causes the production of chess, prop- 
erly so-called. 

Let us formulate the propositions to which 
those who maintain the transformation of wheat 
into cheat and darnel must be jjrepared to sub- 
scribe if they would be consistent: (1), If 
wheat is transformed into chess, then upon the 
same evidence (2), barley is transformed into 
chess, (3), oats is transformed into chess, (4), 
rye is transformed into chess, (.")), half a dozen 
of the most valuable forage grasses are trans- 
formed into chess, (6), chess itself is not trans- 
formable, not even into darnel; but California 
has the special privilege of having the darnel 
figure in all these transformations, in the place 
of the true chess. Or, to put it all into one 
proposition : chess and darnel each may be 
formed out of many of the cultivated grasses, 
according to season and climate. But each of 
these two changelings comes true as steel to its 
own seed forevermore ! 

Now, these are stunning revelations in the 
tield of vegetable physiology. In all his labori- 
ous researches on tlie origin of species, Mr. 
Darwin has not been able to unearth such a 
bonanza as this to show the mutal)ility 
of dillerent plants into one another. Wliy 
has he, and so many others following in his 
footsteps, overlooked or neglected such a won- 
derful chance to make a sweeping point ? 

Simply for the reason, that among the many 
thousands of carefully conducted culture ex- 
periments, made under circumstances infinitely 
varied and rigorously controlled, by men who 
devoted their lives to such researches, not a 
single one rjave the >,li(jltte«f mppoH to the idea 
that Kuch transfonnafions as are. claimed, take 
place at all ; but show that all seeds come true 
within very narrow limits of variation, far 
within the wide scope by which wheat is dis- 
tinct from chess or darnel. 

As for the evidence adduced to prove the 
transformation claimed, a cursory glance shows 
that all the experiments were radically defec- 
tive in not prociinj the absence of chess or cheat 
seed from the soil used. If in the case adduced 
by Mr. Alexander, " all parties were satisfied 
that there was no foul seed of any kind in it," 
that fact only shows tliat well meaning and in- 
telligent gentlemen may commit very grave 
mistakes in being too easily satisfied of tliin<'s 
of which they could not po^^iilJly liave any 
definite knowledge. It is but fair to them to 
suppose that if they had been on a jury in a 
murder trial in which a man's life depended on 
the presence or absence of such proof, they 
would have been mure careful. It is with just 
such rigorous care that every scientific investi- 
gator surrounds his experiments; and any fail- 
ure to do so renders his work valueless in the 
eyes of his fellow investigators. K.xperimentera 
must not, at the outset, beg the main question; 
and this is precisely wliat was done by Mr.' 
Alexander. Nor do 1 think it requires a "pro- 
fessor" to tell Mr. Crabtree what ijecame of his 
wheat on the overflowed ground, and where the 
cheat came from. The wheat simply rotted; 
and any seed whatsoever growing on the sur- 
face of any valley anywhere, may be looked 
for on any overflowed spot below. However, 
it is perfectly easy too for any one to ask a 
thousand questions of detail regarding the 
causes of his mistiken conclusions, which no 
one but himself can answer. 

Still, as regards the presence in the ground of 
seeds never suspected, which lie dormant for 
years until a favorable opportunity for growth I 

presents itself, there is such abundant expe- 
rience, that, laying argument aside, I may as 
well ask Mr. Alexander and those who sliare 
his belief, a few questions in return. 

What of the well-known "second growths" 
which, in the experience of every country, fol- 
low the destruction of the natural plant-growth 
as regularly and naturally as if the seeds had 
been sown ? Does the "Loblolly pine" for in- 
stance, proceed from the stunting of the natural 
oak growth that preceded it, by "transforma- 

What of white clover, which mysteriously 
"comes in" wherever certain conditions of soil 
are realized by improvement, in remote dis- 
tricts where it was never known before? 

What of the "fire- weed" of Europe and the 
East (at least I have not as yet seen it in Cali- 
fornia) which springs up wherever a pile of 
brush has been burnt, especiaUi/ in new clear- 
imjs! Was that formed out of the Are, or 
transformed out of some native plant — a sort of 
universal changeling, like "cheat?" 

What of the regulation persimmon and sassa- 
fras, sheep fescue and "maj'weed" or "dog 
fennel, ' that take possession of every old field 
turned out, south of the Ohio river; even in the 
howling wilderness, scores of miles from any 
other place where they occur ? 

What, finally (to come nearer home), of 20 or 
more species of well-known old-world weeds, 
which have spread over California like wildfire, 
within a few years, to the sorrow and confusion 
of farmers ? 

We know that winds, birds, streams, the feet 
and hair of stock of all kinds, as well as their 
excrements, the feet, clothes, pockets, pack- 
ages and vehicles of man, the seeds lie sows 
purposely, and a hundred other things, are 
potent and uncontrollable agencies in the dis- 
tribution of species of plants, and especially of 
those which, being hartly, introduce themselves 
in spite of man's efforts to subdue them; and 
these he calls weeds. We also know that seeds 
differ widely in the facility with which they 
sprout, and the time during which they jjre- 
serve their vitality. The seed of darnel and 
chess may thus accumulate in the ground for 
several years, and a few only find an opportu- 
nity to sprout. The occurrence of a prolonged 
wet season brings them all to the fro'nt, and 
then the race is to the swift and the strong. If 
Mr. Alexander doubts that our cultivated 
grains are "pampered," let him ask himself 
whether he ever saw one of them assuming the 
part of a troublesome weed! But if he wishes 
to satisfy himself of the existence of thousands 
of weed seeds in any virgin soil he may gather 
on hillside or bottom within a score of miles of 
civilization, I will be glad to afibrd him the 
opportunity in my laboratory, where every 
mechanical soil analysis requires a special oper- 
ation to get rid of the multifarious collection of 
seeds separated in the operation. of wa.shing. I 
will take pains in one such case to gather them 
together and count their kinds and numbers, 
and give your readers the benefit of the result. 

But in a case like this it is quite unnecessary 
to argue about "opinions, " any one can test the 
matter for himself, not in the loose way often 
tried, but thus : Boil any tolerably li'jlit soil for 
at least two hoiu-s, with enough water and stir- 
ring to make a thin paste. Dry this down and 
give it tilth by working, place in clean, smooth 
boxes or pots covered will) ijlasa or mosijiiilo net- 
tinijs, and soir a definite number of seeds, mark- 
in// the place of each. Then turn on your wet 
and dry seasons, and be sure that no sympa- 
thizing neighbor plays you a trick. If with 
these precautions, strictly observed, you ever 
get a spear of cheat out of anything but cheat 
seed, the world will hail you as a discoverer 
greater than Morse or Edison. 

E. W. H11.0ARD. 

University of Cal, July 4th, 1878. 
Cheat for Hay. 

Editors— I have seen a great deal of 
discussion in your valuable paper on the sub- 
ject of wheat turning to cheat, which I am sat- 
isfied it will do. I have found a number of 
bunches of cheat with wheat husks (?) on the 
roots, and others with husks of barley; and as 
for cheat growing from cheat seed, that I have 
demonstrated to a certainty, for I have sowed 
from 10 to i.") acres every year for hay. I think 
it makes the best of hay when properly taken 
care of, and makes a large yield per acre. It 
wants to be sowed on the wettest ground you 
liave; ground that wheat will drown out on. It 
wants to be sowed in the fall, before any rains, 
and it takes a start before the weeds and chokes 
out everything else. As for making hay of it, it 
needs to be cut when in the thick milk, raked 
in six hours after cutting, and shocked as soon 
as soon as possible and hauled into the stack or 
barn as soon after as convenient, as it will dry 
out very fast when in the field. 

E. T. W.\li,. 

Santa Rosa, Cal. 

Coal. — Anthracite contains a small portion 
of volatile matter, its component parts being 
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen — the 
hydrogen being either combined with tlie oxy- 
gen to form water, or with a small portion of 
carbon to form carbureted hydrogen, wliioh 
exists in a gaseous state in the pores of the coal. 
In bituminous coal, the hydrogen is combined 
with a larger proportion of oxygen and nitrogen, 
the mechanical difference being that the bitumi- 
nous and free-burning coals, in particular, melt 
by heat when the bitumen reaches tlie boiling 
point — whereas anthracite is not fusible, nor 
will it change its form until it is exposed to a 
much higher temperature. 

Breeding Horses in California.— No. 6. 

(Written tor tlie I'kess by .JusBi'U C.tiRN SiMi'sox. ] 
Kecent names in a pedigree permit of closer 
scrutiny on the part of the breeder, the sire 
and dam, of course, being under his observa- 
tion and the points of each where they can be 
compared. As he " harks back," a few genera- 
tions bring him to where he is entirely depend- 
ent on other sources for his information. 
Scarcely any two men look at a horse alike. 
One will find points to condemn where the other 
would praise. A majority are prone to dispar- 
age and appear to think that they will not be 
considered judges unless they criticise adversely. 
Tliose people often make themselves ridiculous 
by assailing when there is no foundation, and 
.should they attempt praise, are as likely to 
blunder. If observers looking at the same 
animal are prone to disagree, how is it to be 
expected that descriptions made years, in some 
cases centuries, ago are to be relied upon, or 
what are the benefits to be derived from the 
consideration of those horses of the olden time? 
This (jue.stioii is pertinent, and I am not sur- 
prised that many think the study a waste of 
time. But there are certain elements which 
are presented in breeding the thoroughbred 
horse which force themselves upon the notice 
of those who are anxious to get more than a 
superficial acquaintance, and among those is 
the origin of the race. 

I do not think it requires further proof, in 
these essays, to show that the Spanish, Turk 
and Barb were the most used than to give a few 
of the jiedigrees of the celebrated horses wliich 
descended from them. That these tliree fami- 
lies were superior to the others in form, in size, 
speed and endurance, is established on the 
authority of the author from whom I have 
quoted, and so competent a judge, his testi- 
mony must have superior weight. In alluding 
to the diversity of opinion regarding an animal 
which is presented to the view, it does not en- 
tirely invalidate the evidence of a proficient 
when recounting the characteristics of the vari- 
ous breeds: but, fortunately, there is a superior 
test to the opinion of any man — actual perform- 
ances on the course. To run fast, to stay a 
distance, to carry weight while going at a great 
rate of speed and to keep up that speed M'hile 
encumbered, are evidences of qualities which 
are the most desirable for other purposes. Par- 
ticular lines of thoroughbreds have proved to 
possess these attributes beyond the general 
characteristics of the race, and these lines are 
the preponderating strains of the best of to- 

One hundred years ago, the most celebrated 
trio in the pedigrees of the period were Matchem, 
Herod and Eclipse, and the blood of the best of 
the present time is a combination principally 
derived from these sources. .Matchem was 
foaled in 1 748, Herod in 17-^8, Eclipse in 17(54. 
Matchem was a grandson of the Godolphin 
Barb, on the side of his sire. Cade, and his dam 
was a granddaughter of the Byerly Turk. In his 
pedigree are found St. Victor's Barb, Ac.aster 
Turk, D'Arcy's, Yellow Turk, Morocco Barb, 
Curwen's Bay Barb, Selaby Turk, White-Legged 
Barb, Place's White Turk. Some of these 
occurring twice with several m.ares of Turkish 
and Barb blood. The Arab blood is compara- 
tively scarce. Herod was by a son of Partner, 
and Partner by a son of the Byerly Turk, while 
the dam of Partner was by Curwen's Baj' Barb. 
Spanker occurs twice in the pedigree of Herod, 
and .Spanker was by D'Arcy's Yellow Turk, 
liis dam by Morocco Barb. There is more 
Arabian blood in Herod than Matchem, still 
the Turk predominates and inbreeding is more 
prevalent. As an instance. Flying Childers, 
the grandsire of the dam of Herod, was 
by tlie Darley Arab, his dam, Betty Leedes, 
by Careless, Careless by Spanker, out of a Barb 
mare; Betty Leedes' graudam was by Spanker, 
her dam the dam of her sire. 

Though Eclipse was in direct descent from 
a brother to C'hilders, and therefore credited 
to the Darley Arab, there was far more of 
the Turk and Barb in his composition. The 
name of Hautboy is found in his pedigree 
five times, and Hautboy was by the White 
D'Arcy Turk, out of a royal mare. As has 
been stated previously the royal mares were 
not Arabs, being imported from Tangiers, and 
ihere is little, if any, (piestion that they were 
true Barbs. But the claim being established 
that the first and best of the old time thorough- 
Ijreds had little Arabian blood, and the stud 
books showing that those of the present are 
mainly from these, the further consideration of 
ancient genealogies will be deferred until the 
series of tabular pedigrees are given. Of the 
stallions imported into the United .States, '.id 
were descended from the Burton Barb mare, 33 
from royal mares, while it is ditlicult to find 
one which traces directly to an Arab mare. 
Messenger, the great patriarch of all, when 
racers and trotters are both taken into consid- 
eration, his sixth dam was by the Duke of 
Newcastle's Turk, seventh dam by the Byerly 
Turk, eighth dam by Taffolet Barb, ninth dam 
by Place's White Turk, his tenth dam, Natural 
Barb mare. 

The MoUie McCarthy-Ten Broeck Race. 
Note. — The lapse in these articles has been 
caused by the author having been unusually 

busy, and the subject, dry as it is, required 
close study and laborious researches. In the 
meantime a California-bred race horse has met 
with defeat in the East, and a majority look at 
it in the light of an ignominious failure. Those 
why will take more time and the pains to weigh 
the circumstances attending the contest, will 
obtain a better and truer idea, and the estimate 
of these, who are the best judges of the capaci- 
ties of liorses, will be, that MoUie McCarthy 
showed a superiority to Ten Broeck in the 
quality of speed, while the conditions were such 
as to preclude the test of endurance being made 
between the two. Speed is the first attribute 
of a race horse and the main element of superi- 
ority. When Col. R. M. Johnson, of Virginia, 
was questioned on the subject and askijd what 
he considered to be the most desirable thing in 
a racer, answered, "speed." "What next?" 
"More speed," he replied. "And the next?'' 
".Still more s]»eed " was the emphatic rejoinder. 
This, of course, was with the understanding 
that the animal was properly bred, which would 
alone ensure endurance at a high rate of speed. 

Every account from Louisville agrees that so 
long as Mollie could run, Ten Broeck oould not 
overtake her, and only when the hot day, the 
heavy track, and the fast pace of the first mile, 
had completely prostrated her, was the Ken- 
tucky champion able to leave her behind. 
Under the disadvantages attending the long 
jcmrney, the change of climate and w.ater, to 
display this superiority was a high encomium on 
the country where she was bred. The manner 
in which the race was run was sure to end in 
the discomfiture of which ever "cut out the 
work." It was an error of judgment conse- 
quent on a false opinion of what would be the 

There is not room in this paper to enter into 
an elaborate analysis of the race. It will come 
in appropriately in the further consideration of 
"Breeding liorses in California," and I have 
every confidence in my ability to prove that the 
"mare was the better horse" although she met 
with defeat. 

Calladiums— The Cacalia. 

EliiTORS PRE.S.S: — The calladium is one of the 
handsomest of the ornamental leafed plants' 
their large and elegant foliage making them par- 
ticularly desirable plants in sub-tropical gar- 
dening, which style is now so very fashionable 
(for we have fashions in gardening, but not 
quite so exacting or changable as fashions in 
dress) in the embellishment of the garden or 
pleasure grounds. 

There are numerous varieties of the calla- 
dium, many of which produce a wonderful leaf 
growth in both size and markings. The foliage of 
tlie variety known as C. esculentiim attains 
an immense size, frequently measuring two or 
three feet from tip to stem and one to two feet 
in width, they are shield shape, of a bright, 
light green color, beautifully veined and mar- 
bled with rich dark green. 

The root of the calladium is of the form 
known in botanical terms as rhizomes, (large, 
fleslij', bulb-like roots). Roots planted in the 
spring will make a good growth in the summer 
and fall; in climates liable to frost or long wet 
seasons, the roots should be taken up in the fall 
kept in sand, in a warm dry place, like the 
tubers of the dahlia, during the winter. In 
many sections of the .State it will not be neces- 
sary to remove the roots, and where this can be 
avoided much finer plants will be the result 
every succeeding year, until a removal is com- 
])elled from a too thick growth, probably in 
four or five seasons. 

The calladium is of the easiest culture, grow- 
ing freely in any good garden soil, but luxuriat- 
ing in a rich light loam. They delight in heat 
and moisture, but must be planted in partial 
shade. In localities where the seasons are 
short, or pretty well north, it will be found 
most satisfactory to start the roots in the house 
a few weeks previous to the time for planting 
in the garden, as in this way a larger and more 
m.agnificent growth is obtaineil. 

In many of the fancy leafed varieties of the 
calladiums the leaf markings are fantastic and 
brilliant, combining the richest rose color with 
the delicatest green and purest white, or bril- carmine and dark green, in a way which 
only Dame Nature could conceive. As a rule 
the fancy varieties are more tender and better 
lulapted for pot culture than other varieties. 
The Cacalia- 

Tlie cacalia, or tassel flower, is a very pretty 
little annual, easy of culture, and for cutting 
surp.isses many of the more tender and expen- 
sive varieties of flowers. The bright tassels of 
the Cacalia coccinea, a bright scarlet variety, 
mixed with pretty grasses, w ith a few sprays of 
sweet alyssum and a head or two of Ageratum 
Mcjiicnnum, is bciuiifiil beyond description, and 
fit to ornament any ladies' boudoir. It will grow 
in almost any soil. ^Ve always have in our 
grounds a second crop from self-sown seed, not 
nnfrequently outside the bed among the gravel. 
There are two varieties: C. coccinea, the scar- 
let variety, and C. coccinea /lore tuteo, a bright 
yellow; the plants of each variety con 1 e very 
easily distinguished when young, as the under- 
side of the leaf of the scarlet variety is light 

July 13, 1878.] 



crimson, while the other is green. Those who 
have never tried this little annual will not be 
disappointed if they will give it a trial, In 
California, for an early supply, sow seed in the 
fall, again in the spring for a summer supply ; 
from these you will generally have plenty of 
self-sown plants, so that they may be had at 
any and all times. 

Answers to Inquiries. 

Tuberose i.n Pots. —"Can I grow the tuberose in pots so 
as to be satisfactory J. W. C. 

Yes ; the tuberose may be cultivated in pots, 
and will bloom just as satisfactory as if planted 
in the garden. There is also an advantage 
pot culture when planted late in spring, for the 
pots can be taken in in the fall, permitting the 
bulbs to complete their blooming period in the 
house. By all means grow them in pots if you 
cannot give garden culture. There is no Hner 
plant for fall blooming; its pure, white cups are 
very fragrant. Get the Dwarf Pe.arl variety for 
pot culture, if possible. 

Dahlias. --"Where shall I plant my dahlias, in full sun 
or partial t-hade?" — A. M. T. 

Dahlias should be planted in a shady locality, 
unless you can water them every day. If planted 
in too dry a place, the blossoms are scarcely 
ever fully developed, unless the plants are 
copiously watered every day in the dry season. 
Plant your dahlias on the north side of your 
house, or where they will get the morning sun 
and be shielded from the hot rays at noon. 
Keep the soil damp around the roots, and you 
will have no trouble in securing full flowers and 
plenty of them. Wm. C. L. Dkew. 

El Dorado, Oal. 

The Wool Trade of the Half- Year. 

The wool report of E. Grisar & Co. , of San 
Francisco, for the six months ending June 30th, 
1878, is as follows: 

At the opening of the season the prospect for 
our spring clip seemed rather poor, as the de- 
pression existing in the Eastern markets, the 
reduced consumption and the daily declining 
prices did not warrant any improvement on the 
opening prices of the previous year, but in this 
the California wool growers have been agreea- 
bly disappointed; thanks to Eastern buyers, 
who appeared in greater numbers than ever 

On account of the long-continued rains, which 
greatly delayed shearing, wools arrived later 
than usual. Receipts also were small, owing to 
a decrease of about 40% in the production, in 
consequence of the heavy mortality among 
sheep, caused either by starvation or exhaus- 
tion brought about by the stormy weather during 
the early season. It is, however, in the .San 
Joaquin valley and in the south that the great- 
est losses have occurred. In the north, the loss 
though trival in comparisfin with that of the 
above districts, was greater than anticipated. 
Another cause of the decline in the production 
may be attributed to the fact that on account 
of the scarcity of feed and stormy weather dur- 
ing the greater part of the winter, fleeces were 
much smaller thau in former years, especially 
from those sheep aflfeoted with scab. 

The Eastern buyers having all arrived here 
together, and every one being naturally anxious 
to send forward a trial shipment, a good demand 
sprang up at once and prices opened fully 10% 
higher thau had been anticipated. This active 
demand continued till most of the Eastern buy- 
ers had left. Manufacturers have bought freely 
and heavily, having taken a larger proportion of 
the clip than usual. Dealers have operated 
with caution; none of them have bought largely, 
but as they were numerous, their aggregate 
purchases were considerable. 

Towards the end of May, as the number of 
Eastern buyers diminished, prices declined 
somewhat. To-day they are lower thau at this 
time last year, but it must be borne in mind 
that at that time there had been a rapid and 
decided advance in prices. 

The condition of the clip has been unsatisfac- 
tory. Owing to rain, while shearing, considera- 
ble wet and damaged wool was received. In 
the north, especially, the clips contained a 
great deal of scabby wool, produced by lack of 
feed and continued wet weather, which pre- 
vented the usual dipping of the sheep to prevent 

There was, on the whole, more long wool 
than expected, aud it was of stronger fiber, 
showing that there were some flocks which had 
not suft'ered. 

As an average, the wools were brighter than 
last year and more nearly resemble those of 
1876. The staple was better than anticipated. 
Southern wools were remarkable in that respect, 
as well as in condition, those shorn early in the 
season showing very little burs and seeds. 

Receipts from the extreme north are more 
greasy, and of heavier condition than last year, 
but so far contain less seeds. From other sec- 
tions the slirinkage have been lighter than 
average, after tags had been removed, as it is 
generally the case, after wet winters, that tlie 
wools contain more tags and locks than in dry 

Opening sales for average stapled wools in 
good condition were 19 to 20c., and prices have 
ranged from 17 to 22c., according to condition 
and style. 

Long stapled wools in fair condition brought 
20 to 21c., but afterwards declined to 17 to 18c. 
Long stapled fine wools with burs and in 

superior condition, for this condition realized 
20 to 21c. Good stapled lots brought 19 to 20c. 
but towards the end of the season receded to 
17 to 18c. 

Northern wools opened at 24 to 25c., and for 
some parcels in choice condition 27c. was paid, 
but there has since been a decline of 2c per lb. 
During the last month large sales of good 
Northern have been made at 23c., while choice 
brought 2,5c. 

Less Northern wool has this year been shipped 
direct from this country and the receipt of this 
staple has accordingly increased in our market. 

The demand as heretofore has been for tine 
wools, and medium grades have been neglected. 

Oregon wools have been received in small 
amounts, and the market for this class has 
scarcely opened. Arrivals are almost altogether 
from eastern Oregon. So far the condition and 
appearance are decidedly inferior to last year's 
clip. The shrinkage is heavier and the wools 
contain more alkali and are frowsy in their 
appearance. Selections of Eastern Oregon have 
been sold at 17 to 18c., but it would be difficult 
to-day to place any large amount at these rates. 
No sales of Valley have been made and quota- 
tions are nominal. A large increase in the pro- 
duction of Oregon is expected this year. 

Present prospects are favorable to the fall 
production, and we may expect an average clip. 
It promises to be of good staple as sheep have 
had plenty of feed. Yet on account of the 
xbundant vegetation there will probably be 
great deal of very seedy and burry wool, 
late shearing of spring, especially from the 
south, have already given indications of this 

We expect less lamb wool than in former 
years, as in consequence of the severe weather 
during the lambing season the mortality among 
the newly born lambs has been very great 
This fact d )es not promise well for a large in 
crease in next year's spring clip. 

Several years must pass before the wool pro- 
duction of this State will equal that of 1 7^ 
and as on some lands it is more profitable to 
raise grain than wool at present, it is doubtful 
if the production will ever reach that of 1877 
or will be maintained at that amount for any 
length of time. 

The statistical position of the half-year's 
trade is given as follows: 

Stock, .January 1st, 1878, tbs 2,500,000 

Receipts 17,661. UOO 

Shipped elsewhere..., 1,181,000 

Product 18,842,900—18,842,000 

Total California supply 21.342,900 

Received from Oregon . 740,:i00 

Received foreign 323,700 

Total supply to June :mh 22,40(i,900 

From this supply we have shipped as follows: 

Cy sea from San Francisco, lbs 2,686,000 

Overland from San Francisco 15,296,100 

Overland from the Interior 1,181,000 

Total exports 19,163,100 

The difference has been absorbed by the local 
mills or remains as stock on hand. The quan- 
tity sent away is 8,400,000 ttis less than for the 
same time last year and nearly 3,000,000 lt)s less 
than in 1876. 

Shipping Grapes Eastward. 

In answer to inquiries addressed to them, 
Messrs. Davis & Sutton, of New York, who 
have handled a great part of the California 
grape^ shipped to that city, make the following 
remarks on packing for eastern shipment: 

During the last season we had quite a num- 
ber of consignments of grapes sent out in refrig- 
erator cars, and when pains were taken in put- 
ting up large and choice grapes they paid well. 
We had some small inferior fruit packed in 
crates and the top of them covered with green 
leaves, which sweated the grapes and rotted 
them. And of course, no pains being taken to 
even have a strong package to hold the grapes 
when packed in the car, on their arrival here 
the crates were in a wrecked condition. This 
occurred in two instances, and the result was 
unprofitable to the shipper. An open crate, 
with four or six trays, weighing five pounds to 
each tray, when made strong has proved the 
best way of packing them. And do not put 
anything over them. Our Eastern people al- 
ways expect to get large and handsome fruit 
from California, and if you want to get good 
prices, select the largest and the best to send 
East, as the freights are high, and unless the 
fruit is fine we cannot get high prices for it. 
Another point you want to remember which 
often occurs in putting up a car of fruit. After 
packing about two-thirds of a car you find you 
have not got enough to fill it, and unless you 
put in some you did not intend to send, as it is 
poor, and rather than take pains to get better, 
you send it forward. Now that is a great mis- 
take, as you are paying freight on an article 
that will reduce the profit ou your good fruit, 
and often reduce the entire margin on a car- 

Strict attention should be given to selecting 
and packing the grapes. Do not leave it t ) 
your men, who do not understand the impor- 
txnce of such care, to insure its safe arrival in 
the far off market. If you send by a refrigera- 
tor car, you should see that the ice is put in and 
the car chilled before the fruit is put in. And 
do not wait to fill your car with fruit and let it I 

stand in a hot boiling sun five or six hours be- 
fore you put ice into it. 

As to the best varieties to send, the Muscat 
is the best white; the Tokay is the best of the 
colored; while Black Morocco, Black Prince, 
Purple Damascus and Emperor sell very well. 
In filling a car it is much better to put in a num- 
ber of varieties if possible, as it helps to sell 
them quicker. An assorted car-load, even if 
you have some other choice fruit, that will keep 
as well as the grapes — plums and pears, for in- 
stance — is desirable and commands good 

In regard to prices, if the fruit came in good 
order and large berries, we sold Tokays as high 
as S$6 per 30 pound crate: That is an extreme 
price, however; but it is safe to put the range 
from $4: to $0 for Tokays, Morocco and Prince, 
and for Muscats at $3 to .$t, if in prime order, 
but they are not so good keejiers as the colored 
grapes. We had a White Malaga that trans- 
ported better, but nothing like as good a grape. 

The demand for plums of large size is very 
great, and the price ranges from $4 to $5 for 
20 pound boxes. In pears the late varieties are 
more profitable, as they can be sent by freight 
at a much less expense. 

i VJM 

Pure Milk by the "French Method." 

In the "Home and Society " department of 
Scribner for July, .loel Benton describes a new 
experiment of a dairyman, which may be sug- 
gestive to some of our milk producers who take 
part in supplying our cities. The following is 
the way the milk comes to market: 

These glass bottles, which are sent from 
Sweetclover farm, in Sharon, Conn., and from 
nowhere else in the world, are made of beautiful 
clear glass, and, though of daintier proportions, 
resemble somewhat in shape the large cham- 
pagne bottles. They are supplied with a wired 
rubber cork, similar to that which is used for 
sarsaparilla and beer bottles, and on the side of 
the flange of the wire, which is to be raised 
before the cork can be opened, a paper label is 
pasted overlapping the wire on the glass neck, 
whereon is printed the day and date on which 
the bottle was filled. On the base of the bottle 
is a general label, giving the advertisement of 
the farm on which the method originated, and 
a little piece of information of which we shall 
p.esentlj' speak. When 20 of these bottles are 
filled they are put into a box just large enough 
to hold them, separated from each other by a 
rack partition. 

It is easy to see that milk put up in this way 
says to the purchaser at once, and unnnstaka 
bly : "I am 'the genuine article.'" For it 
would be utterly impracticable to try to tamper 
with it. The label, which cannot be broken 
without detection, gives to the buyer the cor- 
rect history of the contents of every bottle; and 
when he draws the cork, he knows that the 
grass his milk was secreted from was cropped 
the day l>efore on the slopes of lovely pastures 
in Litchfield county, Conn. There is no fear of 
chalk, of chemicals or of water. It is the same 
uid you find in a pail as it comes from the 
country barn. 

A sentence printed on the bottles tells us 
that the " bottling of milk from one cow " is a 
specialty; and to young children and invalids 
this news becomes a pleasant proclamation. 
For ordinary use the combination of the milk of 
20 to 100 cows suffices, if the dairy be well 
kept; but, under special circumstances, it is 
desirable and in the case of delicate infants may 
save life to have the milk which is used drawn 
regularly from one cow. When the bottles dis- 
criminate in this way an extra label is used to 
designate " Cow 25 " or "Cow 34," and so on." 

Perfection of Filth in the D.\iry. — Hon. 
Harris Lewis, of Frankfort, is reported to have 
said that a filthy man, with filthy hands, milk- 
ing a filthy cow, in a filthy stable, into a filthy 
pail, is the perfection of filth! It may be the 
per/ecCtoti of it, as far as these operations go, 
but it is not the completion of filth. The milk 
must first go through the usual processes and be 
strained by a filthy milkmaid or milkman, 
through a filthy strainer, into a filthy recep- 
tacle, sitting in a filthy dairy house, with filthy 
surroundings and reeking with a filthy atmos- 
phere; then skim it with a filthy skimmer, into 
a filthy churn, churn it with a filthy dog, in a 
filthy place, take the butter out with a filthy 
ladle into a filthy bowl, wash it with filthy 
water, salt it with filthy salt, pack it in a filthy 
tub and store it in a filthy place. Then let it 
be sold by a filthy dairyman to a filthy dealer, 
who disposes of it to a filthy retailer, who keeps 
a filthy stall or grocery, dips it out with a 
filthy paddle, into a sheet of filthy paper or a 
filthy dish, weighs it on filthy scales and deliv- 
ers it by a filthy boy to a filthy patron, and the 
filthy picture can be completed by a filthy 

GuEKNSKV Butter. — Geo. E. Waring, Jr., 
thus describes the Guernsey mode of butter 
making, which, in many ways, will run counter 
to the theories of our best butter makers: "In 
Guernsey the milk is never skimmed. It 
stands in large crocks, or stone jars similar to 
the oil jars of Ali Baba, until the cream has all 
risen and until the milk has become thick. It 
is then poured into an enormous churn and 
churned by hand, with a common up-and-down 
dasher, until the butter comes, often four hours. 
The churning is usually done twice a week, 

but the cream is far from maintaining „ood 
appearance to the end of the time. In some of 
the older settings, in the only dairy which I 
had an opportunity of examining, the cream was 
wrinkled like a raisin and covered with mold, 
The dairymen said they did not like to see it so 
far gone as that, that it would sometimes get 
moldy, but that it made no difference to the 
butter. Probably the volume of milk is suffi- 
cient to wash off any impurities; certainly the 
butter of this dairy gave no evidence of any 
fault in the process. There was no opportunity 
to compare the butter made by this process 
with that made from cream alone, as it is 
universal in this island. All the butter that I 
saw was exceptionally good, but this was prob- 
ably due in a great measure to the character of 
the cows and the excellence of their keep. We 
had less occasion to examine there than in Jer- 
sey, or we should very likely have found the 
same variety as there." 

M. B. Sturges' Short Horns. 

The Washington Independent, Alameda county, 
has some notes of a visit to the herd of M. B. 
Sturges, at his ranch near Washington Corners. 
We make the following extracts: Mr. M. B. 
Sturges, who has taken some pains in the mat- 
ter of fine stock, and has found the benefits of 
so doing both in what he has sold, as well as in 
what he still retains for his own use. We will 
mention some of his stock: 

His oldest is "Lucy Ann the Tenth." She is 
red, with a little white on her back — 11 years 
old, and has been in his possession four years. 
From her he has had four calves: "Mazurka 
Duke," "Cyrus Duke," "Lady Maynard," and 
"Mission Peak." "Mazurka Duke" weighed 
1,225 pounds when 16 months old, was like its 
mother in color and was sold at that age to a 
gentleman from Sitka for .|272. "Cyrus Duke" 
was of like color, weighed 1,375 pounds when 
15 months old, and was then sold to Capt. Has- 
singer, of the Sandwich Islands, for .$225. 
"Lady Maynard" is of a cherry red color, is 18 
months old, and weighs about 1,000 pounds. 
Mr. Sturges has been offered .$300 for her, but 
refused the offer when she was 10 months old. 
She is a beauty, and with calf by the first 
"Duke of Alameda." "Mission Peak" is but 
six months old, of like color with the rest, is at 
home with Mr. Sturges, and bids fair to be as 
fine as "Mazurka Duke" or "Cyrus Duke." 
These animals are on record in the American 
Short Horn herd book, and will be recorded in 
the next volume of the "American Short Horn 
Record." They are all thoroughbred Durham. 

The first "Duke of Alameda" mentioned 
above is a dark cherry red, 14 months old, and 
has just been sold by Mr. Sturges to Jones & 
Hagan, of Santa Clara county, for $360. They 
are expected to exhibit the same at the fairs all 
over the State this year as the best yearling 
bull, and at the head of the young herd. There 
is also the second "Duke of Alameda," only 
two weeks old, also a bright cherry red and a 
beauty, weighing over 100 pounds. There is 
the red "Rose of Summer;" three and a half 
years old, a tine milker and a fine breeder, from 
the superior milking family "Seraphina," and 
so valuable every way that Mr. Sturges would 
not take .$700 for her. 

The original cost of "Lucy Ann" was $405, 
and that of the "Rose of Summer" was $300. 
Mr. Sturges has sold from the produce of the 
above to the value of .$850, and has now on 
hand on his farm five head which he values at 
over 11,200. And this is all the result of four 
years' experience in this business. 

The prices at which the above stock has been 
sold and the value of those not sold, show con- 
clusively how pi'ofitable it is to take pains in 
rearing the very best breeds of cows. It costs 
but little more to raise the best Durham stock 
than inferior scrubs. But how great the differ- 
ence in value for one's own use or for sale to 

Live Stock Report. — In their semi-annual 
circular, Falkner, Bell & Co., of this city, make 
the following remarks on live stock: "Owing 
to the scarcity of fat stock in the spring of the 
year, prices of all meats ruled high during that 
period. Holders being anxious to realize, a re- 
action took place, and with liberal supplies the 
market rate gradually declined. From infor- 
mation receive d, there is now no doubt that 
large stocks of both fat sheep and cattle have 
passed into the hands of dealers, and we look 
for better prices as the s eason advances. The 
lepression in the wool market has had the ten- 
dency to deter investors from the ])urchase of 
breeding stock, and prices now rule low, offer- 
ing a favorable opportunity to persons who 
would wish to embark in the business, and who 
are only deterred by the depressed state of af- 
fairs, which, in our opinion, is but temporary. 
Losses in stock have been fully equal to 
we predicted in our circular of January 1st, 
which, coupled with the light lambing, and the 
general recovery of trade, which we trust to see 
during thin fall, will sooner or later have its ef- 
fect on the live stock interest of the State. In 
the meantime, we wi uld strongly urge upon 
owners tlie necessity of paying close attention 
to the breeding of their flocks and herds, and 
by the use of sires of undoubted pedigree, reap 
results which, in all parts of the world, have 
ended in certain success. " 



[July 13, 1878. 

Con'espondencc cordially Invited from all Patrons for this 

A Plea for Womaai s Rights. 

Editors Prkss:— Enclosed I send j'ou a petition and 
•irciilar, gotten up by the Kqual Rights Lea^ie of this 
place, which we should be (.'lad to have you publish. Is 
it not time that concert of action should be inauffurated 
throughout the State ? I should think the women of the 
Orance would be alive to the importance of the matter. 
Now 18 the time for the women of this State to work for 
their freedom, if ever. We are circulating the petitions 
extensively in this and adjoining counties, and hope other 
counties w'ill do the same.— Mart A. Asiilkv, Santa Bar- 
bara, Cal. 

To the Friends of Equal Rights. 
The Santa Barbara E<jual Rights League send 

You are aware that a Constitutional Conven- 
tion meets in September. Men of all classes 
are looking to it for the righting of their wrongs. 
They remember that "he who would be free, 
himself must strike the blow." This axiom ap- 
plies also to woman; if she desires equal rights 
and equal privileges, she must use every honora- 
ble means to obtain them.. 

We see that important changes are needed to 
place man and woman on an equality before the 
law. We ask for these changes for the follow- 
ing reasons: 

1st. Because "all just governments derive 
their powers from the consent of the governed. " 
Woman is governed by laws to which she gives 
no consent. 

2d. Because woman has the same inherent de- 
sire for and power of self-government as man, 
and the same natural right to exercise that 

3d. Because the ignorant and intemperate 
are enfranchised and entrusted with the privi- 
lege of making laws to govern her, and of em- 
ploying their vested powers in restraining her 
from exercising a citizen's highest perogative, 
the right of ballot. 

4th. Because woman is taxed, and taxation 
without representation is as much tyranny in 
1878 as in 1776. 

5th. Because it is a citizen's right to be tried 
by a jury of his peers, and woman is not so tried 
in California. 

6th. Because the well-being of the State de- 
mands that thousands of hard working women, 
who add greatly to its wealth and its intellect- 
ual and moral worth, should not be crippled in 
in their power of usefulness. 

7th. Because with the ballot in the hands 
of all good citizens, the honor of our State 
would be asserted and the perpetuity of our 
government assured; for a nation's injustice is 
a prelude to a nation's decay. 

For a more general recognition of these rights 
we solicit your earnest patronage and hearty 
co-operation. Will you, by pen, speech, peti- 
tion, and every other legitimate method, aid 
in breaking woman's political bonds ? 

We want the names of the residents of the 
State of both sexes. By united effort we hope 
to bring the subject before the people, trusting 
the result will be the equality of the sexes be- 
fore the law. To this end let us labor, and 
wait if we must. 

Will those ciiculating the petitions in Santa 
Barbara county return them to the undersigned 
by the first of October ? When the petition is 
full other sheets can be added. 

Mary A. Ashley, 
President Kqual Rights League 

Mary Fraxcis Hi-nt, Sec y. 


To the Constitutional Convention in Sacra- 
mento, California, assembled. The under- 
signed citizens of California, respectfully peti- 
tion your honorable body to so amend the con- 
stitution that no citizen of the State shall be 
disfranchised on account of sex. 

Celebration of the Fourth at Pilot Hill. 

Ei>iTORS Pre.«.s:— The Fourth of July, 1878, 
is numbered with the days that are past and 
gone, and in the cities the celebrations, I pre- 
sume, have all been on a grand scale. But do 
yon ever think, or those who participate in the 
grand celtibrations, of the many in our State 
that are deprived of such enjoyment, of the 
farmers, with their wives and families, that 
know of the " Fourth " only bv what they read 
in the papers, and spend the day in toil '! There 
are many in this vicinity who cannot make it 
convenient to join in the festivities of the day 
•ven in the neighboring towns. But this year 
a few determined ones concluded that they had 
had enough of staying at home, and if they 
could not go the Fourth, to make the Fourth 
eome to them. A charming spot in a thick 
grove of willows, on the ranch of Mr. Thomas 
Taylor, was selected for the scene of our festiv- 
ities, the underbrush cleared away and open- 
ings made in which to spread our tables and 
place our benches and chairs for the accommoda- 
tion of the company. At an early hour on the 
morning of the F'ourth. the four-horse wagon, 
transformed for the occasion into a " chariot of 
state,'' trimmed with evergreens and wreaths, 
and bedecked with flags of our country, drawn 
by four spirited horses, drove to the door. And 
where in all the cities could be found a happier 
party than those assembled in that old wagon, 
lv:neath the waving branches of evergreens and 
the floating " stars and stripes ? " 

Away we went to the " Willows," stopping 
on the way at every farm-house to add more to 
oui gay party. Arrived at the grounds, bask- 
ets and boxes are unloaded, containing cakes, 
fruits, chickens, turkeys and all the good things 
which we Crangers linow so well how to pre- 
pare, from past experience in cooking for our 
harvest feasts, and although this was not a 
Grange celebration, but a general gathering of 
farmers and their families, yet, as would be 
expected, there were present many members of 
our Order. 

And now the last wagon has arrived with its 
load of happy faces, and its donations for the 
table. But think not that while we have been 
preparing a feast for the body, food for the 
mind has been forgotten. Mr. .7. W. Davis, 
presiilent of the day, after a few remarks beHt- 
ting the occasion, announced the programme. 

P'irst in the order of our exercises came that 
grand old hymn, known and sung by thousands 
throughout the Union, "America." 

Second — The reading of the Declaration of 
Independence, by one of our Grange Matrons. 

Third — A poem, "Hail to the Fourth," writ- 
ten for the occasion by Nellie S. Bancroft, one 
of our party, a neice of your well known author 
and publisher, H. H. Bancroft. It was read in 
a very effective manner by Mr. A. W. (iregg. 
It is worthy a place in your columns. 

Hail to the Fourth. 
As t)'er the world in proud array. 
Our hainier spr&ads its folds to-day. 
And land and joyous notes proclaim- - 
That good old Fourth has come again. 
We feel our bosoms swell with pride, 
Our hearts uplift with sudden joy I 
To know our land so fair and wide. 
Is held in Fre«dom*s safe convov. 

And thou, Oh Father, Great Divine, 
Who hold'st this Universe of Thine, 
We thank thee that another Fovirth 
Has dawned in triumph o*cr the earth. 
We thank thee that we still may stand 
United, clajiping Freedom's hand; 
The bright stars waning o'er each head 
111 honored token of the dead. 

Here, unto each, and all who greet 
The light of proud Sierras peaks; 
And unto every man who'd wake 
The glories of our (.Jolden State; 
Ye husbandmen who daily toil — 
To reap the abundance of our soil; 
And laborers wliose humble lot-- 
Hath sanctified the lowliest cot. 

Ye Pioneers who early sought 

This sunny clime with hardships fraught, 

.\nd in your lowly cabin homes 

.Saw where the light in the future shone. 

Are ye not glad for the haid.-ihips told, 

When ye eagerly sought for the shining gold ? 

For by the toil of an earnest hand, 

Ye have wrought the glory of our land; 

,\nd ye smile on the progress ye behold- 

(Irown and increased a hundred fold! 

We see in our mountains, rare beauties shine. 
Of the richest of harvests, the fruit and the vine; 
And our cities resound with the clear, busy notes, 
That up from the voice of industry floats. 
Then tlirice welcome, and hail ye laborers all! 
Ye builders of progress respond to our call! 
Come forth! And all join in the voices of praise. 
That welcome and greet this most blessed of days. 

Take up. Oh! ye mountains, the strain that ye bore. 

Till an echo it dies on Pacific's old shore! 

And Oh! while we list to the boom and the roar 

Of cannons that mutter as fierce as of yore. 

Ana see in their smoke wreaths the passion and hate, 

That glows ill the conflict of State against State; 

We lift up our voices, in joyous encore, 

'Tis the glad voice of peace, not the fury of war! 

For Oh', while we beast of the pride of our land; 

The pride that is sheltered by liberty's hand; 

We know that 'tis Freedom that beams on our sight. 

Like a beautiful star on the bosom of night! 

And far— far above on thy pinions thou'lt wave — 

Thou glorious emblem of truth and the brave; 

While thy stars lift their bright spotless glorj' to lle&ven, 

And reflect back the light from her own azure riven. 

And thou. Oh! proud bird of the stonn-beaten bight, 
Shalt boar in thy talons, the glory of might! 
In the voice of thy power thou shalt bear ujion high 
"E Pluribus Unutn!" our nation's glad cry! 
Then hail unto thee thou most glorious Fourth! 
Hail to thee, day that gave liberty birth! 
Long may'st thou wave over land and o'er sea, 
Flag of our country, the brave and the free! 

And here where the willows bend low o'er each heul, 
IJrcathing fond benediction o'er what has been said, 
Where the rays of bright sunlight come flickering through, 
We sing good old Fourth songs of praise unto you. 
We offer thee toasts with our bounteous feast,' 
.And prayers that thine honors shall e'er be increased. 
We invoke Hea\en'8 blessings thy future to aid, 
In peace and in Union from age unto age. 

Oh! long as the sunlight sweeps over the sea. 
Caressing the waves in tl>eir low minstrelsy: 
And bright as it shines on our proud mountain |>eaks, 
With the soft pearlv dews lying low at their feet; 
Thus long and thus bright. Oh! most glorious Fourth, 
Shalt thou dawn in thy triumph o'er all the glad earth; 
Thus long and thus sweet shall thy glories resound 
in the land where the noble and brave shall be found. 

And now e'er to-day's sun shall sink into rest. 
With his jiroud train of glory laid low in the west; 
When the crimson and purple commingle with gold. 
And thou with the Fourtli'sof the past art enrolled; 
When the clouds bending lower take up the glad (train. 
That swells in the voice of the people's refrain; 
We offer three cheere! and a blessing for age - 
To the glory of old Independence Day! 

Fourth — Was sung a prayer for our country, 
"God Bless Our Native Land." 

Fifth and last came the dinner, with toasts 
and merry laughter that caused tlie birds in the 
boughs overhead to cease their songs, wonder- 
ing what could be the occasion of so much 

Near the "W illows" stood a large oak, cov- 
ering with its shade nearly an acre of ground, 
several awnings were suspended from its 
branches. To this we repaired after dinner, 
some to swing, others to join in a game with 
grace hoops. All seemed to enjoy tliemselves. 
We parted at an early hour to go to our re- 
spective homes, feeling that the day had not 
been spent in vain, and each wishing that 
another year we could meet in like manner. 

Mr.s. H. Stodpakk. 

PUot Hill, El Dorado County, Cal. 

Worthy State Lecturer's Appointments. 

The State Lecturer will visit the following Granges on 
the day and date herein given, prepared to hold a private 
meeting at each Orange for the good of the Order, and 
also a public meeting at such hour as each Grange may 
determine, to which public meeting everybody is invited. 
We bespeak for Bro. Pilkington a most hospitable recep. 
tion and large turn oiits, and those who can ought not to 
miss hearing him on Grange topics, for he discusses 
them with an earnestness and ability {lositively his own. 

I. C. Steele, 

.\mos An.\Ms, Master of the State Grange. 

Secretary of the State Grange. 

Name of Grange. County. Time. 

(Jrand Island Colusa Friday, July 12th 

Willows Colusa Saturday, July VMtt 

Plaza Colusa. Monday, July liith 

Fannington Tehama Wednesday, July 17th 

Re.iding Shasta Thursday, July 18th 

.Millville Shasta Friday. July I'Jlh 

.\nierican Valley Plumas Tuesday, July 2:id 

Indian Valley Plumas Thursday, July '2&tli 

Plumas Lassen Saturday, July i'lh 

Surprise Valley Modoc Tuewlay, July .'iOth 

Eagleville Modoc Thursday, August 1st 

Cedarville Modoc Saturday, August 'M 

Northeast Modoc Monday, August 5th 

Modoc Modoc Wednesd.ay, August 7th 

Davis Creek Modoc Saturday August 10th 

Crescent City Del Norte . . Wednesday August 14th 

Rivelluttah Humboldt. . Saturday, August 17th 

Sable Bluff Humboldt Monday, August IDth 

Ferndale Humboldt.. Wednesday, August '2'2st 

Mattole Humboldt Friday, August '23d 

Cahto Mendocino. . .Tuesday, August 27lh 

Potter Valley Mendocino. ..Thursday August 29th 

Lakeport : lake Saturday, August :ilst 

Clovcrdalc Sonoma MiHiday, September 2d 

Hcaldsburg Sonoma. . . .Tuesday, September 3d 



Crops. — Washington Independi'iit, .July G: 
The farmers in every direction are as busy as 
they can be in this part of the county, flnishing 
the cutting and baling of their hay and harvest- 
ing their wheat and barley. There is a large 
crop of hay and also of grain, but unfortunately 
in many places rust has materially damaged the 
grain so as seriously to diminish the anticipated 
proceeds of the crops. 

The Rust. — Gazette, July 6: We hear this 
week some serious complaints of the effects of 
the rust, though most of those from whom we 
have gleaned opinions in the matter still think 
tiie damage will be comparatively slight. So 
far as we can learn, where other varieties have 
taken the rust, the .Siberian wheat, even where 
sown side by side and on the same day, is un- 
touched by the blight, and the opinion seems 
general that its hardy character insures it 
against rust in any stage of growth. Whether 
it is thus absolutely exempt from the blight or 
not, it is certainly much less liable to it than 
other varieties, while in yield it is equal to any 
and is said to take the market quite as well. 

Gr.AiN Fire. — ErpoKitor, .July ."5: Last Friday 
evening the grain field of Ph. Rohrbacker, on 
the north side of the San Joaquin river, caught 
fire, and before the flames could be checked 
.^bout 150 acres of wheat, standing in the field, 
and two stacks of hay were burned. We have 
not learned whether or not the field was insured. 
The loss will be between .|3,000 and §4,000. A 
portion of Col. Lane's range and fence were 

Gobblers Sitting. — A. T. Bonnifield informs 
us that he has two turkey gobblers, at his farm 
on Big Dry creek, that have taken the strange 
notion of "sitting." They have taken possession 
of two nests, where the turkey hens were lay- 
ing, and have now Ijeen sitting over two weeks. 
If they succeed in hatching out a couple of 
broods of young turkeys, it will be hard to de- 
termine who are the mothers of the broods. 


Rt ST. — Bee, July 4: We have heard some 
complamt of rust on wheat in some parts of 
the county, but from all we gathered, it is con- 
fined so far to the blade, and may not damage 
the grain but little. It is now pretty well set- 
tled that the crop in Lake county will not be 
an average one. 


Whe.\t. — Em roR.s Press: — The wheat in this 
section is nearly all destroyed by rust, and the 
barley crop will not be one-third as large as 
anticipated. We have had almost uninter- 
rupted cloudy weather from the first of March 
to within 10 days. The consequence is that 
the straw, ripening in the shade, grew very thin, 
and neither afforded sufficient nutriment to fill 
the grain, nor to support its weight: and the 
grain lodged, and the liarley is very light. Rut 
little can be cut with headers, and those whose 
grain is worth the trouble are using reapers and 
mowers. — L. Freeman, Los Angeles Cal. 

TiiK Bek Se.\.son. — Outlook, Jnly 3: Last 
Sunday we took a horseback ride out to the bee 
ranches of Mr. Stone and Messrs. Bergk & 
Snook, in Cox's canyon. Both are in excellent 
condition. It was a bright and warm day, and 
the bees were hard at work. The former has 
about 140 stands and the latter 1.50. Messrs. 
Bergk & .Snook have already extracted 8,000 
pounds of honey, and they expect to aver- 
age 200 pounds to the stand for the season. 
The bee feed seems to be abundant in the 
mountains, and it will last longer this year 
than usual, owing to the backwardness of the 

Horses Killed by Bees. — .Santa Ana Herald, 
■July 4: A span of valuable horses were so 
badly stung by bees at the Sallee ranch, in the 

Santiago canyon, on Thursday last, that at the 
time our informant left it was thought to be 
impossible to save them. This makes the sec- 
ond team lost from the same cause this season. 

Two ¥\m&.— Express, June (J: The Confer- 
ence Committee of the Agricultural and Horti- 
cultural Societies have determined to hold the 
fairs of both societies during the week com- 
mencing Monday, October 14th. An amicable 
arrangement is made by which each organiza- 
tion assumes charge of the matters coming 
strictly under its jurisdiction, and, by this 
means, while there will be no clashing of inter- 
ests, each will receive some benefit from the 
attractions of the other. Our readers should 
not infer that there is any combination like 
that of last year, but merely that the societies 
are friendly in their rel.ations with each other, 
and thus amicably agree to separate for mutual 

Rt'ST. — Index. July 4: In conversation Mon- 
day with Mr. Jesse Wilhoit, farmer on the 
Cooper ranch, we learn that the rust is very 
bad in that section. He tells us that none of 
the farmers on that ranch will garner over half 
an average crop of wheat this season. On about 
.300 acres of his own land the wheat looked so 
good two weeks ago as to promise a yield of be- 
tween .SO and 40 sacks per acre; now he tells us 
it is not worth the threshing — will run him in 
debt to harvest it. He has, however, about 40 
acres of barley that is in fine condition, and will 
yield between 4,'> and 50 sacks per acre. He 
intends cutting the wheat and threshing on it 
one day, and, if it falls too far behind, will turn 
the remainder into hay and hog pasture. Mr. 
Wilhoit says, also, that on the adjoining farm of 
Mr. Lawrence Dee the wheat looks somewhat 
better than his, but in a week more will be 
tot.alIy annihilated by this ravenous pest, and 
will not yield (not even "dwarf" grain) four or 
five sacks per acre where an average of 40 was 

Fine Fruit. — H. Barrett, of the Nickerson 
ranch, near Lincoln, informs the Herald that 
the fruit crop is generally good in quality and 
quantity. The army worms which are making 
such ravages in some parts of the foothills have 
not yet reached his place, though that they 
may do so is not improbable. 

EmroRs Press: — (irain on the high land has 
turned out well. It will run from 20 to 25 
bushels to the acre. Small fruit is good and 
of the best quality. The peach crop is light 
along the river; what there is is good. Apples 
and pears are falling off because of the codling 
moth. Grapevines are hanging full; some few 
apprehended trouble, as some of the shoots 
were t\irning red and the bunches not setting. 
Army worms liave destroyed a few of the vine- 
yards and are working in the gardens; working 
southward, before was going northward. Some 
of the finest potatoes that came to market have 
been grown on the plains this year. Vegetable 
raisers state that by good manuring and culti- 
vation with a small quantity of water, they can 
raise as good vegetables as along the river. 
Farmers, taken as a whole, had but little to 
complain of, although everything that is raised 
is commanding low prices in mark«t. Each one 
must economize and live according as the times 
demand. The cash system should be enforced. 
— George Rich, Sacramento, Cal. 

Rust in Pajaro Valley. — Transcript, July 
6: The fogs the past week have done consider- 
able damage in this valley. It the foothill^ 
there will be an enormous crop, but in low 
places, where the fogs have been heavj-, rust is 
very prevalent. We hear of one piece that will 
not pay for harvesting. 


A Huge Gra-sshoppeb. — Stockton Independ- 
ent, July 4: The most monstrous grasshopper 
we have ever seen is on exhibition at the office 
of F. M. West, County Treasurer. It is pre- 
served in alcohol and was captured some time 
since near Copperopolis. It is nearly six inches 
long and its body is an inch and a quarter in 
depth, while its head is as big as a man's 
thumb. The wings when spread must have 
measured ten inches from tip to tip. The legs 
arc as large as a lead pencil at the body, and 
about four or five inches long. The enormous 
body is quite translucent and its ribs can be 
distinctly seen. An army of that species would 
eat up a ([uacter section of wheat as slick as a 
whistle in about five minutes. 

The Ui'-River Wheat Table.— An idea of 
the importance of the trade on the upper San 
Joaquin river may be gained from the statement 
of the fact that there are no less than 15 
steamers and 25 barges plying constantly on 
the river between this point and the head of 
navigation. The following are the names of 
the principal steamers: Harriet and Ceren, 
owned by Miller & Eaton, of San Francisco; 
Pionetr, Constance, and Waxhinyton, owned by 
the California Transportation Company; Clara 
Belle and Empire City, owned by Capt. I. D. 
Hamilton; Herald, owned by the California 
Steam 'Transportation Company; Caroline, 
owned by Capt. Forsman. There are besides 
several independent boats, as the Alice, 
Alvarado, and Amelia. The steamers carry 
from .50 to 250 tons, and the barges from 200 to 
.500 tons each. Will some of our Congressmen 
take a squint at this item and say that the San 
■loaijuin is an unimportant|3tream, not worthy of 
Congressional recognition? It is predicted that 
as the river falls accidents are certain to occur 


July 13, 1878.] 



from collision with the snags with which the 
river is beset, as there are a number of pilots 
running on the river who are unfamiliar with 
the stream. 

Fatal Boiler Explosion.— A terrible acci- 
dent occurred on Dr. D. J. Locke's ranch, a 
mile and a half from Lockeford, at 4:,30 p. m., 
July 2d, by which the engineer of a threshing 
engine was instantly killed, and a man named 
Wm. Littleton, driving a water cart, was con- 
siderably bruised, but not seriously hurt. The 
engineer's name was Josiah S. Bartlett, well 
known in this city, having learned his trade at 
the (GHobe Iron Works. He was considered a 
competent mechanic, but had had little practi- 
cal experience in running an engine, and ap- 
pears to have become confused by the breaking 
of a water gauge about an hour before the acci- 
dent. The engine and boiler was an absolute 
wreck, there being nothing left standing but 
the fire-box. Pieces were found scattered 
about the field for a distance of 200 feet away. 
One piece to which was attached the cylinder, 
weighing 300 to 500 pounds, was thrown 75 
feet, and the entire machinery was torn to frag- 
ments. The enormous stack of wheat which 
was being threshed is thought to be so filled with 
fragments of iron that it would be ruinous to a 
threshing machine to thresh it. The engineer 
was under the engine at the time of the explo- 
sion, engaged in shutting off the mud valve. 
His body was driven into the hard ground 
several inches and thrown out one side a dis- 
tance of 18 feet, plowing a furrow in the ground 
the whole distance. The head was blown away 
and the limbs were frightfully mangled. Sev- 
eral of the workmen narrowly escaped injury, 
as the fragments were hurled in every direction. 
At the Coroner's inquest one of the witnesses 
testified that from the appearance of the wreck 
the boiler must have been red-hot — short of 
water, with a pressure of steam of more than 
150 pounds. 

Grasshoppers in Sierra Valley. — Reno 
Jonrnal, July 8: A gentleman in from Sierra 
valley informs us that the grasshoppers are 
destroying a great deal of grain in the valley. 
Out of one field from which 400 tons ought to 
have been cut only 150 tons were left, and even 
this was saved by the exertions of the farmers. 
The hoppers are now all in the north end of the 
valley, but when this is all eaten up they will 
no doubt turn their attention to the lower end. 
They raise in such clouds that the sun is dark- 
ened, and shortly after they light on a field 
nothing is left but a mass of unsightly stalks. 
They do not touch the wet land, not will they 
touch the hay after it is cut and cured. Oases 
are cited where the insects have gone just 
ahead of the mowers and destroyed the major- 
ity of the grain. In one such case out of 200 
tons only 25 were saved. Dairymen are suffer- 
ing considerably because their grazing lands 
are being destroyed, and this with the low 
price of butter is causing many to leave that 
business entirely. Probably one-half of the en- 
tire crop of the valley will be lost. Fortu- 
nately 2,000 tons of hay was carried over from 
last year. This will keep the price this year 
about as usual, but next year it is likely a no- 
table advance in the price will be apparent. 
The grasshoppers have possession of Sierra 
valley, and what is worse young ones are 
hatching every day, while the old ones are lay- 
ing eggs and eating grass. [Some facts in this 
connection may be found in our article on the 
grasshopper in another column. — Editors 

Grain Fiet.d Fire. — Dixon Tribune, June 29: 
The first grain fire of the season occured Wed- 
nesday afternoon about seven miles east 
of Dixon, and destroyed about 140 tons of 
grain in stacks. It started in a field of S. G. 
Little, where George Cooper's thresher was in 
operation. The hre orignated from some ashes 
left near a stack which had been finished and 
the machine moved away. It was quickly dis- 
covered, but no watei or other facilities were at 
hand to extinguish it. There was no water 
wagon handy and no Babcock. The wind was 
blowing from the northwest, and the fire spread 
rapidly in the opposite direction. The crew of 
the machine, that of Kline's machine working 
near, and gangs from the places of John Burke, 
Samuel Snead, James Miller and others, all 
turned in to help extinguish the fiames. Snead 
brought a Babcock, and some other party 
another; Miller came with a gang plow and did 
good service by drawing a furrow which the 
fire did not cross; and the rest brought sacks. 
But before it could be stopped the fire had run 
over a mile and destroyed nine stacks of grain — 
two for Little, five for Paul Synder, and two 
for Leonard Geithle. The latter's house and 
barn where only saved by lively work. The 
threshing machine had to be pulled out of the 
way in a hurry to save that. Estimating 15 
tons to the stack the loss would amount to be- 
tween three and four thousand dollars. None 
of the parties were insured. The misfortune 
falls heaviest on Leonard Geithle, whose entire 
crop was burned. 

Rust.— Dixon Tribune, July 6: The rusty 
wheat in this vicinity appears to lie in a broad 
belt, commencing near Wm. McCann's place, 
running northwest through Tremont township, 
crossing Putah creek, and extending to Cache 
creek, in Yolo county. However, the fields are 
not by any means uniformly affected. Some 
here escaped entirely. Mr. George Foster 
states that in one of his fields where he expected 
300 sacks, he will not have more than 100, all 
owing to the rust. 

Fire. — Rio Vista Enterprise, July 6: Last 
Saturday, at about 12:30 o'clock, a dense black 
smoke arose from the hills in the direction of 
Toland's Landing. In a short time several 
teams, loaded with anxious men, started for 
the scene, every one knowing what could only 
be the cause at this season of the year. It was 
found that a fire had started on the land rented 
by Mr. A. W. Elliott, some three miles below 
town. The fire had been got undar control by 
the neighbors before the willing men from town 
arrived, but some 45 acres of the best wheat 
had been destroyed. The grain had not yet 
been headed and the fire did not extend to the 
neighboring stacks, though in one instance it 
was checked within 20 feet of two large stacks 
of grain. The loss is placed at about i*l,000. 


Grain in Northern Sonoma. — Flag, July 4: 
The impression seems to have got abroad in 
some directions that there would be little more 
than half a crop of wheat in northern Sonoma 
this year. We have entertained no such idea, 
for although some fields were whole or in part 
badly cheated and some nearly drowned out, 
the favorable weather in the fall had enabled 
the sowing of a far greater acreage than usual, 
and the very causes of cheat in the low lands 
have brought an extra crop on the uplands. All 
of which we calculated would tend to bring up 
the average yield to its usual figure. The grain 
is largely cut and the threshers are fairly in the 
fields ; so to verify our surmises, we have made 
a few inquiries from farmers whose grain has 
been threshed and the yield ascertained. Mr. 
Metzger, of the Geyserville section, reports that 
his wheat filled better this year, was plumper 
and heavier, and that his yield was even greater 
than the year before ; one field averaged 32 
bushels. It is his opinion that the yield of 
that section will aggregate larger than in 1877, 
and this we:found to be the general opinion for 
the whole country around us. One thing noted 
is the universal reports of well-filled, heavy 
heads, plump and beautiful grains. Several old 
farmers say they never saw as handsome grain 
as northern Sonoma turns out this year. 

Heavy Loss of Sheep. — Santa Rosa Demo- 
crat, July 6: The shearing season, which has 
just closed in the northern coast counties, has 
developed the fact that the loss of sheep in this 
section from the continuous storms of last sea- 
son, was far greater than was supposed. Where 
sheep run at large, as is the custom here, rather 
than to herd them in bands, as is the habit in 
the southern part of the State, no accurate 
count can be made until all the sheep are col- 
lected for shearing. This tells the story of the 
losses for the season. We think it is safe to 
say that in Mendocino and Humboldt the loss 
has been fully equal to one-half of the aggregate 
of all the sheep in those counties. In Sonoma 
county the loss was not so great, as the sheep 
pastures are less broken and at much less alti- 
tude than those of the counties first named. In 
addition to this the price of wool is low, and 
the sheep growers who have usually had a good 
margin on the profit side of their ledger, find 
themselves, this season, hard pressed to pay 
expenses. W^ith the heavy losses in the southern 
counties last year from drouth, and those in 
the northern counties this year from opposite 
cause, it is not out of the way to estimate that 
there is one-third less sheep in the State to-day 
than there was two years ago. Should the 
coming season prove favorable, this loss can be 
recovered, and that is one of the great advan- 
tages of sheep growing, a heavy set back can be 
more speedily remedied tlian in any other brancli 
of agriculture. Two good seasons, with good 
prices for wool, would put the sheep farmers on 
velvet again, as the brokers say when stocks 
are up. 


AfiRicuLTURAL STATISTICS. — News, July 6: 
County Assessor T. A. Wilson, last Monday, 
handed in his completed assessment roll. Ac- 
cording to the return, the total cash value of all 
property in the county is §6,206,138. The total 
value of real estate is set down at $5, 058,335. 
Total value of personal property, $1,147,803. 
The total acreage of the county is set down at 
771,039 acres. The amount of money in the 
hands of the people or on special deposit 
amounted to $.30,312. There were found in the 
county 1,407 wagons; six thoroughbred horses, 
valued at $3,250; 583 horses classed as Amer- 
ican, valued at $38,880; 3,260 half-breed horses, 
valued at $108,024; 872 Spanish horses, valued 
at $16,502; 1,460 colts, valued at $20,705. 
There are 1,700 American cows reported, and 
3,656 stock cattle. There are 9,220 fine sheep, 
valued at .$36, 860, and 151,897 head of graded 
sheep, valued at $190,851. There are also ,52,- 
363 lambs, valued at $27,289. The total 
amoun tof poultry is set down at $8,556. 

Rainfall. — The following is the record of 
last season's rainfall at Hills Ferry, as kept by 
S. Newman, the leading merchant of that 
place: December, 1877, 0.67; January, 1878, 
2.47; February, 4.88; March, 1.74; April, 1.16; 
total, 10. 92. There was a trifle of rain prior to 
December, but the gauge was not in position to 
record it. 


Rust. — Delta, July 6: From all parts of the 
San Joaquin and Tulare valleys come reports of 
rust in wheat. This will cause a great shrink- 
age in the crop, which would otherwise have 
been unusually large this year. It is much 
worse in Tulare county than was at first sup- 
posed, but not so bad as in other counties. 


Editors Press:— The farmers of this county 
are busily engaged with their abundant crops. 
The county is nearly self-supplying; a few more 
years and it will be so. Many farmers who 
used to cut all their crops for hay are turning 
the same into grain, as there is an over-supply 
of hay everywhere. Much of the spare barley 
will find its way to Bridgeport and Bodie, over 
the Mono road. The road is now free from 
snow, and the stages and fruit wagons are mak- 
ing regular trips. This Mono road is proving a 
blessing to this county, increasing its traffic 
from year to year. Finally a railroad will 
place us next-door neighbors with the counties 
of Mono and Iny6. A timber region lies be- 
tween, which is surpassed by no timber belt in 
California. Fruit raising and farming are both 
pleasant and profitable among these foothills, 
and will become more popular as the great 
plains become fully occupied. Farming on a 
large scale is out of the question in a broken 
country. But enough land for garden and 
field may be found and adapted to the creation 
of comfortable and happy homes. No more 
generous or social citizens may be found than 
those who are comfortably settled in this mild 
and genial climate. We are happy to announce 
a general prosperity. No idle hands or hun- 
gry stomachs among us. — John Taylor, Mount 
Pleasant, July 7th. 

The Army Woem. — Appeal, July 5: We no- 
tice the appearance of the army worm on Na- 
poleon Square. These worms are of dark 
brown color, one and one-half inches in length, 
rather active, and get fuzzy on the body as they 
advance in age. The query is, where did these 
marauders come from and whither are they 
traveling ? 

News in Brief. 

The grape crop in Sonoma county promises 
to be large, 

A rider has been killed at the Long Branch 

Senator Booth is expected at Sacramento 
by August 1st. 

Young Fremont is to be his father's Secre 
tary in Arizona. 

The army worm has appeared in the vicinity 
of Woodland, Yolo county. 

There are over 80,000 children in San Fran 
Cisco under the age of 18. 

King Humbert and young Menotti Garibaldi 
are the best of friends. 

The aggregate appropriations made by the 
last Congress is $157,203,933. 

The bonanza mines have turned out $100, 
000,000 in gold and silver bullion. 

General Fremont'.s salary as Governor of 
Arizona will be $2,500 per year. 

Many fatal cases of sun-stroke are occurring 
in the East, also a few in California. 

Thomas Lowe of Coos Bay, has a second 
crop of potatoes ready for market. 

A MAN named Charles Whittier, a cousin of 
the poet, died lately at Downieville, Cal. 

In New York, July 6th, Dr. Carver broke 
99 out of 100 glass balls thrown in the air. 

The new Mormon temple in Salt Lake, now 
being built of granite, will cost $5,000,000. 

The army worm is said to be destroying the 
Dungeness, Washington Territory, potatoes. 

Twenty Nez Perce Indians have been or 
ganized at Fort Lapwai as scouts for Howard, 

Major Downie, after whom Downieville, 
Calilornia, was named, is visiting Virginia City 

The waters of Tulare lake, California, are 
higher this year than during the past 15 years 

A NEW^ chiccory factory has been recently 
built on Brandt's ranch on the San Joaquin 

Augustus Hartso was killed by a caving of 
earth in a mine at Blackfoot, Montana, 

Another "fan-tan" house is to be built in 
Chinatown, at Reno. The license for the game 
is $400 per quarter. 

'The Nihilists in Russia show their contempt 
for religion by smoking cigarettes in cathedrals 
and churches. 

William Cullen Bryant left property val 
ued at half a million and had an annual income 
of about $10,000. 

By order of the Secretary of War the United 
States army is to be recruited up to its full 
force — 25,000 men. 

Texas claims to have 3,000,000 inhabitants 
and to be the third in population and the first 
in size of the States in the Union. 

.John O'Shea, Coroner of Lake county for 
the past eight years, was drowned in Soda bay 
near Lakeport, last week. 

The campaign against the Cubans cost the 
Spaniards 80,000 men, and the island is repre- 
sented as a vast cemetery. 

The directors of the Atchison railroad ex- 
pect to push the road as far as Santa Fe, New 
Mexico, in L879. 

Tom Thorp, while drunk at Gridley, Butte 
county, fell from a horse and fractured his skull, 
and died a few hours afterwards. 

The Chief of Police announces that since the 
new police has been assigned to duty but few 
burglaries are reported. 

Dr. James Ayer, the patent medicine man, 
died, last week, in Massachusetts, worth a good 
many millions. 

The wheat crop the coming year in the 
United States will reach the large sum of 400, - 
000,000 bushels. 

Four or five white laundries hav 
started in San Rafael, but there are noc 
and John holds the fort. 

While bathing at Skowhegan, Me., Osgood 
Willey attempted to rescue his son, who got 
beyond his depth. Both were drowned. 

The San Bernardino Times says there is no 
market for honey in that town. The finest 
white sage, in section boxes, can hardly be 
given away. 

Last week, C. F. Germann, a shift boss at 
the Caledonia mine, at Gold Hill, fell to the 
bottom of the shaft, a distance of 1,450 feet, 
and was torn to shreds. 

Advices from Bolivia state that much suffer- 
ing exists in Cochabamba. The usual rains 
have not fallen, and the crops are destroyed. 

The steamer J. B. Walker, for Constanti- 
nople, is now ready for sea at New Haven, 
with a carge of war material valued at $2,000,- 

Though hundreds have been punished for 
publicly regretting the failure of the attempts 
against Emperor William's life, there is still no 
cessation of similar offenses. 

A MAN named Anglum, at Chile gulch, Cala- 
veras county, on the Fourth held an ignited 
giant powder cap too long, when it exploded 
and blew his hand off at the wrist. 

The condition of affairs on the Mexican bor- 
der is regarded as very serious by the Govern- 
ment, and will receive attention at an early 
meeting of the Cabinet. 

Peru has for the first time indulged in a cen- 
sus, which gives the population as 2,699,945, of 
whom 1,365,045 are males; 100 men to 98 

Oil has been struck at a depth of about 1,000 
feet in the well of the Los Angeles OU Com- 
pany, Sespe district. It yields 30 barrels per 
day of a fine quality of oil. 

The spring clip of wool of Arizona Territory 
is estimated at 1,000,000 pounds, value be- 
tween $120,000 and $150,000, after deducting 
cost of shearing, sacking and marketing. 

No fireworks were allowed in the public parks 
of New \''ork on the last Fourth of July, 
whereby much expense to the city was saved, 
and the losses by fire greatly diminished. 

Pope Leo, after first making friendly over- 
tures to the Emperor of Germany, has, by the 
advice of the ecclesiastics surrounding him, de- 
termined to adhere to the policy of Pius IX. 

An article will be introduced in the Consti- 
tution about to framed in Washington Territory 
limiting the amount of land which may be ac- 
quired or held by any individual or corporation. 

John Messinger, near Hillsboro, Oregon, 
fell from the top of a fir tree which he was trim- 
ming, a distance of 80 feet, crushing him hor- 
ribly. He was a fleshy man, weighing about 
200 pounds. 

U'm. Watt, a well-known miner and a prom- 
inent citizen of Nevada county and the State, died 
at North Bloomfield, on Saturday last, from in- 
juries received by being thrown from a car- 
riage a few days before. 

I^ITTSBURG was visitcd by a severe storm on 
the Fourth. Several houses were struck by 
lightning, and in the rural districts houses and 
bridges were washed away, and crops greatly 

There were 76 deaths in the city last week. 
For the corresponding week last year there 
were 78 deaths, and the average weekly mor- 
tality the corresponding weeks the past five 
years was 87. 

A PAPER has been posted in all cotton mills of 
Stockport district, England, giving a fortnight's 
notice of 5% reduction in wages. Operatives 
seem to favor resistance. A strike there would 
affect 25,000 people. 

"Mollie McCarthy," the California mare 
that ran against the horse "Ten Broeck," over 
the Louisville track, July Fourth, broke down 
and was distanced. Both animals were badly 
used up. 

The country east of the Cascade range, in 
Washington Territory, is settling up fast. The 
records of the Walla Walla Land Office show 
that upwards of 300,000 acres of land have been 
entered during the past year. 

Last week, Numa Dupcra, of San Francisco, 
aged 16 years, who was spending his vacation 
at Noyo, in Mendocino county, had his neck 
broken. He was searching for eggs on the 
edge of a cliff and fell a distance of 45 feet. 

Joe Martin, aged 13, of Hay wards, Alameda 
county, had his right hand shockingly torn, and 
his eyes, face and bare legs badly burned, by 
the explosion of a flask of powder on the 
Fourth. Frank and Manuel Thomas aged 
seven and three years, were also considerably 

John A. Swan, a pioneer of Monterey, an 
Englishman by birth, says in his autobiography: 
"All my share of the gold and land in Califor- 
nia, after 35 years passed on the Pacific slope, 
is an old adobe house in Monterey, once the 
first theater in California, with a lot attached 
to it." 

A REPORT from Anaheim, Los Angeles county, 
says: The cut and wire- worms have entirely 
disappeared. The corn crops are looking 
splendid. The barley crop has been entirely 
exaggerated; it will not yield more than five 
sacks to the acre. The rye crop will prove 
most remunerative of all. 

According to the latest returns, the culti- 
vated land of France is divided into 5,500,000 
properties. Five millicms are under six acres. 
Belgium has a like subdivision of property. In 
Ireland, on the other hand, 110 owners hold 
more than one-fifth of the soil. 



[July 13, 1878. 

Mr. Bryant's Last Poem. 

Mr. Bryant's literary life extended over a 
period of 74 years, in 1804, at the age of 10, 
he printed his first poem in a ^Massachusetts 
country paper; and on February 2'2d of the pres- 
ent year he wrote his last poem as a contribu- 
tion to the Washington birthday number of the 
Sunday School Times of Philadelphia, the six 
noble stanzas given below: 

The Twenty-second of February. 

Pale is the Kebruarv sky. 
And brief tlu- mid day's sunny hours; 

The wind-swejjl forest seenis to sigli 

For the sweet time of leaves and flowers. 

Yet has no month a prouder day, 

Not even when the sunnner broods 
O'er meadows in their fresh array, 
Or autumn tints the glowing woods. 

For this chill season now again 
Brin^, in its a!wmal round, the morn 

When, j^ealest of the son^ of men, 
Our {glorious Washington was born. 

Lo, where, beneath an icy shield, 

Calmly the mighty Hudson flows ! 
By snow-clad fell and frozen fleld 

Broadening the lordly river goes. 

The wildest storm that sweeps through space, 
And rends the oak with sudden force. 

Can raise no ripitle on his face, 
Or slacken his majestic course. 

Thus, 'mid the wreck of thrones, shall live 
Unmarred, vmdiramed, our hero's fame. 

And years succeeding years shall give 
Increase of honors to his name. 

What the Poor Girls Need, 

Pater and Mater Kamilias sat — 

Their visages puckered with care — 
Pond'ring what they should do with their girls, 

'I'heir girls with the "auburn" hair. 
"They play, and they sing, and they dance," she said, 

"And they sketch with pencil and pen; 
They speak the German, and French, and draw" — 

"Oh, yes!— any object but men; 
And there they all stick," the old man growled, 

"With all their gabble and Dutch!" 
And lie gave the poodle beneath his chair 

A prod with the jioiiit of his crutch. 
"But what can they do that is useful ?" he yelled. 

With an oath that was really shocking. 
"Can they sew, or sweep, or cook, or clean. 

Or darn the holes in tiieirstockings'f" 
"Darn the holes in their stockings," she cried. 

With a half hysterical shriek; 
"Ah, 1.0, indeed '.' What the poor girls need 

Is a thorough knowledge of Greek!" 

— Utistvn Cummercial Bulletin. 

Leona's Pride. 

"Marry a mere carpenter !" said Leona 
Bracebridge. "No, indeed !" 

She was tall and pretty, with dark brown 
hair, lovely blue-gray eyes, with long, curled 
lashes, and a fresh red and white color in her 
face; and old Mrs. Lynton was short and stout, 
with a double row of suspiciously bright brown 
curls, and a cap which was not trimmed with 
the freshest of ribbons. Mrs. Lynton reddened 
at the girl's remark. 

"He's a carpenter, I know, Leona," said she. 
"But as for being common — " 

"Oh, you know what I mean," said Leona. 
"We have been expensively educited, Zoe and I 
and papa was a lawyer, and mamma was dis- 
tantly related to tlie Severns of .Severn Manor. " 

"Yes," said Mrs. Lynton, "but all that don't 
help you to a penny now. And as you have 
been my guests for three months, perhaps it 
isn't so very unnatural that Felix should think 

"Oh, if we have worn out our welcome," 
interrupted Leona, haughtily. 

"It isn't that my dear," said the old lady. 
"Goodness knows yovi are welcome to stay 
here as long as you can put up with our old- 
fashioned ways. But it's most a pity, isn't it, 
that you can't make up your mind to a com- 
fortable home here, with a man that loves the 
very ground you walk on ?" 

"I am very sorry, Mrs. Lynton," said Leona. 
"Because Felix is very kind, and I love you 
dearly, but 1 never could entertain the idea of 
becoming a mechanic's wife." 

"Just as you please," said old Mrs. Lj-nton, 
knitting away until her needles seemed to flash 
magnetic fire. 

And Leona went up st.airs to the little apart- 
ment where her sister Zoe was cutting out 
gingham aprons. 

Maurice Bracebridge was a gentleman — one 
of the seedy, impoverished kind, that arc 
always writing begging letters and borrowing 
five dollar bills — and he had brought up his 
daughters at Madam Laurelli's seminary, until 
that lady declined to receive the two girls any 
longer without the accompaning ceremony of 
a small payment on account. 

And then he had hired lodgings of Mrs. Lyn- 
ton, and he died there leaving Zoe and Leona 
penniless. Mrs. Lynton was a kind soul and 
had never told the poor young orphans that 
their father had not paid her a solitary cent. 

"What would be the use?" said she. "Poor 
Umbs, they've got nothing to pay with !" 

Leona was a beauty, with a soft contralto 
voice, a willowy, graceful figure, a face that 
every one turned instinctively to look at the 
second time;'but Zoe the younger sister, had not 
been so favored by nature. 

She was slight and below the medium stature 
her face although pale and sweet, was not one 
to attract admiration, and she was shy an ' 
retiring. But somehow Zoe made friends every 

"Zoe," said Leona, impetuously, as she flung 
herself into a chair by the window, "we must 
go away from here." 

"Go away Oh, Leo !" cried Zoe. 
"I don't like the idea any better than you 
do, but," said the beauty; "but Felix Lynton 
has been gross enough to fall in love with me. 

"Has he? " and Zoe's face brightened; "Oh 
Leo, how nice — " 

"How awkward, you mean !" interrupted 
Leona, impatiently. "Have you got common 
sense, Zoe Bracebridge, or have you not ?'" 
"Leo, did you refuse him ?" 
"Do you think I would marry a carpenter — 
I, papa's daughter — I, with my heritage of good 
looks and genius ? Yes, I may as well speak i 
out. " 

"But he is very handsome, Leo, and very 
intelligent; and he owns the house, dear, and 
he's such a good son to his mother. Leo, dar 
ling, won't you consider your decision." 

"I certainly shall not, " said Leona. "W 
must look out for a house somewhere else im 
mediately. " 

"But I am afraid I can't do that, I^eo, " said 
Zoe, apologetically, "for I have promised Mrs 
Lynton to help her with her plain sewing this 
winter, and she has two or three little music 
pupils for me, and — " 

"Well, let that be as you choose," said Leo, 
yawning, "I don't mind being by myself just at 
first — it will perhaps give me more leisure for 
practice. " 

"For practice, Leo ?" 

"Yes," said Miss Bracebridge, with an im 
perial nod. "Mrs. Buckingham thinks 1 shall 
succeed on the operatic stage; and in the mean 
time I shall be writing out a few poems. Mr 
Scribbleton, the English literature master of 
old Laurelli's, always said my compositions 
would look well in print. Don't you see, Zoe, 
I have a career before me? It would be mad 
uess to blight it all by becoming a carpenter's 
wife !" 

"Do you think so?" said Zoe, pensively. 
"Well, I'm not a genius, dear, and I can't tell 
how geniuses feel. But Ftlix is very nice; and 
he is so good to his mother. And good sons 
always make good husbands, Leo." 

So Leona Bracebridge went away, bidding 
her faithful friends a very cavalier sort of 

"Felix," said Zoe, looking timidly up in her 
young host's sad and abstracted face, after the 
last trunk had departed, "you are not vexed 
with Leo ?" 

"Vexed, Zoe? No." 

"Because I'm sure she never meant to hurt 
your feelings," coaxed Zoe. 

But she i& a genius, you know, and geui 
uses are not like other people." 

"She is a genius, little Zoe," said Felix, with 
a faint smile, "and I am a fool. Is that wha 
you mean to say ?" 

Oh, Felix, how can you be ap cruel ?" said 
Zoe; and she retreated into her little dark bed- 
room to cry, and wonder why it was that she 
was always saying awkward things. 

Leona Bracebridge threw herself heart and 
soul into the new life. She practiced trills, 
and ripjjles and high C's with unremitting per- 
severance; she sat all day at her hired piano, 
and spent her evenings in studying up the plot 
of a novelette which was to take the uncon 
scions world by storm. And so the year jjassed 

".Sing?" said M. Peroux, the leader of the 
orcliestra of the Opera House — "you sing, 
mademoiselle ? A very nice little parlor voice, 
I dare say, but you'd be of no more use than a 
chirping sparrow on the stage. I should think 
your common sense might have taught you 

M. Peroux was rough, but he was honest; 
and Leona went back in tears to her board- 
ing-house, where a fat bundle of MSS. awaited 
her, neatly tied in brown p.aper, and labeled: 

"For Miss Bracebridge. Positively declined." 

"Is it possible that I am a failure '^'' said 
poor Leona to herself. "And with all these 
bills to pay, and the piano hire due for a year, 
and — " 

But Miss Bracebridge's unpleasant reverie 
was cut short by the tapping of her landlady's 
knuckles on the door. 

"I don't want to intrude. Miss," said the 
lady with belligerent air of one who means 
business, "but I've several heavy payments to 
meet next week, and I would be greatly obliged 
if you could just make it convenient to let me 
have a small payment. For it's nearly six 
months. Miss — I'm a tellin' you gospel truth — 
since I've seen the color of your money: and its 
just such boarders as you Miss, as drives hon- 
est folks like us into the bankrupt court." 

Her nose reddened spitefully, and her voice 
grew louder, as she uttered these words, and 
poor Leona shrank away in spite of herself. 

"I will communicate with my friends, Mrs. 
Battersby," said she, "and settle with you very 
soon ' 

"I hope you w ill, I'm sure, miss," said the 
landlady closing the door behind her with a jar 
that set every vein in Leoiia's frame a quiver. 

She sat there in the shabby room all the 
afternoon, crying quietly to herself, thinking, 

with her aching head resting upon her hands, of HoW Peter Bcimet WOn Ws Case in 

the past and the present. And then she put 
on her bonnet, and went to the little red-brick 
house where her father had died, two years 

Mrs. Lynton was sitting in the red glow of 
the firelight, knitting away as if she had never 
left oft' all those months of Leona's absence. 

"Child," cried she, as the tall figure glided 
across the floor and stood in front of her, ' 'is it 

"Yes, Mrs. Lynton, it is I," said Leona. 
"I've come back to tell you I am sorry that I 
ever acted so foolishly, I've come back to say 
that I will be Felix's wife, if he will overlook 
the past." 

Old Mrs. Lynton began to wring her hands 
in dire dismay. 

"Oh, Leona," said she, "you are too late. 
Felix was married last week. We tried our 
best to get your address, but you had moved 
away from the last place, but left no clue be- 
hind. Zoe was heartbroken about it, but there 
was no help. Yes, he was married last week, 
and they have gone to Philadelphia for their 
wedding trip. And I do believe my poor boy 
is happy at last. 

Leona stood pale and silent as a statue of 

"But whom did he marry?" asked she. 
"Didn't I tell you, child? Why Zoe, of 

Felix Lynton and his young wife are as hap- 
py as if there was no such th-ng as trouble in 
the world. So is old Mrs. Lynton. And Le- 
ona is supporting herself by giving lessons in 
music and doing whatever jobs of plain needle- 
work she can obtain. 

'Pride must have a fall," says the proverb, 
and Leona Bracebridge is one of its living illus- 


Bkyast'.s Tk.mpkkatk Habits. — The late 
William CuUen Bryant used to ascribe the pres- 
ervation of his physical and mental vigor 
partly to his simple and regular habits of life. 
He would rise about half-iiast five in the 
morning (summer time half an hour earlier) 
and go through a series of light exercises be 
fore dressing. Light dumb-bells, covered with 
tiannel, a pole, or the horizontal bar were 
enough to practice with. Sometimes he would 
swing a light chair around his head. An hour 
later he would bathe from head to foot. His 
breakfast was the simplest — "hominy and 
milk," as he himself said in a letter to a friend 
"or, in place of hominy, brown bread or oatmeal 
or wheaten grits, and in the season, baked sweet 
apples." "Buckwheat cakes," he added, "I do 
not decline, nor any other article of vegetable 
food; but animal food I never take at break 
fast. Tea and coffee I never touch .at any time. 
Sometimes I take a cup of chocohate, which has 
no narcotic effect and agrees with me very well. 
At breakfast I often take fruit, either in its 
natural state or freshly stewed. In the conn 
try I dine early, and it is only at that meal 
that I take either meat or fish; and of these 
but a moderate quantity, making my dinni r 
mostly of vegetables. At the meal which is 
called tea I take only a little bread and butter, 
with fruit, if it be on the table. My drink is 
water; yet I sometimes, though rarely, take 
glass of wine. I am a natural temperance man, 
finding myself rather confused exhila 
rated by wine. I never meddle with tobacco, 
except to quarrel with its use. " When in town, 
Mr. Bryant always walked| to his office, six 
miles, down and up, no matter what the 
weather. His bed-time was 10, or earlier. He 
never took any kind of drug as a stimulant, not 
ven the usual condiments with his food, such 
as pepper and the like. For many years he 
avoide(l every kind of literary occupation in 
the evening, doing all his work in the day-time. 

New Volcano in Peru. — A Peruvian news- 
paper, the Boha, says that extraordinary 
phenomena have been observed in connection 
with the "Corpuna" volcano in the Province of 
( astilla, which have caused great alarm among 
the population. The immense banks of snow 
which have crowned its summit from time im- 
memorial have suddenly melted away with such 
rapidity as to cause torrents to rush down the 
sides of the mountain, washing out immense 
uantities of stones and earth. The river be- 
low, being unable to contain the great body of 
ater so suddenly added to it, overflowed its 
banks, causing great damage and distress. A 
great chasm or lateral crater next opened on 
one side, throwing out volumes of smoke and 
steam as well as tongues of flame, which were 
istinctly vi.sible at night, accompanied with 
oud subterranean rumblings. It had never 
been supposed that Corpuna was or could be a 
volcano, and there is no tradition that it was 
er in a state of eruption. Nor within the 
memory of man has its crown of snow ever been 

Savino Life at Sea. — The Council of the 
Socitty of Arts offers its gold medal for the 
best means of saving life at sea, when a vessel 
.03 to be abandoned suddenly, say with only 
ve minutes' warning; the shore or other vessels 
being in sight. Appliances intended for the 
competition must be sent in not later than the 
31st of October, 1878, addressed to the Secre- 
tary, Society of Arts, John Street, Adelphi, 
" ondon, W. C. , and must in every case be ac- 
impanied by a short description. 

A correspondent of the New York World has 
the following respecting one of A. H. Stephens' 
experiences as a lawyer in Georgia in the ante- 
bellum days: 

A doctor named Royston had sued Peter 
Bennet for his bill, long over-due, for attending 
the wife of the latter. Alex. H. Stephens was 
on the Bennet side, Robert Toombs, then Sen- 
ator of the United States, was for Dr. Royston. 
The Doctor proved his number of visits, their 
value according to local customs, and his own 
authority to do medical practice. Mr. Steph- 
ens told his client that the physician had 
made out his case, and as there was nothing 
wherewith to rebut or offset the claim, the only 
thing left to do was to pay it. "No," said Peter; 
"I hired you to speak on my case and now 

Mr. Stephens told him there was nothing to 
say ; he had looked on to see if it was made out, 
and it was. 

Peter was obstinate, and at last Mr. Steph- 
ens told him to make a speech himself, if he 
thought one could be made. 

"I will," said Peter Bennet, "if Bobby 
Toombs won't be too hard on me. " 

Senator Toombs promised, and Peter began: 
"Oentlemen 0/ theJin-y — You and I is plain 
farmers, and if we don't stick together these 
'ere lawyers and doctors will get the advantage 
of us. I ain't no lawyer nor doctor, and I ain't 
no oVijections to them in their proper place; 
but they ain't farmers, gentlemen of the jury. 

"Now, this man Royston was a new doctor, 
and I went for him for to come an' doctor my 
wife's Sore leg. And he come and put some 
salve truck on it and some rags, but never done 
it one bit of good, gentlemen of the jury. I 
don't believe he is no doctor, no way. There 
is doctors as w doctors, sure enough, but this 
man don't earn his money; and if you send for 
him, as Mrs. .Sarah Atkinson did, for a negro 
boy as was worth §1,000, he just killed him 
and wants pay for it. " 

"I don't," thundered the doctor. 
"Did you cure him?" asked Peter with the 
slow accent of a judge with a black cap on. 

The Doctor was silent, and Peter proceeded: 
"As I was sayin', gentlemen of the jury, we 
farmers, when we sell our cotton, has got to 
give valley for the money we ask, and doctors 
ain't none too good to be put to the same rule. 
And I don't believe this Sam Royston is no 
doctor, no how." 

The physician again put in his oar with 
"Look at my diploma, if you think I am no 

"His diploma !" exclaimed the new-fledged 
orator, with great contempt. "His diploma ! 
(ientlemen, that is a big word for printed sheep- 
skin, and it didn't make no doctor of the sheep 
as first wore it, nor does it of the man that now 
carries it. A good newspaper has more in it, 
and I pint out to you that he ain't no doctor at 

The man of medicine was now in a fury, and 
screamed out: "Ask my patients if I am not 
a doctor ?" 

"I asked my wife," retorted Peter, "an' she 
said as how she thought you wasn't." 

"Ask my other patients," said Dr. Royston. 

This seemed to be the straw that broke the 
camel's back, for Peter replied with look and 
tone of unutterable sadness: "That is a hard 
sayin', gentlemen of the jury, and one as re- 
quires me to die or to have power as I've beam 
tell ceased to be exercised since the Apostles. 
Does he expect me to bring the Angel (iabriel 
down to toot his horn before his time and cry 
aloud, 'Awake, ye dead, and tell this court and 
jury your opinion of Royston's practice ?' Am 
I to go to the lonely churchyard, and rap on 
the silent tomb, and say to um as is at last at 
rest from physic and doctor's bills, 'Get up here, 
you, and state if you died a natural death, or 
was hurried away by some doctor?' He says, 
ask his patients, and, gentlemen of the jury, 
the// are alt dead.' Where is Mrs. Beazley's 
man, Sam ? Go ask the worms in the grave- 
yard where he lies. Mr. Peak s woman, Sarah, 
was attended by him, and her funeral was ap- 
pointed and he had the corpse ready. Where 
is that likelj' Bill as belonged to Mr. Mitchell ? 
Now in glory a-expressin' his opinion of Roys- 
ton's doctrin'. Where is that baby gal of 
Harry .Stephens ? She are where doctors cease 
from troubling and the infants are at rest. 

"Gentlemen of the jury, he has et chicken 
enough at my house to pay for his salve, and I 
furnished the rags, and I don't suppose he 
charges for makin' of her worse, even if he 
don't jjretend to ch.arge for curin' of her, and I 
am humbly thankful that he gave her nothing 
for her in'ards as he did his other patients, for 

somethin' made um all die mighty sudden " 

Here the applause made the speaker sit 
down in great confusion, and, in spite of a log- 
ical restatement of the case by Senator Toombs, 
the Doctor lost and Peter Bennet won. 

Rki.ation of Brain Weioht to Mental 
Ability. — Mr. C. Clapham says, in the last 
volume of the West liiding Lunatic Asylum 
reports: " My observations agree with those of 
Wagner, that weight of brain does not indicate 
any close relation to intellectual power, and 
also that aboriginal races are not to be distin- 
guished for smallness of brains. In fact, the 
ancient Britons, and I may add the ancient 
Gauls also, were remarkable for good sized, nay 
even large brains." This statement is borne out 

Bryant. — The September Wide Awal-e will be 
notable for an illustrated paper in its Poets' 

Home Series relative to the late William Cullen I by the testimony of the most competent crani 
Bryant. ' ologists of the day. 

July 13, 1878.] 

Infants' ClotMng. 

High-necked and long-sleeved dresses are at 
present most used for infants, but it is pre- 
dicted at the furnishing houses that there will 
be a revival of the low-necked waists with short 
sleeves. The latter, however, require extra 
sacques of soft wool for warmth, and the babe 
is apt to take cold from the changes of these 
wraps, hence most mothers will adhere to the 
safer dresses now used. Day dresses are made with 
yokes either pointed or rounded, and the latest 
fancy is for square yokes made uj) of length- 
wise clusters of fine tucks separated by bands 
of insertion, or else the whole yoke is made of 
Valenciennes insertion marked off in medallions 
with applique embroidery; a trimming similar 
to the yoke forms a deep border around the 
skirt. Few dresses, even the handsomest 
christening robes, are trimmed up the front. 
Fine French nainsook is used for the nicest 
robes, and the heavier English nainsook for 
plainer dresses. The dress measures a yard 
and a quarter in length, and consists of two 
widths of the muslin sloped toward the top. 
For night-slips soft-finished cambrics of domes- 
tic brands are used, also hair-striped and 
checked muslins, while some mothers use 
heavier qualities of domestic cotton. These 
slips have no yoke, are buttoned behind, have 
a belt in front only, with long hemmed strings 
to tie behind. They may have a cluster of 
small tucks down the middle of the front, with 
tucks above a deep hem, and are then nice 
enough to serve as plain dresses for day wear. 
An edging of Valenciennes or of fine Smyrna 
lace, a fluted rufiie, or an edging of needlework 
that has no sharp points to touch the tender 
flesh, is put around the neck and wrists. For 
petticoats, American cambrics with soft finish 
are used. These have a straight doubled band 
of muslin for the waist, with two long widths 
for the skirt; a deep hem headed by fine tucks 
is a neat finish; handsomer skirts have two or 
three bands of Hamburg insertion separated by 
clusters of tucks, and an edge to match; very 
wide embroideries are not liked on these gar- 
ments. Flannel skirts are similarly shaped, 
and are usually of light qualities of gauze flan- 
nel. The plainest have a deep hem headed by 
chain-stitching or feather-stitching done in silk 
floss. The side seams of the skirt are also 
feather-stitched up the outside. The waist- 
bands are of linen doubled. Embroidered vines 
and clover-leaf scallops trim more expensive 
skirts. The flannel barrow coats or pinning 
blankets, are merely a straight yard of flannel 
hemmed on three sides, while the fourth side, 
which is the top, is sewed to a broad band 
large enough to lap around the body. The 
pretty little shirts are made of linen lawn, and 
may have a revers turned over at the top, or 
be plainly edged with Valenciennes or with 
needlework, or if more elaborate shirts are 
needed, the entire sleeves and upper parts are 
made of Valenciennes insertion dotted with 
roses of applique needlework. — Harper's Bazar. 

Inflammable Goods. — Steam-Boiler 
Inspector Siebdrath, of Dresden, we learn from 
the Polytechnic Rericiv, was lead by several dis- 
tressing accidents that happened to female 
operatives in factories, from the catching fire of 
their dresses, to experiment to And a simple 
plan of rendering such dress goods uninflam- 
mable. He tried alum, but with little satis- 
faction, as the goods so treated burned after- 
ward with more or less readiness. They were 
likewise injured in appearance. A o ^ solution 
of phosphate of ammonia, however, gave very 
satisfactory results; the goods (linen and cot- 
ton) after treatment refusing to inflame — simply 
charring when brought in contact with flame. 
Treatment with a mixed solution of 5% alum 
and 5% phosphate of ammonia, gave equally 
satisfactory results. Even when gunpowder 
was rubbed into goods thus treated, they simply 
charred and the powder simply puff'ed. He 
suggests that female operatives exposed to dan- 
ger from fire should have their working dresses 
impregnated and rendered uninflammable by the 
plan above described. The dress could be used 
a considerable time without requiring to be 
washed, and hence the cost of reimpregnation 
(about 50 cents) would not prove a serious item. 

A Dining Room Clock. — There was recently 
received at the Milan exposition a great curi- 
osity in the shape of a clock made entirely of 
bread. The maker is a Peruvian, a native In- 
dian, and he has devoted three years of his life 
to the construction of this curiosity. He was 
very poor, and being without means to purchase 
the necessary metal deprived himself regularly 
of a portion of his daily bread, which he de- 
voted to the construction of this curiosity, eat- 
ing the crust and saving the soft i)art for his 
work. He made use of a certain salt to solidify 
his material, and when the various pieces were 
dry they were perfectly hard and insoluble in 
water. The clock is of respectable size, and 
goes perfectly well. The case, which is also of 
hardened bread, displays great talent, both in 
design and execution, and taken altogether it 
would be difficult to find a greater curiosity. 

Human Temperature in the Tropics. — We 
learn from the Medical Times and Gazeile that 
Surgeon Major .lohuston has made an extensive 
series of observations in India, on the subject of 
the normal temperature of the body in the 
tropics, and has found that, contrary to the 
general opinion, it is rather lower than the 
average temperature in the north. In one series 
of observations he found the mean axillary tem- 
perature to be f)7.6.S°, and in another, 97.74°. 

THE FiiClFie 

Y©^P*Q p©Lks^ C@nJ|flJM. 

An Angry Baby. 

No human bein? who saw that sight 
But felt a shudder of pale affright. 
He sat in a window three stories high 
A little baby; with no one nigh. 

A stranger saw him, and stopped to stare; 
A crowd soon gathered to watch him there; 
A gleam ! aflutter!— in airy flight 
Came past the window, a butterfly bright ! 

From fields of clover and perfumed air, 
Wayfaring insect, what brought you there'.' 
The baby saw it, and eagerly 
Reached out to catch it with glowing glee— 

With fat, pink fingers reached out and— fell ! 
The awful horror no tongue can tell ! 
Poor little baby, so sweet and bright ! 
Pale faces (piivercd, and lips grew white ; 

Weak women fainted; strong men grew weak; 
I ip rose one woman's heart-piercing shriek. 
Hurrah for the awning ! Upon the fly 
It caught the youngster and tossed him high. 

The bounce prodigious made baby scowl ; 
He caught his breath, sir, and sent up a hnwi. 
All blessed the awning that had no Haw - 
But a madder baby you never saw ! 

A Birthday Chocolate Cake. 


One cup of butter melted witli a wish, 
Tao cups of sugar sifted through a kiss, 
Three cups of flour to make it solid stand. 
And four eggs beaten with a firm but gentle hand. 
The little bit of lemon, we will call the spice of life, 
The chocolate running through it may be marks of war 
and strife, 

But the whole is crusted over with an icing pure and 

As will be your life among us if you let God guide your 

Then please accept this cake with love, 

About it is no fraud, 

But earnest wishes for your health, 

Youra truly, MArii. 

St. Helena, Cal. 

A Pretty Incident. — The New York Been- 
inij Pout had recently an incident proving that 
cats and dogs are not always antagonistic, 
which called forth a companion case from one 
of its correspondents. The writer says: I am 
reminded of something of the sort that came 
beneath my observati<m some years ago. A 
small curly black dog that we called "-Jip," be- 
came wonderfully attached to a miserable black 
and white kitten — the least of the litter — and 
80 great was their regard for each other that 
where one was, there the other was sure to be. 
We gave the kitten to a neighbor, whereupon 
Jip refused food for days, and actually moped 
till she became a mere shadow. To save her 
life I went after the kitten, which I found in 
the same ghostly condition, and never, never 
shall that scene of meeting be effaced from the 
memory of those that witnessed it. They 
rushed — or rather crawled into each other's 
embrace and gave many signs of joy. A good 
square meal and a long nap followed the re- 
union. In after years, however, as the kitten 
grew, this mutual afl'ection was lessened to a 
great extent, although they always treated each 
other with great respect. 

She Saw. — A tacky sort of a boy stood in 
front of a house on Sprout street yesterday for 
a full quarter of an hour, gently rubbing his 
sore heel against the fence-pickets and thinking 
deeply; but there was a well-counterfeited look 
of alarm on his face as his vigorous pull at the 
bell got the woman of the house to the tloor. 

" What is it ?" she asked as she looked this 
way and that and danced around. 

" Pull down your windows — bolt yer doors — 
yard all full of lions !" he replied as he skipped 
for the gate. 

She uttered a little scream and disappeared, 
and for half an hour that house was as tightly 
closed as a postoffice box on the upper tier. 
Then the woman cautiously put her head out, 
gazed around, grew bolder, and finally appeared 
in the front yard. She looked about her, her 
chin trembling a little, but by degrees a pecu- 
liar look stole over her face. 

"Yes — um — I see?" she snapped as she 
turned to go in. "The boy saw those tiger- 
lilies and played a game on mo. Um — I see !" 

She never thought of dandelions. 

What Neddy Remembered. — I knew a 
blessed lady to whom Cxod had sent no children; 
so she took five orphan little ones as her own. 
At her death they were scattered in new homes, 
and Neddy, six years old, came to bid me good- 
bye. "A good many things mother taught me 
I 'spose I'll forget," said he. "I'm so little. 
But one thing I shall remember." "What is it, 
Neddy?" "She told me 'fore I 'lowed myself 
to think of anybody's badness, to stop and think 
real hard to see if I didu't have some badness, 

"You boys ought to be very kind to your 
little sister," said a moralist. "I once knew a 
little boy who struck his sister a blow over the 
eye. Although she didn't slowly pine away and 
die in the early summer time, when the June 
roses were blowing, with words of sweet for- 
giveness on her pallid lips, she rose up and hit 
him over the head with the rolling-pin, so that 
he couldn't go to Sunday-school for more than 
a month, on account of not being able to put 
his best hat on. " 

A little boy went to his father crying, and 
told him that he had kicked a bee that had a 
splinter in its tail. 


Hints to Nervous Invalids, 

Dr. Holbrook, in the Herald of Health, gives 
the following advice: Take plenty of sleep. 
Eight or nine hours each night will be better 
than less. But this is the chief difficulty; if 
you are nervous you cannot sleep; and a good 
night's sleep is both the cause and effect of com- 
ing recovery. When your sleep departs you 
are sick; when it returns you are well. So that 
hints to nervous invalids simply resolve them- 
selves into rules for getting sleep. I give you 
mine, which has been burnt into me by a long 

1. Take not less than two hours of physical 
exercise each day, and in the open air if possi- 
ble. Work of some kind is better than gym- 
nastics, but swinging dumb-bells or Indian 
clubs is better than nothing. Useful labor I 
believe to be far the best, since the mind as 
well as the body has something to do with 
sleep and health. It is said that Lyman Beecher 
used to keep a pile of sand in his cellar and 
shovel it for exercise. Doubtless it was better 
than nothing; but for me let it be work, with 
hoe or spade, or ax or saw, or broom or flatiroii, 
or washtub or kneading-trough, or something 
that does somebody some good. If you are too 
rich or too busy, or your time is too precious 
for you to do any of these things, or if you are 
so elegant, refined and fashionable that you are 
afraid of losing caste and soiling your white 
hands, then know that you are probably too 
refined and too lazy ever to have the best sleep 
and health. Excursitms and travel may do you 
good, but never what some manual labor would 
do. God has made a law about "the sweat of 
the face," and no mortal can dodge it. The 
banker and the beggar, the queen and the maid- 
servant are alike subject to it. 

2. Do not overwork the brain. Reading, 
writing, the hard study of books, and continued 
thouglit witliout any books, are all of them 
very healthful in moderation. But a little 
excess in any of these things will overtax your 
nerves and brain and drive away your sleep. 
Going to Dirties, making and receiving calls are 
all subject to the same law. If you see com- 
pany and talk more than you ought to, you will 
not sleep. 

3. Avoid all mental labor at night. If you 
are very feeble you may have to stop reading 
and writing, and stop seeing company and hold- 
ing conversation as soon as the sun goes down 
— possibly before — and devote yourself to the 
sole business of keeping quiet. It may aid you 
to record in your diary the number of hours 
each day that you devote to manual and mental 
labor and to company, and the result of each 
day's work upon your health, until you have 
learned how much of each you can do without 
driving away your sleep. 

4. When preparing to retire, warm your feet, 
with a hot bath it may be, and let your head 
cool. Warm your back, the naked skin; heat 
it between the shoulders — with a firebrand or 
some other way — as hot as you can endure it, 
but be careful not to heat the back of your 
head. If necessary, ask your physician for a 
counter-irritant, of croton oil or something, and 
rub it up and down the spine, especially between 
the shoulders, until it brings out an eruption. 
It will draw the blood from the head and 
greatly relieve you. A vigorous rubbing of the 
back by an attendant will help greatly. But 
do not let the attendant talk too much. Even 
the glare of the lamp drives away sleep. So 
put it out, and you will get drowsy sooner. 
The light of a great fire will be enough. 

Brain-Feeding. — The London Lancet is glad 
to find some small tokens that the need of 
"brain-feeding" is beginning to be recognized 
by the lay public. For example, it is at length 
perceived that to perform intellectual work 
thoroughly men must be supplied with fresh 
air. This scrap of wisdom has been excogitated 
in connection with the controversy about the 
ventilation of courts of justice. It is not un- 
reasonable to anticipate that in process of time 
it may dawn on the consciousness of ordinary 
thinkers that just as muscle is fed and trained 
for physical exercise, so brain needs to be pre- 
pared and sustained in mind-work. The press 
of work and the strain of worry are so great in 
these days of hot haste and breathless enter- 
prise that, except under conditions rarely estab- 
lished and maintained, the power of self-nour- 
ishment and repair in the niind-organ is not 
sufliciently strong to keep it in health. It fol- 
lows that it must be fed and nourished by 
special design. An adequate supply of oxygen 
is the preliminary requirement. Then comes 
the question of food; and, whatever else may 
feed the brain, workers with this organ should 
be assurred that alcohol will not sustain it. 
Alcoholism and oxygenation are directly antag- 
onistic processes; and even if alcohol be food 
for the brain, the organ cannot feed when the 
nutrient fluid circulating in its vessels is dis- 
abled from the task of conveying oxygen, 
which happens whenever spirit is present m 
more than very moderate proportions in the 
blood. The relief afforded by alcohol from the 
sense of depression procured by a sack of oxy- 
gen, is, therefore illusory. It is produced by 
over stimulating an organ which is both ex- 
hausted and impaired. 


Golden Coffee and Strawberry Short- 

Editors Press: — For two persons, take four 
heaping teaspoons ground coffee, tie up in a 
piece of Swiss muslin (leave room for expan- 
sion), pour on one pint boiling water, cover close 
and set on back of stove ten minutes. Beat 
one egg with dover egg beater thoroughly, di- 
vide it into two coffee cups, add the usual quan- 
tity sugar for each. Hold the cofl'ee urn high 
up, pour the boiling coffee on the egg, add the 
warm milk, and, with the golden foam stand- 
ing above the rim of the cup, you have a pretty 
picture to look at, and will think you never 
knew how good coffee could taste before. 
Tiptop Strawberry Sliort-Cake. 

One egg beaten, one large cup sweet milk, 
one heaping tablespoon sugar, one teaspoon 
salt, two teaspoons even full cream tartar in 
the flour, one even teaspoon soda dissolved in 
one-half cup boiling water, stir briskly to a thin 
batter, bake on round griddles size of dinner 
plate, spread each cake with butter and sugar 
and mashed berries as fast as cooked, and add 
bits of jelly with the berries if handy. This 
cake, with a cup of the "golden coffee " accom- 
panying this recipe, will keep some woman or 
women busy during the berry season. Don't 
attempt it unless you can cook old-fashioned 
slap jacks properly. It's such a pity to spoil 
good things. G. E. C. 

Sunshine Cottage, Santa Barbara. 

Roast Beef with Yorkshire Pudding. 

Our memories of our boyhood are fragrant 
with the aroma of roast beef and Yorkshire pud- 
ding. We are glad to see a printed formula for 
securing what to us exists only in memory. 
Clara Francis, writing to' the Prairie Farmer, 
gives the following instructions : 

If you use an oven for roasting, place the beef 
in a dripping pan with one tablespoonful of 
water, and set it in a very hot oven; in 10 min- 
utes let the heat go down a little, but keep a 
good steady fire. Baste the meat often with its 
own drippings, and allow from 10 to 15 minutes 
for each pound. An hour before it is done, 
sprinkle well with salt and pepper, and surround 
it with peeled potatoes which must be also well 
basted, and turned in cooking so that all sides 
may be browned alike. Remove the beef when 
done to a hot platter, and lay the potatoes 
around it. Many prefer the gravy which runs 
from the meat, but if a made gravy is wished, 
turn nearly all the drippings from the pan, and 
pour into it half a pint of boiling water; stir in 
a teaspoonful of corn-starch dissolved in a tea- 
cupful of cold water; season to taste with salt 
and pepper, and when it boils up once, pour 
through the gravy-strainer into a gravy-boat. 
Roast Beef with Yorkshire Pudding. 

Three-quarters of an hour before the beef is 
done, pour nearly all the drippings from the 
pan, then place the meat on a small wire trivet, 
or, lacking this, put it on a wire grating or even 
a few sticks across the top of the pan. Pour the 
pudding into the pan, and return all to the 
oven; the drippings from the meat will fall on 
the pudding and season it. When they are 
done, place the meat in the middle of a platter, 
and lay the pudding — cut in pieces — around it. 
If preferred, the latter may be baked in a sepa- 
rate pan, and served around the meat in the 
same manner. 

For the pudding. — To a pint of sifted flour 
add a teaspoonful of salt, and half a pint of 
milk; add the beaten yolks of four eggs, then 
another half pint of milk. Lastly put in the 
whites of the four eggs beaten to a stift' froth. 
Beat well together just before putting into the 
oven, and bake three-quarters of an hour. 

Brocoli with White Sauce. — Pick out all 
the green leaves from a couple of brocoli, and 
cut off the stalks close. Put them head down- 
wards into a saucepan full of boiling salted 
water. When done, pick them out into sprigs, 
and anange them downwards in a pudding 
basin, which must have been made quite hot. 
Press them in gently, then turn them out dex- 
terously on a dish, and pour over them tlie fol- 
lowing sauce, boiling hot: Melt one and one-half 
ounces of butter in a saucepan, mix with it a 
tablespoonful of flour, and then add half a pint 
of boiling water ; stir till it thickens ; add salt 
and white pepper to taste ; then take the sauce- 
pan off the fire and stir in the yolks of two eggs 
beaten up with the juice of a lemon and strained. 

Calf'.s Heart — Calf's heart if well cooked, 
is a very cheap as well as x'alatable dish. Do 
not soak it in water, but merely wash it well, 
then fill with a stuffing the same as for turkeys. 
Cover the open end with a buttered paper, and 
put it to cook in a small dripping pan. Lay 
over it a slice or two of salt pork; pour a little 
boiling water in the nan, but baste very often. 
When partly done, sprinkle well with salt and 
pepper and baste once or twice with melted 
butter. It will require about two hour's cook- 
ing, and must not be allowed to dry or burn. 
Make a nice brown gravy with the drippings 
that remain in the pan, and serve the heart 
very hot, with boiled onions as an accompani- 

I II ^ 



[July 13, 1878. 

t;Y & CO., Publishers. 

A. T. DE>\KV. W. B. EWER. 

Office, 202 Sansome St., N. E. Corner Pine. St. 

Annvtal Si-BSCRii'Tioxfl, if4; six months, $2; three 
months, *1.25. When paid fully one jear in advance, 
FIFTY CBNT.S will be deducted. Nii NBW names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Kemiltances by regis- 
tered letters or P. O. orders at our risk. 
AVERTisi.NO Ratbs. 1 Week. 1 month. 3 mos. 12 mos. 

Per line 25 .80 J2.00 8 5.00 

Half inch (1 square). 00 «3.00 7.50 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 14 00 40.00 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 

A. T. DgWKT. 

W. B. gWER. 



Saturday, July 13. 1878. 


GENERAL EDITORIALS.- Hurduns of Debtor 
and Creditor; l)esif;n for Gothic Cotla.;;c, 17. The Week; 
Increasins the Demand for Dairy Products, 24. Life 
and Death of the (.ira-sshmiper; Growing Wild Rice; 
The Ertel Portable Pres.^i. 25. Resources and History 
of Shasta County.— No.|.l; Our "Cioveniors" heard From; 
Notices of Kccciit Patents, 28. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. - Desijin for a Cottage in Gothic 
Style, 17. Wild Kite of the Northwest; The Ertel Por- 
table One. horse llav Press, 25. 

QUERIES AND REPLIES.- Insects on Cucum- 
ber and Scj\uish \'incs; Iii.sects Boring Sycamore Wood; 
The I'recnci.nis Punielo; The New Cattle Disease; Chev- 
alier Barlcv; Plaster Casts. 24. 

CORRESPONDENCE — Wheat and Cheat, 18. 

THE STABLE. — Breeding Horses in California.— No. 
e, 18 

FLORICULTURE.— Oalladiums — The Cacalia, 18- 

SHEEP AND WOOL.— The Wool Trade of the 

Half- Year, 19. 
THE VINEYARD. -ShippingGinpes Eastward, 19. 
THE DAIRY.--Pure Milk by the "French Method;" 

Perfection of Filth in the Dairy; Gucnisev Butter. 19. 
THE STOCK YARD — .M. B Sturges' Short Horns; 

Live Stock Report, 19. 

Woman's Rights; Celebration of the Fourth at Pilot 

Hill, AO. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on 21 and other pages. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California, 20-21. 

HOME CIRCLE —.Mr. Bryant's Laiit Poem— The 
Twenty-second of February; What the Poor Girls Need 
(poetry); Leona's Pride; Bryant's Tera|K;rate Habits, 
New Volcano in Peru; How Peter Bennet won his Case 
in Court, 22. Infants' Clothing; Intlammable Dress 
Goods; A Dining Room Clock, 22. 

A Birthd.ay Chocolate Cake (poetry); A Pretty Ineiderit; 
She Saw, 23. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Hints to Nervous Invalids; Brain- 
Feeding, 23. 

DOMEaTlC ECONOMY. -Golden Coffee and Straw- 
berry Short-Cake; Roast Beef with Yorkshire Pudding; 
Broccoli with White Sauce; Calf's Heart, 23. 


Spanish Merino Sheep, E. W. Woolsey, Berkeley, Alameda 
Co., Cal. ; Washington College, Washington, .Alameda 
Co., Cal., S. S Harmon, Principal; The Ertel Economy 
One-Horse Hay, Straw and Moss Press, Geo. Ertel, 
i^uincy, III. 

The Week. 

Tho harvest area now embraces the bay coun- 
ties, and the dense smoke of the threshing 
engine can be seen, with now and then a jet of 
feathery steam as the "portable" salutes his big 
brother, the locomotive, and, with his own feet 
in the stocks, envies the locomotive's flight 
toward the horizon. Thus has it always been: the 
youngster doomed to pick up chips in the farm 
yard, while the elder, pride of the family, with 
budding hopes of manhood, hooks on to the best 
buggy and rides away into the illimitable with 
Nancy, tho neighbor's daughter. Never mind, 
little down-trodden one, your time will come. 

Now that the fields come to the test of the 
reaper, it is seen that nearly everywhere there 
is severe damage from rust. From the severe 
visitation in the Salinas valley, the evil extends 
north and south and eastwards, making some 
tields wholly unworthy of the harvester, and in 
others leaving naught but small weights of 
shrunken and shriveled grain. Sad indeed will 
be the consequences to many an honest worker, 
who, surviving the drouth last year, put all his 
labor, his cash, his credit, and his hopes into 
this year's promise of plenty, and will hardly 
reap enough to nourish his family through the 
year. Such instances always awaken in us feel- 
ings of the deepest sympathy, and prompt us to 
ask for all such unfortunate ones the substantial 
aid and encouragement of more fortunate neigh- 
bors. Do all you can to put these trembling 
ones upon their feet again. 

The week has brought to Europe assurance of 
^n enduring peace, and Britain has said hush 
to the noisy death-makers in her arsenals. But 
•while the ensanguined demon of war is couched 
in Europe, he rears his head in our Northwest 
country. In Idaho and eastern Oregon the 
dread scenes of Indian warfare are being en- 
acted. The lierce red men are met by the reg- 
ulars and by companies of brave volunteers, but 
their cruel deeds are not yet stayed. Eastern 
congressmen in their secure homes have to 
answer for crippling the army until the brave 
frontiersmen are almost at the mercy of the 
savages. They have been guilty of a sad mis- 

Increasing the Demand for Dairy Prod- 

The foreign demand for American dairy prod- 
ucts has furnished the opportunity for the 
marvelous growth of the dairy interest in the 
Eastern States during the last 20 years. The 
consumption of cheese, particularly in this 
country, would warrant but a small part of the 
investment of labor and capital which the manu- 
facture now receives. The field for the con- 
sumption of surplus American dairy products, 
as well as grain products, lie across the water. 
Our Eastern dairy friends have in England just 
the hungry and persistent consumer which they 
require. The Eastern States have now in pos- 
session what we greatly need, a profitable held 
for large exports. If we could secure on the 
eastern coast of Asia, a market like that they 
have on the western coast of Europe, California 
might increase her dairy interest 100-fold and 
euricli her citizens with the results of profitable 
production. No one can say that this is not 
possible. No one can deny that, at some time 
in the future, cargoes of PaciHc coast dairy pro- 
duce may take steam for China and Japan, as 
they now take steam westward from New York 
city. But, though this is within the region of 
possibilities, it will not do, of course, to take 
steps toward manufacturing for such a prospect 
until the demand calls for the goods. The 
thing which it is wise to do, and which should 
by all means be done, is to set at work such 
agencies as we may command toward creating 
such a demand, by endeavoring to win Asiatic 
consumers to an article of food desirable as good 
American cheese is acknowledged to be. 

There are perhaps several ways by which this 
missionary work for our cheese could be pro- 
moted. We would speak especially of one 
movement which is now being undertaken in 
the interest of Eastern producers, but in which 
we should enjoy a share. Ex-(Jovernor Horatio 
Seymour, of New York, is one of the most zeal- 
ous and able of the promoters of the dairy inter- 
ests in this country. Some time since the State 
Department at Washington sent circulars to 
our representatives abroad, to make inquiries 
about the best way of getting American prod- 
ucts into the markets of different countries. 
The answers returned were of interest and 
value. Mr. Seymour noticed that none of them 
related to the products of the dairy. There- 
fore, in behalf of a large class of farmers in the 
Northern States, Mr. .Seymour wrote to Mr. 
Evarts and asked him to send out a similar 
circular, which would give the dairymen facts 
that might enlarge their markets. We can 
make butter and cheese at a lower price than 
any other peojile, for the cost of doing this 
turns upon the price of land rather than upon 
that of labor. As we have cheap and fertile 
lands, we can compete in these branches of 
industry with greater advantage than in any 
other kind of farming. But to do this we must 
know the tastes an<i habits of the people with 
whom we hope to deal. Mr. .Seymour has not 
received an answer to this letter, but he trusts 
the department will aid the dairy, as it has 
other interests, by learning from our representa- 
tives all the facts about the demands for cheese 
and the kind best fitted for different markets. 
As this is one of the largest articles of export, 
it concerns not only a great body of our farmers, 
but the financial condition of our whole coun- 
try, that we should be able to increase its jjro- 
duction and sale. 

The Department of State could do good 
service for this coast, if it would push the 
inquiry which Governor Seymour suggests. 
We are shipping some cheese to Asiatic ports. 
Our representatives at these ports could ascer- 
tain whether these supplies are wholly taken 
for foreigners residing there or whether they 
are gaining introduction into the diet of the 
natives. They could determine whetlier the 
natives are able to purchase such food at the 
rates for which we can furnish it, and whether 
there are articles in their diet for which cheese 
can be substituted, as it is for meat in other 
thickly settled countries, where meat is of 
necessity high priced. Nor is the Asiatic coast 
the only region from which we should like to 
have facts bearing upon this subject. There 
might be points on the southern stretch of this 
coast and the western coast of South America, 
where certain amounts could be prohtably 
placed. We do not expect the Department of 
State to market the great surplus of dairy prod- 
ucts which we could manufacture, but it could 
wisely ascertain for us the primal facts of the 
tastes and the habits of the people who touch 
the great circle of our ocean and whom we could 
easily reach from our ports. 

It is quite clear that to make profitable ex- 
tension of our dairy industry on this coast, we 
must have an outlet for export of the product. 
Nor is the need less urgent in our fruit-growing 
industry. This shoultl largely enjoy the field 
opened by foreign shipments. Quite a business 
is now done in this line, and California canned 
fruits have won their way in Asia, Europe and 
Oceanica, as well as in remote parts of America. 
But this movement could be increased a hundred 
fold by due effort in opening new markets in 
different parts of the world. This, as well 
as the d.airy, deserves the attention of the State 
department, and our consuls and accredited 
agents in other countries could well be in- 
structed to examine the question in their dif- 
ferent locations. 

It has been truly observed that no country in 

the world has the qualities for successful agri- 
cultural production so marked as our own. We 
have abundant land, labor and unsurpassed 
mechanical appliances for it. What we need is 
a vigorous pushing of the surplus product to 
every corner of the world, and the government 
cannot serve the country better than by giving 
constant and vigilant attention to aid individual 
producers by securing for them knowledge of 
facts and tendencies, which are beyond in- 
dividual investigation. We know there is good 
work now being done by the State department 
in this direction. Let it be extended. 

The Fair Season. 

The following is a partial list of the coming 
fairs. We shall be pleased to add to it if read- 
ers will send us the dates and locations of their 
respective exhi'bitions: 

San Francisco Slechanics'J Institute, San Francisco, 
.\ugust i:?th to September 14th. 

California State Agricultural Society, September 16th 
to 21st, inclusive. 

Oregon State fair, at Salem, October 8th to 18th, in- 

Nevada State Agricultural, Mining and Mechanical 
fair, at Reno, October 7th to l'2th, inclusive. 

Montana Agricultural, Mineral and Mechanical fair, 
at Helena, September *23d to 29th, inclusive. 

Sonoma and Marin district fair, at I'etaluma, September 
23d to •28th, inclusive. 

San Joaquin \alley district fair, at Stockton, September 
24th to *28th, inclusive. 

Northern district fair, at Marysville, September 2.'id to 
28th, inclusive. 

Golden Gate district fair, at Oakland, September 9th to 
ICth, inclusive. 

Napa and Solano district fair, at Vallejo, September 3d. 

Monterey comity district fair, at Salinas City, October 
l.Sth to 19th inclusive. 

Siskiyou county fair, at Yreka, October 2d to 5th, in- 

lil Dorado county fair, at Placorville, September 13th 
to 15th, inclusive. 

Santa Clara valley fair, at San Jose, September 30th to 
October 5th, inclusive. 

Stanislaus CouTity Stock Growers Fair, at Modesto, 
October 9th to 11 h inclusive. 

Southern California Horticultural Fair, at Los Angeles, 
October 14th to October 19th, inclusive. 

Southern California Agriculrural Society's Fair, at Los 
Angeles, October 14th to October 19th, inclusive. 

Ste.\m Plowing Treacherous Lands. — 
Steam plowing outfits were brought to this port 
last summer to use on tule lands, and there was 
a proposition before Congress to admit them free 
of duty for experimental purposes, as our read- 
ers will remember. Whether this bill prevail- 
ed or not we are not sure, but we fear not. 
However it is of interest to note that steam ar- 
rangements are being used in England upon 
lands which will not admit the passage of heavy 
plowing teams because it does not give them a 
safe foothold. In England such lands are 
plowed by steam engines drawing plows by 
wire cables. One case is noted in Wales where 
the surroundings of the locality were so treacher- 
ous and difficult that the engine had to be 
placed some 700 or 800 yards distant from the 
land cultivated; indeed, before the aid of steam 
was called in, the attempt to do the work by 
horses was not only dangerous, but impractica- 
ble. With the aid however of steam the diffi- 
culties of the work were all overcome, and it 
may now be said that this great scheme has be- 
come a remarkable success; for, where but thret 
years ago all was a watery waste, this year 
there are hundreds of acres of promising grain 

Liming Laud fob Sorrel. — A ■»-riter in the 
Country Oentlfman wishes to know "whether 
sorrel jjrevails in any of the Western States and 
if any portions are exempt, what is the mineral 
character of the land, or what their recent 
treatment ? " We cannot say how widely the 
evil exists in this .State, but we know that some 
of our best coast dairy ])astures are becoming 
very foul with this noxious growth. We arc 
not aware that any remedy has been tried ex- 
cept cultivation and seeding with fresh grasses. 
The Eastern writer finds liming the land is 
a remedy in Pennsylvania. He says that 
"through the whole country from the Susque- 
hanna to the Delaware, viewed a month ago, 
we might detect the absence of any recent ap- 
plication of lime by the appearance of sorrel in 
the grass fields. It may be that the principles 
that appear to obtain here, with respect to the 
antagonism of sorrel and lime, ■will not be sus- 
tained in the experience of farmers in other 
.States." Will our readers tell us whether they 
have tried lime and with what effect '! If lime 
is a sovereign cure, it would be well to know 
and practice it for the sorrel comes in on lands 
difficult to cultivate, sometimes, and yet valua- 
ble for their natural pasturage. What is ex- 
perience on this point ? 

National Agricultural Congress. — We 
receive from .Tonathan Periam, Secretary, an 
announcement of the assembling of the National 
Agricultural Congress in New Haven, Conn., 
August 17th. The object of the association is 
"the collection and dissemination of informa- 
tion in relation to agriculture in the several 
States and Territories, and concerning the cli- 
matic, economical, ancL other conditions affect- 
ing its progress and prosijerity. " The society 
numbers among its members some of our lead- 
ing practical agriculturists and scientific inves- 
tigators of agricultural topics. We hope its 
numbers may be largely increased and its pub- 
lished translations widely disseminated. Hon. 
Ci. W. Colby, of Nord, Butte county, is Vice- 
President for California, and Prof. Hilgard 
is a member of the standing committee on "Ag- 
ricultural Chemistry, Soils and Manures." 

On File. — "Loss and Gain, " F. F.; "Prun- 
ing," M. P. O.; "Farm Notes," J. W. A. W. 


Insects on Gncnmber and Squash Vines. 

Editors Press:— Can you tell me through the Rural 
Press what will keep the bugs from eating up our cucum- 
ber, melons and squash vines'f By doing so you will con- 
fer a great favor — J. B. Ti its, Davisville, Solano county, 

There are several dififerent insects which prey 
upon these vines. They generally do most 
harm when the vines are starting, and if they 
once get a good vigorous start they outgrow 
their enemies, which are short-lived and appear 
only for a short season. When the attack is 
chiefly made upon the first or seed leaves, the 
hills may be protected by surrounding the hill 
with a box with no top or bottom, but covered 
by glass or gauze. We know a large grower of 
cucumbers at the East who had several hun- 
dreds of these boxes in constant use. If the in- 
sects attack the vines when larger grown, this 
treatment is, of course, impossible. The best 
thing we know of is to stimulate the growth of 
the vines as much as possible by giving them 
water and then to powder the leaves with 
ashes, air-slaked lime or ground hellebore, the 
last named being a poison, but not dangerous 
when carefully used. These powders should be 
shaken from a sieve when the dew is on the 
leaves. If any of our readers have remedies 
which have served them well 'we should be 
pleased to know them. 

Insects Boring Sycamore Wood. 

EniTORs Press:— I read an article some time ago from 
your pai)er about insects working in wood, which hag 
stirred me a little, and I am looking about for the worm 
or bug which is eating my wood. I had a stick of syca- 
more a foot or more through which had been cut about 
three years. It was sawed into stove wood, length about 
18 inches, and both ends of the i>ieee8 resemble a wire 
sieve, being full of holes about as large around as a large 
pin head. Apparently the insects after remaining in 
their burrow for two or three minutes, come out, with all 
the sawdust they can carry, on the outside of the log. 1 
could send you a pound of it to-day. — Erie Locke, Pasa- 
dena, Los Angeles county. 

Our correspondent sends with this note a lit- 
tle package of the insect "sawdust" or borings 
of which he speaks. We find no insects in the 
package, nor are ■we able from the debris to tell 
what manner of insect is doing the mischief in 
the wood. We hope he may catch some of the 
insects and send them to us. It is a well- 
known fact that some insects take to a diet and 
habitation in seasoned wood as well as enter 
and undergo transformations in the living tree. 
The dust or powder which we received is quite 
like that manufactured by the laurel borer. 
The insect may be similar to the laurel borer or 
quite different. The specimens will establish 
this point. 

The Precocious Pumela 

Editors' Press: — The Lusus naturae, in the 
form of a Pumelo orange tree, in bloom at two 
months old, described and illustrated in the 
Rural of June 29th, was a subject of much 
interest. It may not be generally known that 
such freaks of nature are not very rare with 
other varieties of the citrus family. Five years 
ago, a little plant in a seed bed on a ranch in 
Sonoma valley, showed a perfect blossom when 
four inches high and not more than two or 
three months old. The fruit did not set at that 
time nor has the tree shown any signs of bloom- 
ing since. This plant was raised from seed of 
the common Los Angeles orange. In 1875, 
says the Florida Ayi-icuUurist, a shaddock, or 
grape fruit, in the grounds of D. L. Yulee, at 
Fernandina, Florida, six inches in hight, bore a 
perfectly developed fruit, though of small size. 
Another plant on the same grounds, 10 inches 
high and only a few months old, produced fruit. 
Other instances of a similar character have been 
mentioned in this State, but we cannot now re- 
call dates and places.— G. P. Rixford, .San 

Plaster Casts. 

Editors Press:— 'i'ou will confer a favor by giving the 
address of some reliable dealer where good plaster caste 
of statuary are sold. I mean really good and beautiful 
pieces, suitable for parlor, library, hall, fernery or foun- 
tains. I can give your readers directions for preparing 
them waterproof for fountains and out-door use —Mrs. 
CniLns, Santa Barbara. 

Our city solicitor reports himself unable to 
find an established dealer in these goods. The 
making and selling is done by peripatetic 
Italians. Perhaps it would be well to give the 
directions for water-proofing, and then when- 
ever any reader catches a plaster nymph sport- 
ing in his fountain, he ■will be all ready to pre- 
serve her from the H'et. 

The Ne^w Cattle Disease. 

Editors Press: — I have seen a few cases of the 
new cattle disease. The pnly way to save 
them is take four bottles of claret wine, give it 
to them to drink and use a little turpentine on 
the head.— A. T., Old Creek, San Luis Obispo 
Co., Cal. 

Chevalier Barley. 

Editors Press:— Will you or some of your correspond- 
ents favor me with some information as to the yield and 
growth of Chevalier barley? 1 »m told that it does not 
yield more than half as much as the ordinary barley and 
"that it invariably lodges. Any information as to this 
barley will be gratefully received. — Sibscriber, Los 
.\ngcles, Cal. 

Chevalier barley has the reputation of being 
less vigorous than the common grain, both in 
strength of stem and in liability to rust. In 
some localities Chevalier has been nearly 
abandoned for the most part for these reasons. 
As for amount of yield, we are not able to make 
the comparison. Will readers furnish the 
information desired. 

July 13, 1878.1 



Life and Death of the Grasshopper. 

The Government Entomological Commmis- 
sion, consisting of Profs. Riley, Thomas and 
Packard, has finished its immediate labors in 
investigating the destructive Kocky mountain 
locust. Their formal report will soon be issued 
as a volume of the Hayden survey reports and 
it will contain more accurate information con- 
cerning this insect scourge than has ever before 
been made known. The Commission has found 
that the species of locust which does the great 
injury in the Prairie States never crosses the 
Sierra Nevadas. We have on this coast species 
of our own, and, if the item which we give in 
our "Agricultural Notes" this week, concerning 
the finding of a six-inch grasshopper in the San 
Joaquin valley, be accurate, we have game in 
this Kne which the Government entomologists 
had better set their traps for. 

From the forthcoming report, a forecast of 
which is furnished to the press, it will 
appear that the area in which the locust 
breeds each year, in greater or less num- 
bers, the commission says, is approximately 
300,000 square miles in extent. It is not to be 
inferred that the locust breeds continuously 
over the whole of this area each year, for it is 
to be understood that the locust within its na- 
tive permanent habitat is essentially migratory 
in its habits. For a series of years it may de- 
posit its eggs in a given river valley, in some 
park, or in some favorable area in some of the 
plains lying about the mountains, yet it may 
desert its customary breeding-grounds for ad- 
joining regions, or cross a low range of moun- 
tains and breed in a more distant valley. Even 
in this area the true hatching-grounds are for 
the most part conlined to the river bottoms or 
sunny slopes of uplands, or to the subalpine 
grassy areas among the mountains, rather than 
continuously over the more elevated, dry, bleak 
plains. The area in which the locust breeds 
lies mainly between longitude 102°, and 114^ 
West of Greenwich, and latitude 53° and 40° 

From this general breeding-ground the locust 
is distributed in all direction. The eastern 
limit of its range is marked by the commission 
by the following line: "From the southern end 
of Lake Winnipeg, by way of Lake of the 
Woods to Pierce county, Wisconsin; thence 
directly south to Poweshiek county, Iowa; then 
southwest to Worth county, Missouri; then 
south through Montgomery county Arkansas, 
to Houston, Texas, curving westward from this 
point to Live Oak county, Texas." 

In Manitoba the eastern and also the north- 
ern limit corresponds very closely with, the 
timber line. Generally the northernmost limit 
of distribution extends to Fort Pitt, in latitude 
53° 40', and the northern limit of the lange of 
Caloptenus, which is the most trouble- 
some species of the locust, extends nearly to the 
southern limits of the forests which lie partly 
upon the 53 J parallel, but in a greater part be- 
tween longitude 104° and 114° and above the 
projected route of the Canadian Pacific railroad. 
It is probable that other species range north of 
tliese limits, but it is not probable that the 
tipretus ranges beyond the line of coniferous 
trees lying along the north shore of the north- 
ern branch of the Saskatchewan river. The 
extreme western limit of the distribution of 
these locusts is the eastern flank of the Cascade 
range in Oregon and Washington Territory, 
and the Sierra Nevada mountains, thougli in 
many parts of the country they do not reach a 
point so far west. 

As to the southern limit, the commission 
lacked data for determining this line satisfac- 
torily. All that its members are able to say in 
reference to it is that the locusts have 
been known to cross the Rio Grande at 
Eagle Pass, and to penetrate a mil*" and a 
half into Mexico; that they have been ob- 
served in western Texas as far as the settle- 
ments have been extended; that they have 
penetrated New Mexico on the northeast 
as far as Las Vegas and Fort Union, and 
they have passed down in the mountain re- 
gion from Colorado to Taos, and possibly 
further soutli. 

The report of the Commission will enumer- 
ate the different ways proposed for the 
destruction of the locust. The means to be 
employed, the Commission says, very nat- 
urally falls into Kve divisions; first, encour- 
agement of natural agencies; secondly, de- 
struction of the eggs; thirdly, destruction 
of the young or unfledged insects; fourthly, 
destruction of the mature or winged in- 
sects; fifthly, preventive measures. The 
means suggested for the destruction of the 
eggs are, first, harrowing in the autumn. 
This during dry, mild weather has been 
found to be one of the most effective 
modes of destroying the eggs and pre- 
venting further injury. The Commission 
suggests that it be enforced by law. A re- 
volving harrow, or cultivator, is recommended 
for this work. The second method is by 
plowing, thus burying the eggs so far be- 
low the surface as to prevent their hatching. 
The third is irrigation. Where this is prac- 
ticed and the ground is light and porous, pro- 
longed and excessive moisture will cause most 
of the eggs to perish, and irrigation in the au- 
tumn has been found very beneficial. The 
fourth plan is tramping. Many of the eggs 
may be destroyed in pastures or fields where 
hogb, cattle, or horses can be confined, when 

the ground is not frozen. The fifth is collect- 
ing. In cases where neither of the means al- 
ready suggested are available, the Commission 
recommends the collection and destruction of 
the eggs, and suggests that the State authori- 
ties should offer some inducement for this work. 
Every bushel of eggs destroyed is equivalent to 
a hundred acres of corn saved. 

The methods suggested for the destruction of 
the young or unfledged locusts are first, by 
burning, which may be done by scattering over 
or around the fields old straw or hay, in heaps, 
or winrows, into which the locusts, some time 

Growing Wild Rice. 

We received some time ago from Captain 
Robert Simpson, 42 Market St. , San Francisco, 
a little package of wild rice seed; the seed of 
the plant shown in the engraving on this page. 
The seed came from a pond in Wisconsin. It 
grows abundantly in the shallow water in 
different parts of North America and extends 
northward well toward the Arctic circle, as 
stated by Sir John Richardson in search of Sir 


after they hatch, may be driven and burned. 
Crushing can be done by means of various ma- 
chines, but can only be advantageously accom- 
plished where the ground is smooth and hard. 
The Commission describes a great number of 
crushing machines, and illustrates the subject 
by numerous engravings. Trapping can be done 
by the use of nets or 'seines of long strips of 
muslin, calico, or similar materials, made after 
the manner of quail nets. It is also accom- 
plished by digging pits and holes and by the 
use of coal tar or coal oil in pans. These pans 

John Franklin. The plant bears quite heavily, 
and the Indians gather it by bending the stems 
over a boat and beating it off. The grain is a 
fine feed for game, and has, we believe, been 
introduced for that purpose into some of the 
counties of this State. Captain vSimpson has 
sent seed twice to Maine, believing that get- 
ting a good growth of wild rice in the ponds 
of the North East, would increase the number 
of wild game fowls. Both tifnes the experi- 
ment has been unsuccessful, perhaps, as the 
Captain thinks, from some mistake in sowing. 

The Ertel Portable Press. 

We present on this page an illustration of a 
portable hay press, invented by Mr. Geo. Ertel, 
of Quincy, 111., who has for ten years been 
manufacturing the Ertel Beater Hay Press, 
which has a wide reputation. The public, 
however, demanded a press of less cost, one 
that could be operated with less force, that 
could be used in the field and moved from stack 
to stack without loss of time. The press can 
be hauled about by any common wagon team of 
two horses, and passes through gates where a 
common farm wagon can pass, and when drawn 
to a stack, is ready for work. Ten tons of hay 
pressed by it can be loaded in an ordinary box 
car. The size of the bales in the press is 18, 
24 and 34 inches. They are very smooth and 
square, and will weigh from 200 to 250 pounds 
each. Sixty of these bales can be made in a 
day, and from 100 to 115 of the same can be 
loaded in almost any ordinary box car. The 
weight of the complete press, with axles, 
wheels, tongue, double-tree, tie-making ma- 
chine, etc., is 3,200 pounds. 

This press is worked in a horizontal position, 
resting on four wheels. The sweep or power is 
on the side of the press, whereby the levers are 
drawn in with a chain seven feet in length, 
which is fastened directly from the levers to 
the power, and is thus worked without the aid 
of a shieve or pulley, whereby all friction is 
avoided, being operated in this way: 

One horse is hitched to the end of the sweep, 
and when going to the right, opens the press or 
levers; then the charge of hay is placed in the 
press by a door which locks itself as it is shut; 
while this is done the horse is moving round, 
pulling to the left, which motion closes the 
levers or press, bringing the pressure to bear; 
this operation also opens the feeding door with- 
out any further attention. As soon as the 
horse has reached the extreme end going to the 
left, he turns around, going the other way again 
to open the press, and the movement is so re- 
peated until the bale is filled and pressed; then 
the doors are opened and the three hoops or 
ties put on; when the horse is started again, 
which motion runs the follower back, and as 
the bale is now entirely free it can easily be re- 
moved from the press. The doors are again 
closed, a charge of hay put in the press, and 
the horse again going right and left until the 
bale is again filled and pressed. One man, one 
boy and one horse can operate the press. Of 
course, two men with one boy and one horse 
are better and can press out 60 of these bales in 
10 hours. 


are pushed over the fields, and as they disturb 
the locusts they jump into the tar oil and are 
thus destroyed. 

As a means of protection against the ravages 
of the locusts, the Commission recommends di- 
versified agriculture, legislation, the protection 
and encouragement of native locust-feeding 
birds, the introduction of foreign locust-feeding 
birds, inducements offered to the Indians to col- 
lect and destroy the eggs and young; the de- 
stroying of the eggs or young by making the 
greatest possible use, by artificial means, of the 
natural water supply; burning the young in the 
spring and diverting the winged swarms by smoke. 

etc. If any of our readers have successful 
experience in introducing the grain, and can 
give the correct method for securing its growth 
we shall be pleased to hear from them. 

Personal. — Prof. Hilgard has turned the 
key on his laboratory, hung up his garden tools 
and taken passage by steam for Portland for a 
fortnight's recreation. He is too active by 
nature to take an easy trip, and so he goes out 
on the ocean. His head will get a rest, doubt- 
less, even at the cost of weariness elsewhere. 
May the waves be gentle with him and give 
him back to us refreshed and strengthened. 

Inquiries on Beet Sugar Manufacture. 

The last Legislature passed a joint resolution 
relative to the production and manufacture of 
sugar from beets and melons in this State, and 
requesting the Secretary of the Treasury to ap- 
pomt Mr. G. Marsilliot, First Assistant Engi- 
neer United States Revenue Marine, as the 
most suitable person (he having given the sub- 
ject most careful attention), to collect and com- 
pile statistics, conduct experiments, and report 
all information that can be obtained on the sub- 
ject to the Hon. Secretary of the United States 
Treasury, through the Collector of Customs of 
the Port of San Francisco, to the Secretary of 
the Interior for publication in the Report of the 
Department of Agriculture; to the (Jovernor of 
the State of California; to the State Univer- 
sity and College of Agriculture at Berkeley, 
and to the California Agricultural Society at 
Sacramento, for the benefit of the public. The 
resolution was forwarded to Washington in due 
course, and in its support a petition has been 
sent to Secretary Sherman, signed by all the 
professors at the University, by State offi- 
cers, capitalists, farmers, and others, set- 
ting forth that in view of the wide-spread 
anxiety of agriculturists, capitalists, and 
public generally throughout the country, to 
obtain accurate and reliable information in 
relation to the production and manufacture 
of indigenous sugars from beets and melons, 
the growing importance and derivable bene- 
fit of having the industry more generally un- 
derstood and introduced, the fact that over 
400,000 tons of foreign sugars are imported 
annually, which can and should be produced 
in our country, a Government officer be 
speedily instructed to collect, compile, con- 
duct experiments, and report all informa- 
tion that can be obtained on the subject. 
The petitioners set forth that France in the 
years 1810 and 1812 offered a premium of 
1,000,000 francs for the most successful 
method of obtaining a supply of indigenous 
sugar, and now continental Europe, notwith- 
standing the heavy taxes and competition 
with colonial cane sugar, is producing more 
than a home supply, amounting to over 
1,000,000 tons per annum, thereby yielding 
large revenues to those governments where it 
has been fostered and brought to a high state 
of perfection, although in former years it had 
a feeble beginning. Tlie benefits likely to accrue 
from the succcessful introduction of the indus- 
try in this country are enlarged upon by the 
petitioners, and it is asked in conclusion that 
Mr. Marsilliot be removed from his present offi- 
cial duties and appointed for special work in 
connection with beet sugar inquiries. — Call. 

A FARMER named James Francis, n<ar Vic- 
toria, B. C, while felling a tree, was struck by 
a branch and killed. 



LJuly 13, i5;8. 

Scientific Press 

Cffice— 202 Sansome £t., N. E. Cor. Pire, S F 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed expedUiously 
Patent re-issues taken out; Assigfiinients made and re- 
corded in lejfal form; Copieis of Patents and Assijtnments 
procured; Kxaminations of Patents made here and at 
Washington; Examinations made of Assignments re- 
corded in VVashinjrton; Examinations ordered and re- 
ported by Telcgraim; Rejected cases taken up and Pat 
ents obtained; Interferences Prosecuted; Opinions ren 
dered regarding the validity of Patents ana Assign 
ments; Every legitimate branch of Patent Soliciting 
Business promptly and thoroughly conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various inventions of thi- 
ooast, and long practice in patent business, enable us to 
abundantly satisfy our patrons, and our success and 
business are constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced inventors are found 
among our most steadfast friends and jtatrons, who full} 
appreciate our advantages in bringing valuable inven- 
tions to the notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals - thereby facil- 
itating their introduction, sale and popularity. 

The Mining & Scientiic Press, 

Is the le-ading mining journal in America, and it enjoys a 
larjfe circulation among the more intelligent operators 
and workers in the gold fields of the world. 

As a scientific and mechanical representative of the Pa- 
cific Coast it is decidedly popular, and is a standard journal 
with the uiost thrifty industrial pe<>ple of the Pacific 
States and Territories. Its authority is of the highest 
rder, and its usefulness in its special sphere unrivaled. 

Every pulilic library, mining engineer, metallurgist, 
mining operator and intfUigont mechanic and manufact- 
urer will find profit by its reading. 

Subscription, postage prepaid, $4 a year in advance 
Sample copies, post paid, ten cents. 

DEWEY & CO. Publishers, S. F. 


(A Preparatory School to the University.) 

A First-Clas8 Boarding School, 

Established in the interests of higher education, and in 
opposition to the cramming s"stem of stiiall colleges and 
military academies of the State. The next 

Term Will Commence July Twenty-Fourth. 


July Twenty-Second and Twenty-Third. 

By request, instructions have been provided during 
the summer months for students preparing for the Au- 
gust examinations at the University. For catalogues or 
particulars, address 


Berkeley, Cal. 

NoTB. — Wo desire to call special attention to the or- 
ganization of our Grammar Department, separate from 
the Academical, and solicit the patronage of parents and 
guardians of small boys 


Do you want to buy, sell or exchange lands or other 
property in anv part of the U. S. or Canadas? Are you a 
Soldier or Sailor, in want of a Patent r Why not obtain 
more Bounty or Pension ? Do you want to locate Govern- 
ment or State Lands without settlement? Why not? 
When 1 have the well-known Approved Soldiers Addi- 
tional Homesteads, under seal of the General Land Office, 
and that can be located without settlement, upon any 
Government $1.2.1 or S2. 50 lands, subject to homestf-ad. 
The Sioux Half- Breed Scrip, for location upon unsurveyed 

Land Warrants and Scrip of all Kinds 
For cash, or part on time. GoimI title given or no pay. 
Have you any lands with an ini|iertcct title to sell, or 
choice vacant lands J ou know of which could be located 
to advantage; or claims not lawfully held, which we could 
contest. Let me hear from you in full, and 1 will do my 
best to inform yoti what is to your advantage. 

I will mail ynu a circular explaining all, and a copy of 
the new Pension Law. Address, jiluinly) 

Oeneral Land, .Scrip and Warrant Broker,- SioL'X City, Ia, 

G-rangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 


Authorized Capital - $2,500,000, 

In 25.000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $405,009. 


President G. W. COLBY. 

Manager and Cashier, 

Secretary FRANK MrMULLEN. 

The Bank was opened on the Urst of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pre- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
the best market niies. 

Thomas Flint, President. J. W. Fo.\rd, Manager. 

Ferd. K. Ri le, Secretary. 


The California Farmer;^' Mutual 


209 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the California 
Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Association, held on the 
10th day of April, lS7t*, a resolution was adopted appoint- 
ing . I. W. Foard, Esq., late Insurance Commissioner of the 
State. General Manager of the business of the Companv. 

Ferd. K. Ki le, Sec'y. TiioM.ts Flint, President. 

OtFicE OF Insurance Commis.sioner, ) 
San Francisco, May 24th, 1878. )' 

I, John C MAVSARn, hereby certify that I am Insurance 
Commissioner of the State of California, and have super- 
vision of Insurance business in the State, and as such 
Commissioner further certify that the California Farmers' 
Mutual Fire Insurance Association of San Francisco is a 
corporation properly organized under the laws of this 
State, and possessed of a paid-up capital of two hundred 
thousand dollars (^200,000), equal to gold coin of the 
United States, is authorized to do business in the State. 

And 1 further certify that upon an examination of the 
books and japers of the said Company, it is shown to be 
possessed of good, valid assets, amounting to the sum of 
throe hundred and twenty-six thousand six hundred and 
seventeen dollars and twenty cents (3326.iiI7.20); and has 
outstanding liabilities, as defined by the laws of the State, 
amounting to one hundrCd and twenty thousand three 
liunilrcd and two dollars and thirty-seven cents (1^120,302.- 
37). exclusive of ca]iital stock. 

As witness my hand and otticial seal, the day and year 
first above written. 

(Seal.) [Signed.] J. C. MAVNARD, 

Insurance Commissoner. 

Presenting the above Certificate of the Insurance Com- 
missioner, the Company would call the attention of the 
public to the fact that in this, the fourth year of its exist- 
ence, and after prompt payment of all its losses, amount- 
ing in the aggregate to Slio.»i4S, it shows a clear surplus 
for the benefit of policy holders of $206,314.83 over and 
above 81 1.''),721.32, set apart as required by the law, as a 
re-insurance reserve. 

Within the p.ast half year radical changes having been 
made in the management of the Company's affairs, a con- 
tinuance of the public patronage hitherto accorded it, is 
solicited at 209 Sansome Street. 

Tno.MAs Flint, President. .1. W. Foard, Manager 

Ferd. K. Rule, Secretary. 





No 433 Montgomery Street, S F. 

Fine Jewelry Made to Order. Complicated Watches 


Hanford, Tulare County, - - California. 



And Pure Brown Leghorn Fowls. 

iarScotch Colley (Shepherd) Pups for sale. Imported 
parentage on both sides. 



McAFBE BROS, Real Estate and Loan Brokers, 
202 Sansome Street, - San Francisco. 


The Oennaii Saving-s iiiid Louii Society.— For tlie half 
year etulin;? June 30, 1878, the Hoard of Directors of the 
CJerinaii iSavinjjs and Loan Society hae declared a di^ idend 
on Tenu Deposits at the rate of eivht (8) per cent jter an- 
num, and on ordinary deposits at the rate of six and two- 
thirda (6ii) per cent per annum, free from Federal Taxes, 
and (layatjle on and after the 15th day of July, 1878. By 
order. GKO. LETTE, 'Secretary. ' 


San Francisco Savings Union, .'■>32 California street, cor- 
ner Webb. — For the half year ending with .lune ,30, 1878, 
a dividend has been declared at the rate of eight (8) per 
cent per annum on term deposits and six and two-thirds 
(6|) per cent per annum on ordinary deposits, free of Fed- 
eral Tax, payable on and after Tuesday, July 1S78. 

LO^ ELL WHITE, Cashier. 



Sierra Flume& Lumber Co. 

Have over 100,000 Acres of 


Fir and Cedar Lands, 

10 Saw Mills, 3 Planing Mills, 1 Sash and 
Door Factory, 

149 Miles V Plumes, 

10 Miles Tramway, 

157 Miles Telegraph Line, 

13 Telegraph Stations, 

Employ 475 Men and 550 Oxen & Horses, 

The Sugar Pine is unsurpassed in quality, and the 
whole Coast can be supplied. 

The Yellow Pino is firm, fine grained and superior to 
any other hard Pine for Flooring, Stepping, etc. 

The Spruce has great strength, durable when exposed, 
and especially adapted to Bridge and Ship Building, while 
the Fir and Cedar are as valuable for a great variety of 

Last year thirtv millions of feet were cut and the esti 
mate for 1877 is fifty millions; fifteen millions are now on 
hand, thorougWy seasoned by the hot cUmate of Red 
Bluff and Chico. 

Large orders can be filled on a days' notice for at 
kinds of 


Rough or dressed dry, by which elegant and substantial 
work may be accomplished without delay at the usual cost 
for green lumber. 

Orders for the interior filled at leas than San Francisco 
prices and freights. 

DOORS, SASH and BLINDS always on hand in large 
quantities. Address 



Red Bluff; Chico; San Francisco— comer 
Fourth and Channel Sts. 


24 rost Stret't 

Near Kearny, 
San Francitto. CaL 

The hiru-esl and best Business CoUeg-e in America. Ite 
teachers are cumjietcnt and experienced. Its pupils are 
from the best class of itouiij^ men in iJie State. It makes 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to liook-keepinj^ and Arithmetic merely, butffives 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
struction is jLj^iven in all the branches of an En^fliah educa- 
tion, and Modern Langfuages are practically tuu^ht. The 
discipline is excellent, and its system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladies' Department.— Ladies will be admitted for in- 
struction in all the Departments of the Collejre. 

TBLEORAriiic Department.- In this Department young 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and paper. 

For further particulars call at the Collci^e, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HHjALD, 

President Business Colle4re, San Francisco, Cal. 

West Berkeley Lumber Yard, 


(Successors to Z. B. Ileywooil & Co.) 

Lumber, Shingles, Sash, Doors, Lime, 
Brick, and Builders' Hardware 

Sold at the Lowest San Francisco rates. Strict atten- 
tion given Country Orders. Boats loaded at 
wharf for all points on the San Joaquin 
and Sacramento rivers. Cars of the C. P. R. K. 
Co. loaded at the yard. Orders received at 22 California 
Street, San Francisco, or at the hardware store of G. W. 
Bahcock, 9hh Broadway, Oakland. 

JOHN P. BYXBEE, Proprietor. 




Pamphlets free. Office, Ycbs, Pa. 


first-class 16-page Illustrated Agricultural Weekly, filled 
with fresh, valuable and interesting- reading. Every 
farmer and ruralist should take it. It is im- 
mensely popular. Send for a sample copy. 

DEWEY & CO.. Publishers. S. P. 

Lands for Sale and to Let. 

Land for Sale in Napa County. 

I am olTerlnc my lands in Foos Valley, ten miles north 
of Napa City, for sale, as follows— to wit: 

One tract of SOO acres, including my homestead, 220 
acres of which is choice valley land, "the balance good 
grazing land, is well watered, has a large supply of wood, 
is well improved, has a comfortable dwelling of nine rooms, 
barn, granary, sheds, etc. Also, a goiMl orchard and 
choice vegetable garden. Price, $15.00 per acre. 

Also, one tract of 1,020 acres, about 100 acres of which is 
valley, the balance good graz ng hills, is well watered and 
has enough wood on it to pay for it. Price, S6.00 per acre. 
Also, one tract of 300 acres, 40 acres tillable, a portion 
can be irrigated from springs, has a large amount of wood 
on it and 600 rods of stone fence. Is well suited to run- 
ning a small dairy, and raisin^pigs and chickens, by which 
a good living can be made, jjrice 82,000. The climate is 
choice, being shut in from the chilly coast winds, but has 
just breeze enough to make it jileasant, title perfect. The 
above lands lay contiguous. I will sell the whole or either 
one of the above tracts on easi terms— a liberal portion 
can remain at 10 per cent, per annum. If desired, will sell 
with the land, 1,.'>00 head of Spanish Merino sheep. Come 
and sec me, asl am detennined to sell. Address the im- 
dersigned at Napa City. WILLIAM CLARKE. 


One thousand six hundred acres of deeded land, in 
T. P. 19, N. R. 6 W., in Colusa County, situated near 
Stoney CYeek, on the county road, from Leesville to Elk 
Creek, comprising No. 1 farming land, and first-class 
t<razin<; lands, all enclosed. Good house, seven rooms, 
well finished and painted. Two large barns, one wa^on 
house, one wool house, large store house, wood house and 
other small buildings complete. Two g^ood welU of pure 
cold water and a large spring of never-failing^ water run- 
ning about one mile through the ranch. The house ia 
surrounded with shade and ornamental trees. All the 
farming utensils and about 50 tons of hay will be thrown 
in if purchased soon. Any one wishing to eng-ag^e in the 
dairy, or stock business of any kind, cannot find a better 
location in tlie State. Price, $7.50 per acre, one half dt)wn 
and the balance to suit purchaser. For further particu- 
lars, apply to James W. liood, Colusa, or the undersigned. 

Elk Creek P. O., Colusa County, CaJ 


$4,000. -Two Hundred Acres of 
Land in Mendocino County. 

Thirty miles from the county seat, and 20 miles from 
the Coast, one of the healthiest localities in the State, 
especially for consumptives. The pi ice is fenced off in 
six different fields. Plenty of water and timber for all 
purjioses. A good orchard. Vegetables of all kinds 
grow well. A good dwelling with si.x rooms, ceiled and 
painted inside, good frame barn, granary, storehouse, 
smokehouse, etc. 

Also, Six Hundred acres of grazing land, well fenced, 
three miles from the above farm, plenty of water and 
timber for all purposes. Price, 82,2S0. 

For further particulars, address "B. T.," care of 
uEWeV & CO., P.\cmc Ri'RAL Prkss ofBce, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 



Employment Agents, 

Nos. 623 & 625 CLAY STREET. 

The Pioneer Office of San Francisco, Establishe<l in 1857 

4S" A personal experience of over ten years, and an ex- 
tended aci|uaintance with the wants of employers and em- 
ployees of the Pacific Coast, give us facilities not easily 
acquired for meeting the requirements of the public in 
every department of labor. Special attention given to 
procuring.?rtr?n help of every kind, both male and female; 
experienced men for farm machines; Milkmen, Butter 
AND Cheesemkx,, BL.U'KSMITIIS, Carpe.sters, 
\Vheei,wriout8, Qi AKin .me.v, Siikei'IIerders, Orciiardists 
and Garde.vers. 

We take sjiecial |»ain8 also to furnish the best of Scan- 
mxAViAN, Cermas. French and Irish Domestics. Gen- 
tlemen connected with the office, and speaking these lan- 
guages, give us extended acquaintance with this class of 
help, and enable us to furnish the best tO be had in 
San Francisco at venj nhort notice. A II ortlers promptly 
attended, free of coft to the employer. Address by letter 
or in person, 

CROSETT & CO , 623 and 625 Clay St. 


Commission Merchants, 


All Kinds of Country Produce. 
404 & 406 Davis Street, San Francisco. 

Consignments Solicited "St 

C. & F. NAUMAN &. CO. 
Wholesale Commission Merchants, 


Farm and Dairy Produce Sold on Commis- 
sion. Butter, Eggrs, Poultry and 
Game a Specialty. 
231 WASHINGTON STREET, San Francisco 

(Between Front and Davis.) 
Cii.KS. Nauman. Frank Naum.\x. 


No 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce. 

Rekerenck.— Tradesmen's National Banx, N. Y. ; Ell 
wangrr .V Barrj', Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed; Sacr» 
mento, Cal.; A. Lusk & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 

Any person receiving this pa(>er after giving an order to 
stop it, may know that such order has failed to reach UB, 
or that the paper is continued inadvertently, and they are 
earnestly requested to send wi itten notice direct to ua. 
Wc aim to stop the paper promptly when it is ordered di«- 

July 13, 1878.1 




Purchasers of Stock will find in this Directory thb 
Names of some of the Most Reliable Breeders. 

Our Rates. — Six lines or less inserted in this Directory at 
50 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 


BARBETTO & CO., Downey City, Cal, breeders of 
thorouf^hbred Jerseys. Bulls and Bull calves for sale. 

A. MAILLIARD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal., 
breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 302 Davis street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.), Breed- 
ers of Short Horns and their Grades. 

R. G. SNEATH, San Bruno, Cal., breeder of Jersey 
cattle. Has Jersey bulls for sale— various ages — at $40 
to $100. 


L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 

M. BYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown 
Sheep. Rams and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, $20 each; 
Lambs, 815 each. 

GEORGE Mccracken, san jose, 

blooded Cotswold Sheep for sale. 

Cal. Pure 


M. FALLON, corner Seventh and Oalt streets, Oak- 
land. Bronze Turkeys. Choice Eggs for Hatching 
from Pure Bred Fowls. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Importers 
and Breeders oi Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs for 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Fowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducli.s, etc. 

C. P. STONE, San Francisco, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of High Class White Leghorn Fowls. 


ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Dana's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 

A. J. TWOGOOD, Riverside, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Pure Bred Poland-China Hogs. 

JOHN RIDER, ^ac•raInento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 


N. S. AMES, Napa City, Ual. , Iiniiorter and Breeder 
of Italian ^ueen Bees. (Queens Imported from Europe, 
SIO each. Tested Queens, $3. 

J. D. ENAS, of Sunny Side, Napa, Importer and 
Breeder of Italian Queen Bees from the best districts 
in Italy. Light or dark, tested homebred Queens, 
Nucleus, three frames if desired. Address as above. 



Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland 

Constantly on hand and for sale, choice specimens 
of the following varieties of Fowls; 

Dark snd Light Brahmas, Bufl 
White and Partridge Co- 
chins, White & Brown 
Leghorns, Dork- 
ings, Polish Ham- 
burgs, Pljrmouth Rocks, 
Game and Sebright Ban- 
J tarns. Bronze Turkeys, Pekln, 
Aylesbury and Rouen Ducks. 

No Inferior Fowls Sold at any Price. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 
^^For further information send stamp for Illustrated 
Circular, to 


P. O. Box, 659 San Francisco, Cal. 


116 Acres 
devoted to 



Unlimited Range. 

Healthy Stock. 

Largest Yards 
on the Coast. 

Brahmas, Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, Bronze Tur- 
keys, Geese, Pekin Ducks, Guinea Pigs, Etc. 

SS-Safe arrival of Fowh and Eggs Guaranteed. 

^Pamphlet on the care of fowls- -hatching, feeding, 
diseases and their cure, etc., adapted EtPKCiALLY to tuk 
Pacific Coast. Sent for 15 cents. 

Send stamp for price list. Address 

M. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 


Ihat Mrs. C. H. Sprp-gue, at the California Poultry 
Yards, at Woodland, Yolo County, keeps the choicest lot 
and the greatest and best variety of Thoroughbred Fowls 
of any one west of the Mississippi river, and that one can 
get just what is wanted by sending orders to her. 

The Agents of this Paper and some of the 
Best and most careful Railroad men carry 


NONE ARE BETTER. Prices reasonable. Ask yonr 
Jeweler about them. Buy them of Geo. W. Finck, N. W. 
corner of Kearny and Geary Sts. , S. F. 

Hand Pristinu Prkbs Wanted.— Parties having a sec- 
ond hand Washington or other hand printing press which 
they wish to dispose of, will please address thig oiUce 
Itatiug price, size aKd ModitivD. 

Good Land and Sure Crops. 

There has been steady and tolerably rapid advancement made 
in the growth of a majority of the towns in Colusa, Butte, Tehama 
and Shasta counties. Especially is this so in the agricultural dis- 
tricts where the land produces at least fair crops in all seasons — wet 
or dry — as does the land on the Reading Ranch. Those looking 
for homes in California where diversified farming will pay every 
year; where wood and water are plenty and easy to be obtained, 
and other desirable advantages are to be had, should address the 
proprietor of the Reading Ranch, 

Some 14,000 out of 26,000 acres of the grant remain for sale 
at comparatively low rates, in quantities to suit purchasers, on 
easy terms. Prices range from $5 to $30 per acre. The tract is 
between two and three miles wide, with the Northern Division of 
the C. P. R. R. passing centrally through its entire length. Send 
postage stamp for an illustrated paper containing information about 
Shasta County and these lands, to the proprietor of Reading 

Anderson, Shasta County, Cal. 


Incorporated Feb. 10th, 1875. Capital Stock, $1,000,000. 


DANIEL INMAN, (President). 
A. D. LOGAN, (Vice President). 
AMOS ADAMS, (Secretary). 

W. W. GRAY. 

JOHN LEWELLING, (Treasurer). 



Grangers' Building, - - - . 106 Davis Street, S. P. 

Consignments of Grain, Wool, Dairy Pi-oducts, Fruit, Vegetables, and other Produce solicited, and 
Advances made on the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, Produce, Merchandise, 
Fann Implements, Wagons, etc., solicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a Strictly Commission Business, and place our rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis the will 
enable the country at large to transact business through us to their entire satisfaction. 

Consignments to be marked "Grangers' Business Association, San Francisco." Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. 



Have located in Grass Valley, Wasco County, on the line of the Dalles Military Road, 20 miles from the Columbia 
River, between the Deschutes and John Day Rivers; 31 miles from the Dalles. 


Is located on a small stream, fed by numerous springs, in the center of a beautiful rolling prairie, 50 miles long by 
30 miles wide, of the very richest soil, heavily covered with fine bunch grass. 

A Plenty of Government Land for All. 

The climate is (unlike Western Oregon) dry and delightful, all kinds of Grain, Fruit and Vegetables, etc., grow 
perfection. Average wheat crop — 4B bushels per acre. 

640 Acres Secured for a Town-site and Called Lockville. 


Hotels, Stores and a large number of Houses already in course of construction. Immigrants will do well to look 
at this location before going further north. 

A Stage will soon leave the Dalies, (from the Pioneer Hotel,) daily for Lockville. 

DR. C. R. ROLLINS, Pres. J. B. DOW, Treas. G. M. LOCKE, Sec'y. 



Coffee and Spices Have no Superior. 

Twenty-Five Years Experience 


Ask Your Grocer for Mdrden's Coffee and Spices. 

Stock Notices. 


Breeder and Iraimiter ni the "orown Friuce," 
"Sambo," and "Bob Lee" families of Berkshires. 
Also, pure Suffolk hojs and pigs. Short Horn and 
Jersey, or AJdeiney cfttle. Merino and Cotswold 
sheep. Prices always reasonable. All animals sold are 
guaranteed as represented and jiedigreed. 
PETER SAXE, Russ House, San Francisco, 
and Los Angeles City, Cal. 

^OK ETVPRV HAY warranted usirg JILZ 
q>/:3 CWCni UH I WELL AUGERS and 
DRILLS. Took the first premium at the Great Exposi- 
tion. They bore any diameter and depth; 100 feet a day, 
through earth, sand or rock. Pictorial auger book free. 
Address Col. PETER SAXE, Los Ange'es, Cal, Agent for 
Pacific States. 

''Latimer Farm" Berkshires. 



Choice pigs of all ages and of the best quality and 
breeding constantly or. hand. Have sold a great many 
pigs, (10 within a few days, including a trio to the State 
Insane Asylum at Stockton), and have yet to receive 
one word of dissatisfaction. Correspondence solicited 
and cheerfully answered. Address 


San Joaquin County, Cal. 



200 Extra Rams 

For sale. Yearlings and two-year- 
olds. In size, qua'ity and condition 
unsurpassed. Also, 100 ewes at 
prices to suit the times. The nu- 
cleus of this flock was from a pur- 
chase made from Severance & 
Peet in 1873. My ranch is at Haywards, Alameda county, 
and may be rebelled by rail from San Francisco, seven 
times daily. Parvies desiring chiiice sheep should see 
this flock before purchasing elsewhere. 



I have a few fine Lancastershire pigs for sale, now 
about four weeks' old. Bred from choicej imported 
stock. Addre 

Eighth Street, near Broadway, Oakland 


At Gray's No. 105 Kearny Street, 

On receipt of the amount in jiostage stamps, any of the 
following pieces will be mailed, post-paid; 

BABY MINE, (Song) Smith, 35 cts' 

BABY MINE, (Schotlische) Stuckenholz, 35 cts. 

E.MMETT'S LULLABY, (Piano Solo). . . .Far West, 35 cts. 

LITTLE TORMENT, (Schotlische) Far West, 35 cts. 

THE SNOW LIES WHITE, (Song): Harriott, 35 cts. 

ALCANTARA, (Galop) Chauncey, 75 cts. 

GOLDEN OPHIR, (Galop) Yanke, 50 cts 

Send for complete Catalogue of Music and Descriptive 
list of the 

SS" State where you saw this advertisement. TSS 


Corner of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 

Fruit & Packing Boxes Made to Order, 


Communications Promptly Attended to. "ES 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cookr & GnBooRT. 

Calvert's Carbolic 


$2 Per Gallon. 
After dippi?ig the slicep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying the vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc T. W .JACKSON, 
S. F., Sole A^ent for Pacific Coast, 



[July 13, 1378. 

The Resources and History of Shasta 
County— No. 4. 

The Farming' Lands 
Are mainly in the central third of the county, 
sloping south, sheltered by the great mountain 
ranges, and possessing a climate where the tig, 
vine and olive will succeed perfectly, and where 
oranges, almonds and walnuts may be growu 
with ease. 

The largest body of fine farming land is along 
the river from near Cottonwood to a point near 
Beading, embracing originally 2G,000 acres, and 
known as the Reading grant. The different 
kinds of soil found in the county are well shown 
here. A portion of the grant is moist enough 
for summer vegetables or winter potatoes, the 
greater portion is the finest of wheat land, pro- 
ducing a crop every season; some of it is a red 
upland similar to the fruit lands of Placer 
county, and unsurpassed for orchards and vine- 
yards. The entire bottom land of the grant is 
dotted over with white oaks of the largest size; 
there is little undergrowth, and the surface is 
gently undulating. This ranch was a Spanish 
grant confirmed to Major Penyon B. Reading in 
18d4. The Major was one of the pioneers of 
northern California and lived an eventful life. 
Coming to California in debt, he made his pile, 
■went East and paid off everything with interest. 
He then returned to the grant, laid out a town 
near the mouth of Clear creek, built a steamer 
and navigated it to that point, began to invite 
settlers and develop the country. But he went 
to heavy expenses, and dying suddenly, the 
property was involved, and passed into the 
hands of J. B. Haggin, known by his large 
estates in Kern, .Sacramento and elsewhere. 
Whilst under his control the grant was mainly 
pastured and rented, and, having interests else- 
where, little if any eft'ort was made by Mr. 
Haggin to settle up the country. In the sum- 
mer of 1877, a successful farmer in Solano 

Mr. Edward Frisbie, 

Brother of General Frisbie, of Vallejo, gave the 
grant a careful examination and seeing that the 
crops were first-rate, notwithstanding the great 
drouth, observing too, the central location, 
the fine local market to the mines, and, in short, 
the great agricultural value of these lands, con- 
cluded to purchase and divide them up 

For Actual Settlers. 

Several have already purchased, and so far, 
all who have seen the lands are well pleased. 
The crops this year, as observed during a trij) 
made early in June, are fully equal to the best 
in Alameda county or near Salinas. When we 
remember that there is always rain enough to 
insure a crop in Shasta county, we cannot won- 
der that so many are looking northward. Be- 
ing away from any broad belt of settled lauds, 
this fine tract, which posesses less drawbacks 
than nine-tenths of the farming lands of Cali- 
fornia, has seemingly had its merits overlooked. 
The purchases made upon the tract have hith- 
erto been mainly by persons living in the moun- 
tains above. 

Several large stock ranches may be bought, 
and a number of small places on the various 
creeks in the eastern part of the county. 

The government lands, now open for settle- 
ment, are worthy the attention of all men of 
small means. East of the Sacramento river 
there is an almost level region some 30 miles 
long and I.t miles wide, lying along the Still- 
water and Cow creek. The general character 
of the country here is that of a rolling, well- 
timbered plain. The soil is the same red wheat 
land formerly called worthless in Butte and 
Placer, but now, by the use of summer fallow, 
found very valuable. In this large area men- 
tioned only a few settlers have as yet located, 
but others are coming in every day and with a 
determination to remain. It is only a question 
of time with regard to the occupancy of these 
lands. The first comers will pick the best, of 
course. This section of country, lying within 
the railroad bolt, is lialf of it railroad land. 
On the Stillwater plains several men put in hay 
last year and felt justified in prooeedmg. This 
year there is about 1,000 acres of wheat and 
barley on this land. The wheat will average 10 
centals and the barley about 1.") centals. This 
is mainly on government land which was cleared 
acd broken up last fall. 

East of Millville, after ascending the Sierras 
some .500 feet, we enter upon the fruit belt and 
pass on for miles over a timbered and rich coun- 
try, well adapted to the growth of grain, fruits 
and vegetables. In many places water for irri- 
gation can be had at a slight cost, but the finest 
fruit can be raised without it. At Ogburn's 
ranch our correspondent was shown last year's 
Tulpehoeken apples perfectly sound on the 3d 
of .Tune. This variety in Alameda county will 
decay in January. .lust at this season (early 
■Pune) the cherries are beginning, and the large 
English gooseberries which do not mildew here. 
In fact, all the small fruits flourish remarkably 
and have a richer fiavor than in the valley. 

NrRSERYMEN's As.sociATios. — The American 
Association of Nurserymen, Florists and Seeds- 
men convened in its third annual session on 
Wednesday, June 19tli, in iJochester. N. Y. 
The delegations were (juite full for the first 
day's meeting, 40 members reporting from vari- 
ous parts of the United States and Canada. 
The meetings were interesting and valuable to 
those present. Mr. W. H. Heaver of Los 
Angeles was chosen Vice-President for Cali- 

Our "Governors" Heard From. 

Editor.? Press: — A week ago to-day we had 
the pleasure of a visit from the proprietors of 
the Rural, Alfred T. Dewey and W. B. Ewer. 
It was truly a surprise to meet and greet those 
whose names we have been familiar with for 
years through the Rural Press, but never had 
the pleasure of a personal acquaintance. It was 
hard to believe at first introduction that the 
city-refined could appear in camping costume, 
as if they were returning harvesters. But, al- 
though the outward manifestations might de- 
ceive the surperficial observer, the mind is the 
true index of the soul. Grandly enthroned 
within, it stands poised far above outward con- 
ditions, whether surrounded by diamond gems, 
or plain attire. We hope that Vhen the pub- 
lishers return, the editor will find leisure for 
relaxation, and we shall try and extend you our 
warmest greeting and hospitality. Campers 
confine themselves to their gypsy mode of life, 
and it is hard to make them inmates of your 
domicile. We hope your "governors" enjoyed 
their recreative trip. It is no e.isy task to 
travel and keep house out of doors, but the 
ordeal becomes almost necessary through the 
harrassiug cares of a business life in a large city. 
It was very gratifying to ws to welcome the 
enterprising proprietors of the Ri kal and 
Scientific, and 1 hope that the round 
trip will fully meet their anticipations. 

John Taylor. 

Mt. Pleasant, Tuolumne Co., Cal. 

We are glad our "governors" are finding 
friends along their route, and that their camp- 
ing cofetume does not obscure their proper per- 
sonality. We have never seen them "sur- 
rounded by diamond gems'' to any extent, but 
they are perhaps more worthy than those who 
are. The editor returns thanks for the invita- 
tion to the foothills. AVhen the Rur.\l gets 
old enough to run alone, without holding on to 
the editorial chair, we promise ourselves a holi- 

Washington Colle(;e.— In our advertising 
columns. Rev. S. S. Harmon announces the 
opening of the new academic year at Washington 
College in Alameda county. This institution is 
held in high esteem by our agricultural popula- 
tion, as is shown by the large numbers of farm- 
ers' sons and daughters among its students. 
Students come from all parts of this State and 
from Nevada. Classes are arranged in all grades 
of study from the elementary to the highest 
academic branches. Buildings are provided for 
youth of both sexes, and the opportunity to 
place brothers and sisters in the same institu- 
tion is acceptable to parents. Rev. and Mrs. 
Harmon have been known for years as among 
our leading educators, and the fruit of their 
ripened experience is an institution in every 
way praiseworthy. The home life of the college 
is very pleasing to the students, and very whole- 
some in its effect, as the discipline of the school 
room is supplemented by careful culture in the 
arts and truths of individual and social be- 
havior. The location of the college on a slight 
rise of ground overlooking the Alameda valley, 
the bay and the Coast range beyond, is beauti- 
ful and is remarkable for its healthfulness. 
Washington is accessible from all points, being 
a station on the San Jose branch of the C. P. 
R. R., next to the junction with the main line 
at Niles. 

The "Rural" — The best agricultu- 
ral journal of the Pacific coast, closed its fif- 
teenth volume on Saturday. Of all our weekly 
exchanges none are more welcome than is the 
Pacific Rural Press. It is devoted to the ad- 
vancement of the leading interest of the State, 
and throws a steady flood of scientific light 
upon agriculture, as the fruit of ripe experience, 
long study and zealous enthusiasm. It has 
won the favor of scientific men throughout the 
coast, as its numerous contributions from these 
sources amply show, and it has come to be ac- 
knowledged as the standard medium of the 
coast for diffusion of information on the science 
of husbandry. It is an invaluable journal to 
the farmer, and we wish it the amplest success 
in every way. — Stockton Independent, Jidy 1st. 

Sack-Holder. — A typographical error in the 
advertisement of H. M. Covert's "California 
Sack-Holder," located it at 806 Davis street, 
when it should have been 306 Davis street. The 
location is close to Clay street, and all inter- 
ested can find the apparatus and some one to 
explain its working at 306 Davis street. 

New Wheel Tire. — A new wheel tire has 
recently been invented. It consists in passing 
around the usual tire a rubber tire, and around 
this again an iron tire made in sections, so that 
each section may yield inward as the weight 
comes upon it. It is said to lessen noise, jarring 
and wear. 

Insurance. — An advertisement in our col- 
umns calls attention to the new location of the 
Farmers' Mutual Insurance Company, and gives 
the statement of the State Insurance Commis- 
sioner as to its capital, etc. Those interested 
should read the announcement. 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are worthy 
of mention: 

Rope Tramway. —Thos. H. Day, S. F. Mr. 
Day's invention relates to certain improvements 
in the construction of wire-rope tramways and 
apparatus. It consists in a novel construction 
of the tube within which the rope runs beneath 
the permanent way, so that it may be laid 
without cutting the cross-ties or sleepers, made 
much smaller than heretofore and very' much 
more cheaply. It also consists in a means of 
detaching the grip from the rope and throwing 
it entirely out of the tube, so that the car may 
be made to cross another ■wire ropeway at any 
angle, or may be switched off upon a siding or 
transferred to another line of track at any point 
without the necessity of going to the full length 
of the line or to any special point on the line, 
where there is a turn-table or other apparatus 
for transferring the car or dummy. The pecu- 
liar apparatus employed for the purpose of 
making the connection between the car and 
rope and throwing the grip entirely out of the 
tube makes it possible for the inventor to run a 
line of cars in both directions with but a single 
line of track, and neither car, grip or any por- 
tion of the apparatus need be reversed in any 

FoLDixf; Carriage Door. — Anthony Bink, 
S. F. The improvements relate to that class of 
carriages in which the top or hood is made to 
be thrown back or forward, so as to leave an 
open carriage. The invention consists more 
particularly in a novel construction of the door 
with its pillar, top bar and rear standing pillar, 
so that, while they may be folded down out of 
the way in the open carriage, it will be possible 
to form a complete door-frame when the hood 
is up. 

Spinning Top.— Christoph ? Raetz, S. F. 
This spinning top has a handle with a torsional 
actuating or propelling spring and an actuating 
shaft, constructed with a notched end, so that 
it may be temporarily connected with the corre- 
sponding end or stem of the top. There is also 
a trigger, which holds the spring or releases it 
when desired. The spring is wound up, and, 
by pulling the trigger, the top will be disen- 
gaged from the clutch by the momentum of the 
spring and is thus caused to spin. 

Counting and Forming Coin Packages.— 
Jas. Ostergard, Cherry Creek, Nev. The de- 
vice is intended for counting a number of coins 
and forming them into a roll, so that they can 
be conveniently covered or inclosed either by 
paper or other form of coin holder. It consists 
of a metallic base, having vertical standards, 
between which a certain number of coins are 
placed to form a package. 

Carri.age. — Joseph J. Gallagher, Davisville, 
Yolo county. This invention relates to certain 
improvements in the construction of carriages, 
and consists in a novel construction and com- 
bination of springs for supporting the buggy 
and also in the gearing. 

Napkin Holder. — Lucius Thompson, S. F. 
This improved device is intended for clasping 
or holding the comer or edge of a table napkin, 
in combination with a hook for suspending it 
from the neck-band of a person, for protecting 
his or her clothing while eating. 

Woodward's Gardens were never more attract- 
ive than at present. iJesides three Hons already men- 
tioned, six monster livin^^ alligatora, several iguanas and 
a boa-constrietor have just been added. New slam arc 
constantly enijag-ed for the Pavilion exercises. Rates of 
admission as usual. 

Farmers I Farmers I ! 

Throughout California are requested to send 
their orders for any kind of labor to the "Free 
Labor Exchange," 33 and .35 O'Farrell Street, 
San Francisco. All hands earefully selected free 
of charges to employers and employees. 

Popi'LAR Mi'sic— Make your homes merry and popular 
with choice music from Gray's Music Store, S. F. We 
can recommend this large, first-class, standard and popu 
lar establishment. Examine his advertisement, ap)>ear- 
ing from time to time in this paper. Mr. Gray deals in 
nstruments possessing the very higliest and most perma- 
nent reputation. Call at 105 Kearny Street. The Ri'kai. 
Press can offer to introduce you there. 

Skttlkrs and others wishing good farming lands for sure 
crops, are referred to Mr. Edward Frisbie, of Anderson, 
Shasta County, Cal., who has some 15,000 acres for sale in 
the Upper Sacramento Valley. His advertisement ap- 
pears from time to time in this paper. 

A Great CoMPLiMEXT — A Grand Piano from Steinway 
k Sons, New York, which we paw and heard in Dr. Franz 
Liszt's Music Room, we must acknowledge as the grandest 
creation that modern science, in Piano building, has pro- 
duced. - From the Xeu Leipaig Musik Zeitung. 

Mr. W. J. WooDLET, who took out a Canadian Patent 
some four years ago, is requested tu call at the Mining Scientific Press Patent Aoinct Office. Business 
of importance. 

Hearingr Restored. Great invention by one who 
was deaf for 20 years. Send stamp for particulars. Veurv 
& Harper, Lock Box SO, Madisou, Ind. 

Note. — Our trade re\iew and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and art 
not intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, July 10th, 1878. 

The receipts of Wheat are considerably larger 
this week and the time of considerable dealings 
must be at hand. Grain values have not varied 
materially from last week. Reports of rust con- 
tinue to arrive from many different quarters, 
but it is impossible to estimate the general ef- 
fect upon the yield of grain. 

Ran^e of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation for 
Wheat to the Produce Exchange during the 
days of last week has been as recorded in the 
following table: 

Thursday. . . 






Cal. Avbraoi. 


Fourth of 
98 lld(scl0s 2d 
9s lld@IOe 2d 
Os lldfdlOe 2d 
98 llditilOs 2d 
98 lldC^lOs 2d 

July, Hcliday. 
lOs »d(rtl08 
lOs 3d(alOs 
10a 3d@108 
lOs Sd@10s 
10s 3dc<tl0s 

To-day's cable quotations to the Produce 

Exchange compare with same date in former 
years as follows: 

Average. Club. 

1876 98 9d(ai08 Id lOs — ®10« fid 

1877 12s ■>dc3123 5d 128 5d@13s — 

1878 98 lld(3l08 2d 10s 3d@108 8d 

The Foreign Re'vle'w. 
London, July 9th. — The Mark Lane Eipress 
says; Agricultural reports, although somewhat 
variable, are, generally speaking, favorable as 
to the appearance of wheat fields. The growth 
of straw is everywhere abundant. The plant is 
now strong, and the season is so far advanced 
that the chances of damage from any future un- 
toward weather are greatly diminished. Unless 
the summer proves exceptionally disastrous, » 
yield of rather over 1 1,000,000 quarters may be 
looked for as the product of the home crop. 
Barley has improved slightly in some districts, 
but the crop is too much injured to yield any- 
thing but badly. Beans and peas are still fairly 
promising. In other respects the agricultural 
situation remains unchanged. Small supplies 
and a less demand have been the characteristic 
features of the trade for English Wheat at Mark 
Lane and the country, but no further decline 
has taken place. With moderate arrivals at 
ports of call, the floating cargo trade for Wheat 
has been fairly steady, with some inquiry for 
the United Kingdom and the Continent, but 
prices closed 6;'^ per quarter lower. Maize is 
unchanged. Barley has slightly declined. 

Freights and Charters. 
The Commercial Ntics says: "The prospect 
of satisfactory freights being paid before fall is 
poor. There is no present disposition to force 
ships on the market, they being apparently 
firmly held until such time as Wheat comes in 
freely and dispatch can be given. For immedi- 
ate loading, moderate sized wooden ships could 
be obtained at £2 10s for Liverpool direct, and 
large wood jwssibly at Ts 6d. Iron ships are 
quotable at 2s 6d advance on these rates, but it 
is difficult to say whether they would be ac- 
cepted, as of late English owners appear 
strongly inclined to purchase on their own ac- 
count. We have now 46,243 tons in port en- 
gaged for Wheat, 53,799 tons disengaged, 4,873 
tons miscellaneous, and 226,226 tons on the 

Eastern Grain Markets. 

Nk'W York, July 6th.— The Grain market 
has been extremely dull this week, but with a 
material decrease in the receipts of Wheat, 
prices have advanced 5(?6c, bringing No. two 
Spring up to Sil.02(algl.05, and the range for all 
kinds to 95c@Sl. 18— the latter price for hand- 
some White Winter. The harvest is making 
good progress, and has extended to the lakes. 
The yield of the Winter Wheat is unprecedent- 
edly large, and of excellent quality. The 
spring crop is variable, but there is no doubt 
that it will be equal to the average of that of 
the best years in the past. The hot weather of 
the past two weeks has forced the growth of 
Corn wonderfully, and the prospects of a full 
crop are not flattering; and yet, with a hea\-y sur- 
plus of old crop on hand, the price has ad- 
vanced about 2c, and the article is still consid- 
ered very cheap. Flour is a trifle firmer, but 
not quotably higher, the hot weather creating 
a pressure to sell. 

Chicago, July 6th. — The week's business has 
been small, although before the vacation, which 
began Wednesday noon and will last until Mon- 
day, there was an active unsettled feeling in 
Grain and higher prices. The street sales the 
last three days of the week, although not con- 
sidered in this summary, betoken lower prices 
in sympathy with neighboring markets. Sales 
of August Wheat, 82C<<83gc; Com, 36S@37if; 
Oats, 22J^ 22|; Pork, $9.07ife$9.50; Lard, «6.75 
©86. 87*. Prices for cash closed on Wednesday 
as follows: Wheat, 92ic; Com, 37.i@37i; Oats, 
22g; Rye, 48J; Barley, 48i; Pork, §9.15; Lard, 
§6.72^. It is probable that Monday's opening 
will find these figures materially shaded. Re- 
ceipts for the week of Grain were: 1,867,000 
bushels; shipmente, 2,183,000 bushels. 
The Oregon 'Wheat Crop. 

The Portland Commercial Reporter of last 

July 13, 1878.] 



Thursday says: Immediately following our last 
week's issue, the hot, scorching weather gave 
place to cool cloudy weather, followed by gen- 
tle showers. This change for the better has not 
come any too soon to help fill out the most ad- 
vanced grain, but it is most too late to greatly 
benefit, except in sections, late sown, many 
fields of which will be summer fallowed. From 
all advices to hand, we think that under any 
circumstances the crop in this valley and 
Umpqaa will be about seven-eighths of last year 
and may be fully up, unless we have hot, 
scorching weather, with absence of dews at 
night. This we base on the increased acreage 
reported from all points. The number of Chi- 
namen, independent of whitemen, that have 
been engaged in clearing land in this valley, has 
averaged from 1,050 to 1,150 men for the past 
six months. These are divided principally in 
four counties. The construction of the Dayton 
and Sheridan railroad has caused an increased 
acreage in that section of from one-quarter to 
one-half. From east of the Cascades advices 
are more encouraging, and give promise of a full 
yield, which, with an acreage of about double, 
will send to us an immense surplus from that 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, July 6th. — The excitement in 
the country has in a measure subsided, though 
buyers are still paying much higher prices than 
Eastern markets warrant. In Ohio sales are 
being made at 32(«;34c, and in Michigan and 
Wisconsin at 30(a;31c. Sales, thovigh, were 
made at higher rates than those above quoted 
during the excitement that at one time pre- 
vailed. California Spring is in better supply, 
but during the week has found but limited in- 
quiry. Dealers generally hold all descriptions 
with much greater confidence than they have 
shown in the immediate past, the opinion hav- 
ing gained ground that prices are now resting 
on hard bottom. The sales for the week in- 
clude 5,000 lbs fine Spring California, 23i@25c; 
2,500 lbs fine Spring Texas, 25c: 5,000 lt>s 
medium do, 22c; 5,000 lt>s old XX Ohio, 3()c; 
15,000 fts new Michigan, 32c, and .50,000 lbs 
Spring California. 

Boston, July 6th. — Wool transactions the 
past week have been the most active since the 
1st of January, and the market appears to have 
recovered from the depression of such long con- 
tinuence. It is evident that the lowest point 
has been touched for the present, but the im 
provement is not on so firm a basis as could be 
desired. The manufacturing business is far 
from satisfactory, and it remains to be seen 
whether the fall demand for goods will sustain 
the present improvement in Wool. Trans 
actions in fleeces have been the largest for i 
long time, and, including unwashed Western 
and Texas, have amounted to about 1,000,000 
lbs. The demand for combing and delaine 
fleeces still continues, and manufacturers have 
been free purchasers. Sales of the week, 
578,000 lbs. Pulled Wools are steady, with a 
fair demand. Sales for the week comprise Ohio, 
Pennsylvania and Western Virginia No. 1, X 
and XX, at 35@39c: Michigan X and above, at 
85c; washed delaines and combing, at38(n 42.\c; 
unwashed combing and delaine, at 29@30c; 
Texas, at 15@29c; unwashed fleeces, at 22((?29o; 
scoured, at 40@80c; super and X pulled, at 27 
@AO\c; tub-washed, at 39c. Sales of Califor 
nia have been 349,000 lbs, at full previous 
prices, including choice northeru Spring, at 28 
@30c, one lot bringing £s high as 31c; Fall, 1" 
@18c. Total sales of domestic Wool for the 
week have been 2,223,600 lbs. 

Flour and Grain in California July 1st. 

W. H. Walker, Secretary of the Produce Ex 
change, issues his semi-annual statement show- 
ing the amounts of Flour aud Grain remaining in 
the State of California, on July 1st, 1878, as 
taken by the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

and Petaluina. 

Sac. Valley and Rirer.. 
Lower Sac. Lower Joa* 
and Suisun Bay 

S. P. K. B 

Southern Coast. 

Totals. . 






3, COO 























the week from Cal(?utta and Dundee. They have 
advanced the rate to llj@lljc for wholesale 
lots. The agreement is reported to expire 
October 1st. Some lots of Bags are held by 
outside dealers, which are now put ud to the 
ring price. This is the reported condition of 

BARLEY — Barley receipts are moderate and 
prices are maintained. We note sales of 100 
sks new Feed at 90o; 750 ctls Coast Feed at 
874c; and 400 choice at 92ic }?<' ctl. There are 
some scattering lots of old held for brewing pur- 
poses, for which the demand is irregular. A 
lot of 2,000 ctls sold at $1.07i 

BEANS — Beans are still in small supply and 
sales are made at old prices. 

CORN — Yellow Corn is a shade easier. The 
California grown is nearly used up, and the 
Mexican demand is being supplied fromOmaha. 
There may be a maintenance of the Mexican 
demand long enough to take some of our new 
crop which will be ready next month. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— Some diminution is 
perceptible in the Butter receipts, and an im- 
provement in prices is anxiously looked for. 
To-day the old rates prevail. 

EGGS — Receipts of Eggs are falling off and 
the price is firm, with perhaps a slight improve- 
ment during the week. 

FEED— The Hay market is depressed. The 
supplies arriving are generally of a poor quality 
and sell slowly. Prices are about the same as 
last week. 

FRESH MEAT — An improvement is appar- 
ent in all grades of fresh Beef and in Mutton 
and Lamb. The market is, however, quiet and 
sales regular. 

FRUIT — The first Yellow Peaches have come 
and they will soon be abundant. Grapes are 
also in for the first time this week. Berries are 
abundant and very low. Prices of all Fruits 
may be found in our table below. 

HOPvS — There is nothingnew. Lots are offered 
to clean out stock but without takers. Emmet 
Wells reports the N. Y. market for the week 
ending June 28th as follows: "Last week's ad- 
vance in the price has been well maintained, 
though at this writing there is less disposition 
shown to speculate, and fewer Hops are chang- 
ing hands. The export movement has also 
been checked by the advance, shippers con- 
tending that there is now no monej- in the busi- 
ness for them, the rise of two cents per Iti, 
swallowing up their profits; and until they 
hear of a corresponding improvement in the 
price in London, nothing will warrant further 
purchases for export account. Crop reports, 
as will be seen by the extracts taken from our 
exchanges, are somewhat of a mixed character, 
though we think them, as a rule, more favor- 
able than last week, and with a continuance of 
the present hot weather the vine is likely to 
show a marked improvement within the next 
week or ten days." 

LIVE STOCK— We hear of sales of 500 
Lambs at .'52 per head; 275 bullocks, $27.50 per 
head; (iOO sheep, .?2. 10 per head; 75 calves, .jll 
per head; all gold. 

OATS — Oats are scarce and the price has 
been elevated to SL50 for the choicest Feed; 
200 sks choice Feed sold yesterday at $1.47 i 
per ctl. 

ONIONS — Onions have declined; $1.05 per 
ctl is the extreme price for San Leandro, 75c 
for River Onions and 50c for San Pedro. 

POTATOES — There is no change since last 
week. The market is quiet. 

PROVISIONS— California Smoked Beef is J,c 
J* lb higher. Eastern Hams are selling at last 
week's advance, with the exception of Whit- 
takers, which are reported to be in bad condi- 

VEGETABLES — Asparagus and Marrowfat 
Squash and Tomatoes have gone up. String 
Beans are reduced to the lowest notch. The 
advance in Tomatoes is partly owing to great 
improvement in quality of those now arriving. 

WHEAT— The top price for Shipping is 
$1.C2.\ to-day. The market is held firm by the 
small consignments hitherto made. W'e note 
sales: 325 and 1,200 ctls new at $1.62^; 2,000 
do at .SI. 60; 1,000 old fair Milling at §1.63|; 
2,000 good old Milling, at Vallejo, at §1.62^; 
6,000 good new Shipping, at Vallejo, at $1.60; 
4,000 ctls old Milling at $1.65; 1,000 and 200 
new at $1.60 per ctl. 

WOOL — Receipts are now chiefly Northern 
and of good quality. Such lots sell readily and 
stocks are low. We note sales: 175,000 lbs 
various grades, 15@23.\o; 17,200 lbs Sacra- 
mento, with some cookie burs, 22c ]^ lb; 160, 
000 lbs Eastern Oregon, selected, at 18.Vc ^ lb. 



Wednesday m.. July 10, 1878. 


Bayo. ctl 5 76 (g6 00 

Butter 4 25 @4 50 

Pea — <g4 75 

Red —& — 

Pink ( 25 @6 50 

Sm'l White — '<i54 75 

Lima 4 25 (oM 50 

Field Peas 1 10 @ — 


Old 34® 7 

New 44(3 8 


California 4 @ 4j 

German 64(S 7 



Cal. Fresh EoU, lb 19 (3 22 

Faucy Brands 24 m 25 

Pickle KoU, new , . 22i' 

Domestic Produce. 

The following table shows the S. F. receipts 
of Domestic Produce for the week ending at 
noon to-day, as compared with the receipts of 
previous weeks: 






June la 

June 26. 

July 2. 

July 10. 

Flour, quarter sacks . . 


/•.SI, 701 



Wheat, centals 

























Onions, sacks 











• 42 





BAGS — The movement to concentrate Bags is 
reported to have suceeded. The ring was 
forced to buy out the stock of the Pacific Jute 
Company at a fraction under 10c. They also 
had secured 2 large cargoes which arrived during 



Butter, California 

Choice, lb 25 

Cheese 18 

Eastern 25 

Lard, Cal 18 

Eastern 20 

Flour, ex. fam, bbl8 00 

Com Meal, lb 2 

Sugar, wh. crshd 12 

Light Brown 8 

Coffee, Green 23 

Tea, Fine Black... 50 

Finest Japan. ... 55 

Candles, Admt'e, . 15 

Soap, Cal 7 

DNESDAV, M., July 


Yeast Pwdr. doz. .1 
Can'd Oysters doz2 
Syrup, S F Gold'n 
Dried Apples, lb. , 

Ger. Prunes 

Figs, Cal 


Oils, Kerosene 

Wines, Old Port. ..3 

French Claret 1 

Cal, doz bot 3 

\Vhisky, O K, gal..3 
French Brandy. . ..4 

10, 1878 

8 @ 12 

50 (<«2 00 
00 <<ti 5o 
75 (Hi 02 

10 (S 14 

9 (.a 

11 C* 
50 (* 
50 (!r 5 00 
00 Cff 2 50 
00 (rt4 50 
50 (*5 00 
00 @8 OC 

Firlau.old.. 12 (S 


Western Reserve. 
New York 


Cheese, Cal., tt).... 8@ 

Eastern 10 @ 

N. Y. State — @ 

Gilroy Factory. . . . 12J(^ 


Cal. fresh, doz,,.. 26 (g 

Ducks' 23 (a 

Oregon 22 @ 

Eastern 16 O 

do Pickled _ — 


Bran, ton — <c«15 00 

Corn Meal 41 00 kpe^ — 

Hay 7 00 '4vi 00 

Middlings 21 00 (cp22 50 

Oil Cake Meal. . 34 00 (* 

"- ^ 60 

I @ 95 

Straw, bale 25 ^ 


Extra, bbl 5 00 OS 50 

Superfine 4 25 54 37; 

Graham, lb 31(8 3J 

Beef, 1st qual'y, lb 54@ 

.Second 4j(a 

Third 35(8 

Mutton 4 @ 

Spring Lamb 6 @ 

Pork, undressed... 51(S 

Dressed 7*(a 

Veal 6 (3 

Milk Calves 6 

Barley, feed, ctl _ 

Brewing 1 10 (81 15 

Chevalier 1 50 'a — 

Buckwheat 1 30 (« — 

Corn, White 2 10 @2 25 

Yellow 1 95 (82 00 

Small Round.... 2 00 (82 10 

Oats 1 25 -81 50 

Milling 1 55 ifcl 65 

Rye 1 12i'Sl 15 

Wheat, Shipping..! 60 >81 62J 

MilUng 1 70 (gl 80 


Hides, dry 14 (8 

Wet salted 8i@ 


Beeswax, th 30@ 

Honey in comb 14 @ 

do. No 2 12J^ 

Dark lO & 

Strained 6i@ 


Oregon 4 @ 

California k4 (8 

Wash. Ter M @ 


Walnuts, Cal 8 (8 

do Chile 7 (8 

Almonds, hd shl tt) 7 

Softsh'l 14 @ 

Brazil 14 @ 

Pecans 13 @ 

Peanuts 5 @ 

FUberts 15 @ 16 


Alviso — @ ~ 

Union City, ctl — (^ — 

San Leandro 1 00 (al 05 

Stockton 75 @ — 

Sacramento River. — (8 

San Pedro 60 @ — 

Oregon — (8 — 


Petalimia, ctl — @ — 

Humboldt — M ~ 

Cuffey Cove — @ — 

Early Rose,' 2 00 ,!^2 50 

Half Moon Bay. . .1 60 @2 00 

Kidney — (8 ~ 

Sweet — @ — 

Salt Lake — (8 — 


Hens, doz. 9 00 (itlO 50 

Roosters 8 OO (§ 9 00 

Broilers 3 00 (* 6 00 

Ducks, tame 4 00 @ 8 00 

do. Mallard ~ (8— — 

Geese, pair 1 25 (f 1 75 

Wild Gray, doz.. — (8 

White do — ,8 

Turkeys 18 (8 23 

do. Dressed — (8— — 

Snipe, Eng @ 

do. Common f€t— — 

Rabbits 1 50 @ 

Hare 3 OO @ 4 00 

Cal. Bacon. H vy,tt) 11(8 111 

Medium 111(8 12* 

Light 121(8 13 

Lard U (8 13 

Cal. Smoked Beef 10 (8 11 

Eastern — @ — 

Shoulders. Cover'd 7iC8 

Hams. Cal 115(8 

Dupee's 15 @ 

Boyd's 14 @ 

Davis Bros' — @ 

None Such 15(8 

Ames 15J@ 

■yVhittaKer 7i(3 


Alfalfa, 5 (8 

Canary 6 C8 

Clover, Red 16 @ 

White 50 @ 

Cotton 6 @ 

Flaxseed 35(8 

Hemp 6 (g 

Italian Rye Grass 35 (a 

Perennial 35 @ 

Millet 10 @ 

.■Vlustard. White... 4 @ 

Brown 2J(a 

Rape 3 (8 

Ky Blue Grass 20 @ 

2d nuality ]S & 

Sweet V Grass 1 00 (§ 

Orchard 25 @ 

Red Top 18 @ 

Hungarian 8 @ 

Lawn 50 @ 

Mesquit — (8 

Timothv 9 @ 


31 Crude, lb ll@ 

I Refined 94(8 



iS Joa/l'n,12mo free 17(8 

do 6 & 7 mo do 15 (is 

Burry, 12 mo 13 (8 

do 6 mo.. 14 (8 

IScabby 12K8 

.South'n 16 (8 

do dn burry 14 (t 

1 Northern, free.. . . 23 (ft 

lo. seedy & burry 20 (« 


15 ! 




16 Nevada ".. 18 i« 

16 , Oregon Valley. ... 22 (8 

14 do. Eastern. . . 17 @ 
6 I 



Wednesday m., July 10. 1878. 


Apples, basket..— 30 (jfi— 

do, box 50 (8 1 

Apricots, tb — 3 (8— 

bananas, buch.. 2 50 (8 3 
Bl'kberries, ch st 4 00 (.8 7 
Cocoanuts. 100,. 5 00 r8 6 

Cherries, lb (§"— 

Cherry Plums...— 4 (8— 
Currants, chest. — — @ — 

Figs, Hi - 1 @- 

Gooseberries, lb. 6 (8 

Grapes, 11 — 6 @ — 

Limes. Mei 10 00 (^12 

do. Cal, per M (8 - 

Lemons, Cal M.15 00 (825 

Sicily, bx 9 00 (810 

Mangoes, 'f lW. . 3 00 (3 4 
Oranges, Mex. 

M 22 00 (g25 

Tahiti 10 00 (820 

Cal (gt- 

Peaches, box — 75 (8 1 

do. basket.— 30 (Jr— 

Pears, box — 75 @ 1 

Pineapples, doz. 4 00 (8 6 

Plums, box 1 00 (8 1 

Raspberries, ch't 4 00 (8 7 
St'wberries. ch'st 2 50 (* 4 

Apples, tt) 5i@ 

Apricots 10 @ 

Citron 23 @ 

Dates 9 (8 

4 @ 

6 (8 
8 (8 
4 (8 
3 (8 

Figs, Black.. 





Pitted 12i(8 

Prunes 14 (8 

Raisins. Cal. bx 1 00 (8 1 
do. Halves... 1 50 (8 2 
do. Quarters. 1 50 (8 2 

Blowers' 2 75 ^- 

Malaga 2 75 ® 3 

Zante Currants.. 8 (8 
Asparagus, box.. 1 50 @— 

Beets, ctl 1 00 @- 

Beans, String. . . i@ 
Cabbage, 100 lbs 50 (8- 
ranteloupes,doz 2 50 (8 3 

Carrots, ctl 63S (8 

Cauliflower, doz 50 (8 
Cucumbers, bx,.— 50 ^ — 
Garlic, New. lb.. 1J@ 

Green Peas li(8 

Lettuce, doz 10 @ — 

Parsnips, tt) 

50 IHorsenwlish 

00 Rhubarb 

00 iSquash, Marrow 

I fat, tn 30 00 @ 

7ilSummer do, bx.. 25 
12} Tomato. 30 lbs bx— 50 (gt 

24» filmips, ctl 1 50 @ 

10 1 White 50 ^ 


2 @- 

7 m— 

1 (8- 

Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sutro & Co.) 

San Francisco. July 10. 3 p. M 
Leqal Tenders In 8. F., 11 a.m., S»9i@99J, silver, 25(82; 
Gold in New York, lOOJ. 
Gold Baks, 890(8910. Silver Bars, 8@15 ^ cent, dis 


EXCHANOE oij New York, }%; on London bankers, 49# 
49<j. Commercial, 50; Paris, live francs $ dollar; Mexican 
dollars, 94(895. 

London Consols 95S; Bonds, 108t. 

(juioEsiLVEK in S. f.. br the flask, $ lb, 42^0. 



Wkdnkhday m.. July 10. 1878. 


American Pig, ton 28 00 @30 00 

Scotch Pig, ton 28 00 (830 00 

White Pig, ton 28 00 C# 

(Oregon Pig. ton ^ 

Refined Bar 21(8 3 

Horse Shoes, keg 5 00 0> 

Nail Rod —^ ^ 

Norway, Oval — (^ ^ 

Copper — 

Sheathing, tb 34 (8 35 

Sheathing, Yellow 21 (0 

Sheathing, Old Yellow 12 ^ 

Composition Nails 24 (^. — 

Composition Bolts 24 @— 


English Cast, tt) ,.. 13 @ 14 

Anderson & Woods, ordinary sizes 15 (8 

Drill 15 0b 

Flat Bar 14 C8 19 

Plow Steel 8S(Ss 12 J 

Tin Plates.— 

10x14 I C Charcoal 7 50 ^ 8 50 

BancaTin 23 (8— 24 

Australian 17 @ 171 


By the Cask 9 & 

Zinc Sheet 7x3 ft. 7 to 10, lb 9 (8— 10 

7x3 ft, 11 to 14 10°® 

8x4 ft, 8 to 10 11 «» 

8x4 ft. 11 to 10 11 @ 

Nails — 

Assorted sizes 3 15 (S3 25 

Bt the tt) 43 (e^ 45 


Eng Standard AVheat.lU'ailJ 
Neville & Co'fl 
Hand Sewed. 22x36., lljiailj 

2.lx3<) -(S— 

23x40 13 ®13; 

Machine Swd, 22x36. UKaUi 
Flour Sacks, halves.. . . Si(»10i 

Quarters 6i((^ 6} 

Eighths 4 (8 4i 

Hessian, 60 inch 15 (^— 

45 inch 9J(gl0 

40 inch 9 (@— 

Wool Sacks, 
Hand^ewed, 3i B)..47j@50 

4 tt) do o2lit0— 

Machine Sewed 474(8— 

Standard Gunnies 14 (815 

Bean Bags 7 @ 8 


Crystal Wax 17 @h- 

Eagle 12 @— 

Patent Sperm 30(834 

Assorted Pie Fruits, 

2i tb cans 2 75 (83 00 

Table do 3 75 (84 25 

Jams and Jellies. .4 25 (8 — 

Pickles, hf gal 3 50 ig — 

Sardines, qr box.,1 65 @\ 90 

Hf Boxes 3 00 (8 — 

Preserved Beef. 

2tt).doz 4 00 (8 — 

do Beef, 4 tti,doz.6 50 (8 — 
Preserved Mutton, 

2 tt). doz 4 CO (8 — 

Beef Tongue 6 50 (8 — 

Preserved Ham, 

2 tt., doz 6 50 (8 — 

Deviled Ham, 1 lb, 

doz 5 50 (j« — 

do Ham. dtt. doz. 3 OO @ — 
Australian, ton.. 7 00 7 25 

Coos Bay 6 50 (8 7 OO 

BelUngham Bay. 6 50 @^ — 

Seattle 5 50 (8 6 50 

(Cumberland 14 00 (3 

Mt Diablo 4 75 (8 6 00 

Lehigh 22 00 (8 

Liverpool 7 00 ffl 8 00 

West Hartley... 7 50 @ 9 00 

Scotch 6 50 @ 8 00 

Scranton 13 00 @16 00 

Vancouver Id . . . 7 50 id — — 

Charcoal, sack.. . 75 @ 

Coke, bbl 60 (8 


Sandwich Id, tt). 215(9 

Costa Rica 18 @ 184 

Guatemala 17 @ 181 

Java 221,(8 23 

Manila 17^(8— — 

Groimd, in cs... 25 @ — — 

Sac'to Dry Cad... 

do ill cases. . 
Eastern Cod.... 
Salmon, bbls.... 9 00 (glO 00 

Hf bbls 5 00 @ 5 50 

1 tt) cans 1 25 (81 30 

Pkld Cod, bbls. .22 00 (8 

Htbbls 11 00 (8 

Mackerel No. 1. 

Hf Bbls 9 50 (810 ,50 

In Kits 1 85 (8 2 10 

Ex Mess 3 25 @ 

Pkld Herring, bx 3 00 ® 3 50 

Boston Smkd H'g 70 @ 

LIME, Etc. 
Lime, Sta Cruz, 


Cement, Rosen. 

WEDNE.'iDAY M., July 10. 1878. 
Plaster, Golden 

Gate Mills.,.. 3 00 @ 3 25 
Land Plaster, tn 10 00 @12 50 

Ass'ted sizes, keg 3 25 (@ 4 00 

Pacific Glue Co's 
Neatsfoot, No 1.1 00 @ 90 

Castor. No 1 1 10 ® — 

do, No. 2 1 05 (S? — 

Baker's A A 1 25 @1 30 

Olive, riagniol....5 25 (85 75 

Possel 4 75 @5 25 

Palm, tt. 9 (S» — 

Linseed, Raw, bbl. 72 (^ — 

Boiled 75 (8 - 

Cocoanut 55 (g) — 

China nut, cs 824@ — 

Sperm, 1 40 (8 - 

Coast Whales 40 @ — 

Polar, refined 45 @ — 

Lard 90 @1 00 



Oleophine 96 

Devoe's Bril't 26 (8 

Photolite 29 & 

Nonpariel 35 @ 

Eureka 40 @ 

Barrel kerosene . , . 20 @ 

Downer Ker 40 @ 

Elaine 424(8 


Pure White Lead. 93<g 

Whiting 1|@ 

Putty 4 01 

Chalk li(| - 

Paris White 25@ — 

(3chre 34@ — 

Venetian Red 3j@ — 

Averill Mixed 
Paint. gal. 

White & tmts. . .2 00 @2 40 
Green, Blue & 

Ch Yellow 3 00 (83 50 

Light Red 3 00 @3 50 

Metallic Roof... 1 30 @1 60 


China Mixed, tt)... 6J@ — 

Hawaiian 7 (@ — 


Cal. Bay, ton.... 15 00 (822 50 

Common 10 00 @12 00 

Carmen Id 13 00 @'22 50 

Liverpool fine. . .20 00 (822 50 

Castile, tt) 10 (8 lOJ 

Common brands. . 44(^ 6 

Fancy brands 1 <gi 8 


Cnoves, tt) 45 @ 50 

Cassia 224@ 25 

Nutmegs 85 @ 90 

Pepper Grain 15 (8 17 

Pimento 15 (» 16 

Mustard, Cal., 

J tt) gla,ss 1 50 @ - 


Cal. Cube, tt) 114@ - 

Powdered ~ 

Fine cnmhed ^^^^ — 

Ciranulated 11 @ — 

Golden C 94(8 — 

Cat. Syrup, kgs... 70 (8 — 

Hawaiian Mol'sses 26 @ 30 

Young Hyson, 

Moyune, etc 35 (^ 50 

Country pckd Gun- 
powder & Im- 
perial 50 @ 60 

Hyson 30 @ 35 

2 00 @ 2 25 IFooo-ChowO 53 @ 60 

Japan, 1st quality 40 i 

5 (g 

dale 2 75 (8 3 50 1 2d quality'. ...... 25 # 

Portland 4 75 (8 5 50 I 

Vertical Feed Victorious. 


Sewing Machine! 

The result of an immense outlaj' of money and years of 
labor and experiments by the best mechanics to be found. 
Composed of but twelve working' parts 
(o hers re(iuire from thirty to forty parts), eac"! part of 
diicct action, redU'Mng friction to a minimum. Simplicity, 
Strength, Dlrabilitv, Ease of Operation, Great Raxoe 
OF WORK ('oMBixED, Constituting the only Perfect, Co.m- 
plf.te and FAULTLESS StWING M.\CHINE on the face 
of the earth. The New 

Lock-Stitcn Sewing Machine. 

Lightest running' Shuttle Machine in the world. 


(Which is as far in advance of the old feed used on all 
other machines as steam is ahead of horse-power, and 
is the exclusive property of this company, is the 


In all Departmoitu of Sewing, that we make the 
following offer: 


Will be given to any person (sewing machine experts 
included) who will, with any other sewing machine, fol- 
low the "DAVIS VERTICAL FEED" through its va«t 
range of practical work. 

All lovers of progressive science and mechanical perfec- 
tion should sec it, and every ladv in the land should ex- 
amine and try the "DAVIS VERTICAL FEED" before 
deciding to purchase an inferior machine, or a single- 
thread plaything without a tension. 

IS'lt is impossible to make a strong, elastic, or lock- 
stitch with anj' but a shuttle machine. 

We are selling WHEELER & WILSON, GRO- 
Machines for $10 Each. 

For descrii>tive circulars, price lists, samples of work 
and terms, apply at the oltice of the 


130 Post Street, San Francisco, Cal 


i^I'nderfeed Machines taken in exchange as part pay- 
ment. Our prices are very low for cash. Branch Office, 
200 Broadway, Oakland, Cal. 

Rooms are exceedingly popular. The best 
tiling on the tables, 
furnished at the low 

cceediuglv popul; 

R ES T A U R A N r, -^o"'"*? '^e 

NO. 218 SANSOME ST., S. F. ?"if " 

CENTS, from five to eight r. M. 
try the Palace. 


Visitors to S, F. should 



[July 13, 1878. 

Agricultural Articles. 


Th.M. PowtOIs Klec 
trie Elevator ia thi 
most Bi)ewly stackiT 
in the worhl. Moii- 
i'.v, tiini' and ]ab.)r 
Kiived by the ust* of 
^ this umchriie. only 
one minute requir- 
e<l t<> unloittl the 
largest heailer wag- 
MU The entire loiwi 
i» taken U|) in a 
center 'opening net with a portable ilen ick The load in 
raised by liorse power, by the nae of this niacliiue. hi«h iind 
large Rtackn c;in l>e Imilt of hay, straw and grain without 
hard labor or wasting -.'f grjiin. The tinn; occupied iiidoadins' 
is so short tliat one derrick with nets will atack f<ir one. two 
or three headers. The success of this machine is well estab- 
lished from the greiit j<al ■ and trstinionials of th<- last two 
Reasons. Kanu'-rs or those wishing to purchase should not 
hold back, l>uf- send in th' ir orders early to be sure of secur- 
ing a rig befoM.- the rush in harvest time. Orders for ma- 
chine or price list circular, address, 

Or H. C. SHAW Plow Co.. foTOCKTON. CAU 

The Famous " Enterprise 

Self Regulating 


Pumps & Fixtures. 

These Mills ami are 
reliable and always i^ive sat- 
isfaction. Simple, strong and 
durable in all parts. Scdid 
wrouRht in>n crank shaft with 
douhlf bfart'ntjH for the crank 
to work in, all turned and 
run in babbitted boxes.. 

Posithrlif Kfl/ ri'fjutfitinih 
with no coilsprinpor sprintrs 
of any kind. No little rods. 
Joints, levers or balls to pet 
out of oraer, as such thin^js 
do. Mills in use six to nine y ears m ijovjjoruer now, that 
have never cost one cent fur repairs. 

All sizes of Pumping and Power Mills. Thousands In 
use. All irarraidcd. Address for circiilars and infor- 


OENERAI, OKKK'K AxNI) Sl'l'l'LlKS, 1.1 VKIlMoltE, 

ALAMEDA CO., C'Al,. Also, liesl Feed Mills for sale. 
San Francisco Agency, LINPORTH, RICE 
dt CO., 401 Market Street. 



Took th. I I. i,„ ..,er all at the jfreat plowing Match 
in Stockton, in 1670. 

This Plow is thoroughly m.ade by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what ia required 
n the construction of Gang Plows. It is (juickly adjusted. 
SufHcient play is given so thai the tongue will pass over 
cradle knolls without changing the working position of the 
shares. It is so constructed that the wheels Ihomselves 
govern the action jt , he Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied" upon .as the best 
and most desirable Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular to 

Amt Piiotooraimikr having a large Camera Box for 
sale will please notify "N. S.," at thisofticc. 

Adjustable Grain Lifter for Headers. 


All fanners who wish to save grain without waste in 
cutting, should examine these. They can be nni at any 
inclination to the ground, as seen at 7) in cut. Arelighi, 
strong and durable, and can be adjus'ed in 1,5 minutes, or 
removed in five when not retjuired, by drawing bolt in 
malleable shank II Set of 8 tor 10-foot header, (in put- 
ting on which bore with J-inch bit for lag screws) arc the 
cheapest and give the belt satisfaction of any in use. 
Parties can save additional the Ci»st <if a set in one day's 
cutting, where grain is lodged or trinkles down. Price. 
9*0 Also, Grain Belts, Header Sticks, etc. .Manufactured 

San Fraucisco and Sacramento, Sole Agents, Pacific Coast 


THREE SIZES— Warranted to Clean from 
60 to 200 bushels per hour, perfectly. 

PRICES $40, $50 and $75. 
The Niish & Cults' .M.acliine is the only machine that 
has taken the First Premium at California State Fairs in 
1S70, 1871, 18"'2, lS7:i, 1874, lS7.''i, 187(5, IS77. 

Nash & Cutis' Machine will thoroughly separate Mus- 
tard Seed, Cheat. Barley, Oatu, Cracked Wheat, etc., from 
Wheat in a rapid and satisfacttiry manner. 

No zinc sieves used in the cV Cutts' Grain Separa- 
tor and Fan Mill; therefore wc can 
Clean Faster, Better, and with Less 'Work 
and Trouble, 
Thau any other machins now in 
The Nash A: Cutis' Machine is the only one that will 
clean Alfalfa Seed. All we ask of any one in want of a 
Grain Separator is to give the Nash A Cutts* a trial. 
The Nash & Cutts' Macliiiie is for sale by all Agricultu- 
ral lin)tlcment Dealers itt California. 
For further particulars address 


No. 'itSl K Street, Sacramento, C il. 
Only manufaeturers of the Nash c^: Cutis' Grain Separa- 
tor for the Pacific Coast. 


.IdllN II GOVE'S PATENT IMl'l;n\ i;|) 

Centennial & Eagle Hay Presses, 



Are the best made, combining Strength, Durability, 
and Compactness Send for Circular. Post 
Otficc Box, ll'iS. Als.i, for sale hv 

Oavid N. Hawley, 201 ^ 203 Market St., 

Cor. of Main, San Francisco. 

Peerless Corn Shellrr. 

It is so c'lieap (onsl- 
infi only $(>). that al- 
most any one can af- 
ford to buy ouc. It is 
BO rapid, it will shell 
almost as f:wl as a $40 
maohine, and seven or 
eiifht bushels per hour 
is nut above its capac- 
ity. It weijfhs only 13 
]iomid8 and is simple 
and durable. For par- 
ticulars, addrcas 

17 New Montjfom- 
ery St. , S. F. 

Blowers' Patent Fruit Drier. 





Prospective View, Showing Draft Chimney, Furnace 
and Drying Rooms. 

Ha Ha Ha 


D. D, T.-I868. 

As a horse medicine it is superior to any liniment ever 
invented For Kisobosk, Spavin, Swkknkv, Calloi's 
LuMi'S. and all oi.u sokks, apply freely so as to blister, 
from tliree to five days in succession, and in fi^ur or Ave 
days, if not cured, repeat as at first. Sprai.ns, STirr 
JoisTH, liRi lsKs, WiNUOALLs, alul all Slight ailiuents, apply 
a small quantity so as not to blister. Saddle Sores, Cuts, 
.>nd all other siires where the skin is broken, mix the lin- 
iment half and half with any kind of oil, and apply in 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Proprietors, 


Ainericaii 3Iachiiie 

Trans\crse Siclion Showing Heating and Drying 

bers and Currents of Heated Air. 
The Only Successful Fruit Drier in ttie World 

Professor D. M. Mellord, inventor of the celebrated 
Mefford proi^ess of drying fruit and vegetables without 
loss of color or flavor, says of the Itlowers' Drier: "Your 
Drier is really il.c only Fruit Drier in the world, and com- 
pared with which every ilrier I have seen (and I have 
seen them all.) is really worthless for successful factory 
work. If fruit driers wish to make a success of their 
work they must use .your house."— D. M. MuKi'ORI), To- 
ledo, Ohio. March 2d. 1878. 

For descriptive circulars, address 

R. B. BLOWERS, Woodland. Cal 


Those who desire a cheap and practical 
device for pitting Plums, Peaches, etc., 
will do well to examine the Hatch ma- 
chine, recently invented and success- 
fully applied. It is simple in construction 
and operation, and not liable to get out of 

The fruit is laid on a table and the 
pitter taken in the hand; by simply strik- 
ing the knife on the fruit the pit is re- 
moved without waste of fruit. 

A single motion of the hand will remove 
the pit. 

The machines are cheap and effective 
and will be found useful to every orchardist and every 
family. Address for circulars, 

Grangers' Business Association, 

100 Davis Street, San Fraiicis*:o. 

Crosby's Extra Early 
Marblebead Mammoth 
Stowell's Evergreen 
Mexican Sweet, New 

Sweet Corn. 

E^^irnuttoni Yellow Flint Corn. 

> 1 

I Beet Seed. 

Early Dutton 

Long Red Mangel Wurtzel) 
Yellow Globe 
White Sugar 



No. 317 Washington Street. San Francisco 




Growers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail 
Dealers in 

Comiirising the Most Complete Stock 

Prices Unusually Low. 
•.•"Guide to the Vegetable and Flower Garden 
will h« sent FRKi to all Custoukks. It contains in- 
structions on the culture of Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental 
Tree Seeds, Alfalfa, etc. 

419 and 421 Sansome Street, S. F. 



Experimental and Fine Special ^lachinery, Planinf; and 
Gear Cutting, Printing Press, llmj Instrument and Gen- 
ral Machine Repairing; Dies, Taps, Punches, Reamers 
iiul ()thcr Tools made to •>rder. Models and Patterns for 
Inventors promp ly executed in Wood or .Metals. 514 
(-'omniercial Street, betweeu Sansonie and LoidesdorfT, 
Third Floor), San Francisco, Cal. 

I. A. HEALD, Proprietor. 


Special Attention to Fitting Eyes. 

(BnwRBii Broadwat and Washinoton.) 


Awarded the 



U. S. Centennial Grand Medal & Dip'oma. 



And the only one that proves a success in 
and the Choicest Fruit at the 
least expense. 

Driers of all sizes put up and no pay askt-d until tested. 

GEO. A DEITZ, Manager, 

Sacramk.vto, Cal 



Continually arriving, NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
VERNAL, MEZQl'ITE and other Grasses. 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
SEmD; together with all kinds > FRUIT, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 


Importer and Dealer Ih Seeds, 
425 Washington Street, - San Francisco. 


Importers, Growers and Dealers in Gartlcn, Field and 
Flower Sec<lH, Dutch Bulbous Roots, Summer Flowering 
Bulbs and (iarden Requisites of every description. Cata- 
logues mailed to all applicants. Address 

B. K. BLISS Ji SONS. 34 Barclay Street, N. Y 



A practical and experienctrd nurseryman is wanted tti 
establish a nursery in a gotxl locatif>n in Tehama count.\ . 
The owner of the land has the best of soil and plenty of 
water, one mil« from the railroati station. He wants a 
good man to put out a few acres of cranberries, and raise 
nil kinds of ornamental and forest trees. The owner of 
the land wishes to lake an interest in the i<roposed nur- 
sery and believes good sales of trues can be malle. Good 
men, experienced and trustworthy may address us on 
this subject. 

202 Sansome Street. San Franc sco. 

nc Fasionable Cards, no two alike, with name, Id-, 
poitptid. GEO. I. REED * CO., Nawau, N. V. 



Wc invite attriition to our largo stock of 

Fruit Trees and Ornamentals, 

Of the most apprcivcd varieties Also. Cc'ltcL', Cork Oak, 
Olives, (iuiivas. English and Black Walnut«, Matjnolias, 
Locpiats. Buiteriiuts. Small Fruits. Evergreens. Etc. We 
have a clioiM* st^ick of the Diospyros Kaki fJopuiunf Pfmiiit- 
moH,/ (if our own growing, ana also, grafted sUtck imported 
direct from several Japau Nurseries- Address for catalogue 
and tenns, 

DR. J. W CLARK, .Vo. 41.S Califoniia St., San Francisco, 
Or JAMES SHINN, Nilcs, Alameda Co., Cal. 



rl..i| /irVA'V ;> if nl l%Mili.|iniiil lAii-.^i lion for 

fine chr-rimj qimlilin' anil rjimeim niid lii'd/ij cfiar- 
acter ..f tKMI'^«!r and ftayxri'tg. The lifvl inUcco 
ovor nia'lo. Ai our \<\"' stiin trndi- mRilt I" Ho»oly 
Imllalpi) n 1 lnfiT<"r K'«>I« ffi- Hint Jirliton't Br't la 

Infcrlir K'm 

evorr plnif. Snli hy nil fteal.T". Ken'l for rnmple, 
Ir-.!, li'C. A. jAOKsnx * Co., Mfr«., PctemburK, V«. 

L,. & E. WERTHHEIMER, Ag'ts. San Fmncisco. 


The best Tr.^p in the World for catchlnj; 
'fish, ANIMALS & GAME. 

Twenty Fiali. 
iNo.i,foronlfnaryfishin(r,«innngnme, *c.35c. 

No.9,rarl.ifve liih. mini, iimsk-riits, &c 75c. 
^Balbjmall. J. BRIDE & CO., 

Mfri., 397 Broadway, Nfw-York. 
I tor Caulofa* of oMful ouvoltlM and iMoUoo IhiM p«p*r. 

July 13, 1878.] 




The Current of Trade Reversed- 



STE:I]N]"WA.Y & SONS Orders ITrom Europe 

Have increased to an extent, necessitating the establishment of Warerooms in Loudon, England, 
and connected with it is a Concert Hall, the whole combined making the most elegant Piano 
Warerooms in Europe, and stands there as a monument of American genius and industry. 

It is impossible to mention in the limited space of an advertisement the innumerable tri- 
umphs of this energetic firm. They stand foremost as inventors in Piano building in America, 
and in that respect, no small compliment to their inventions is the undeniable endorsement of all 
their competitors, as shown in their imitative efforts. Certain principles of the Steiiiways, are, 
however, so completely protected, that no imitation or substitute is attempted at all, and the 
shallow method of crying such inventions down are resorted to and relied upon. 

The Steinways designed and perfected the Overstrung and Iron Frame systems. The ap- 
plication of the Agraffe Arrangements to Square and Upright Pianos. The Patent Duplex Scale, 
creating the most beautiful treble tones, (the Duplex Scale is of recent invention and only to be 
found in Pianos sold recently). The improved Double Dampers. The later idea extending the 
Agraffes to every string in the Piano. The highest finish to all parts of the instrument, inclu- 
ding first quality of ivory, ebony, felt, cloth, etc. The wood and varnish of such tirst-class 
character, that the employment of large capital and experience alone permits. 

The name of Steinway has become a * 'household word" in American homes, and the satis- 
factory record of 18 years' trial on the Pacific Coast, in itself assures the purchaser that the in- 
vestment is no speculation, but one of perfect security. 

The oft-repeated story of rival makers claiming to have been Steinways' foreman, etc. , 

should have no weight with purchasers. An immense manufacturing business like tne Steinway, 
is divided into departments for the various classes of work, and a foreman of one department 
superintends that alone, and cannot be perfected in other details. 

The Steinways (a numerous family) are the inventors and designers of the principles of their 
pianos, and are alone responsible for the thorough execution of their own ideas. 

In the Machinery Department at the late Centennial Exhibition, Steinways were awarded 
a special medal for an invention for testing their iron frames under a pressure of 5,000 pounds to 
the square centimeter. (This award was distinct from their medal for the best pianos exhibited.) 
The iron frames in Steinway pianos are the only ones so tested, and while other makers rely on 
castings from an ordinary foundry, the Steinways maintain their own foundry, and manufacture 
a frame of comjjo-iite metal, which adds greatly to the resonant qualities of the instrument in general. 

It often occurs that the attempt is made to raise the character of pianos constructed on 
less costly principles to the rank that the Steinway maintains, by naming a price, the same, or 
nearly so. This method is frecjuently exposed by the perfect willingness of the dealer to make 
astonishing discounts for cash, or extremely long credits; systems not entertained in any tirst- 
class business. In selling a Steinway piivuo, a guarantee of worth is given protecting the pur- 
chaser for five years, and catalogues issued by the Pacific Coast Agencies have an uniform rate 
of prices in gold, and where desired a liberal installment plan is offered to responsible buyers, 
with an additional charge of simple interest on deferred payments. Catalogue mailed on ap- 
plication to 

No. 105 Kearny Street, San Francisco. 


Send for Catalogue. N. B. — Please state where you saw this advertisement. 

To Threshers. 

Hold Your Bags 





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Simple, Cheap, 

Adjustable to any 
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Completest Device Ever Invented 
and Lasts a Lifetime. 

i^"Discount to the trade. General Agency for the 
Pacific Coast, 


No. 306 Davis Street, San Francisco. 


San Francisco and Sacramento 



Awnings, Tents, Twines. 

119, 121, 123 Clay Street, S. P. 

Winchester Repeating Rifle, 

MODEL 1873. 

nc Fashionable Visiting Cards— no two alike, with 
aO name, 10c. Nassau Card Co., Nassau, N. Y. 

String measuring from center of tar- 
get to center of each shot, 32 
inches. Average distance of 
each shot. 1 9-100 inches. 

The Strength of All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, 
The Impossibility of Accident in Loading, 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting, 

Defense, or Target Shooting. 
The San Francisco Agency l3 now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 
Round barrels, plain and set, 24 inch— blued. Octeffon barrel, plain, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set 
24, 26, 2S, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set, 24 
26, 28, 30— extra finished, case hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch- 
extra finished- C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch— beautifully finished— C. H. & C. S., 
knowii aa "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, muskets and carbines, 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 

Sole Agent for Dupont's Mining, Blasting, Cannon, and Celebrated Brands 

of Sporting Powder, 

JOHN SKINKER, No. 115 Pine Street, San Francisco 



Any printer having an Eighth or Quarter Medium 
Job Press for sale, will please address J. P., care of Dewe 
& C«., S, F. State canditien and lowest price. 

Agents Wanted. 

Able and reliable canvassing agents, who wish steady 
employment and good wages for good services, are invited 
to addraaa Ibis ofSec and tond referentM. 

The Newest Music Books. 
!! ONWARD !! 

Onward is the name of L. O. EMERSON'S 
book for SINGING CLASSES for the season of 1S78-71}. 
\ new anil fresh collection of the best Secular and Sacred 
Music, with a full Instructive Course. Teachers will 
please examine. 52 Glees, .56 Sacred Tunes, and 15 An- 
thems are provided. Price .57 50 per dozen. 


Conijiiled by J. P. C013B, and designed for .Musical 
Conventions, Societies, Festivals, etc. A selection of a 
number of the best Choruses, Sacred and Secular, 144 
large pages. ,'.*12 per dozen). 


ByL, O. EMERSO.V. As this fine book contains a Hun- 
dred Anthems, Motets, etc., all of the best qualitv, it is a 
fine book for any choir, and will be extensively used as an 
Anthem Book. Its first design, however, is "for the use 
of Epiiicopal Clioirs, and it has the greatest variety ever 
brought together of Anthems, A'enites, Cantatatcs 
.lubilates, Glorias, and of all other pieces used in the ser- 
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[July 13, 1878. 






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Chance in the Nursery Business. 

There is a good chance in Tehama County for a skilled 
man who will go to work and start a nursery. The loca- 
^on IS one mile from Vina station, in Tehama County, in 
a good growing region of country; the land is first-class 
and water abundant. A man is wanted, with good refer, 
ences, who will start a first-class nursery in |>artnership 
with the owner of the land Address, 

Vina Station, Tehama County, Cal 

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If favored with your orders we will furnish you with 
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The Ertel Economy One-horse Hay, Straw, 
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The World's Favorite, is the most durable, the handsomest 
working, the easiest in draft, the lightest in weight, 
and lowest in price; 10 tons of its Hay will load in any 
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Berkeley, Alameda County, Cal. 


Washington, Alameda County, California. 

The Thirteenth semi-annual term of this Institution 
will commence on 

Thursday, August Ist, 1878. 

For fidelity and ability in teachers, for pur|x)9es of a 
solid, practical education, and for hcalthfnlness and 
beauty of surroundings, this Institution will compare 
favorably with any <jn the Pacific « oast. 

For catalogues and further information, address 

S. S. HARMON, Principal. 

Washington, Alameda Co., Cal. 


Being unable to find trusty, reliable help, I will sell an 
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meaning business need apply to WM. NILES, 

Importer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 


248 J STREET, 


sa(;kamento, cal. 

The Sixteenth annual session of this Institution com- 
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here find superior facilities for a thorough and flnifhed 
educition, and a of culture and refinement. The 
music will be under the direction of Prof. John P. Mor- 
gan, founder of the .Musical Conservatory of Oakland 

For further particulars address, 

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Books for the People. 

For Sale on the Pacific Coast at the 
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Publisher of the Pacific Ri ral Press. 
No. 202 Sansome Street. San Francisco. 

CIJLTUKAL BUILDINGS. Desiiarna and Plans of H«it 
Beds. Cold Pits. Propaj^atine Htmnes, Forcing- Houses, 
Hot and ('old UrajMiries, IJreen Huiiset}, Conservatories, 
Orchard Houses, etc. , with the various luodcs of Veli- 
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For Planting Parks, (iardens. Cemeteries, Private 
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The Cultivation of Forest Trees for Shade, for Shelter, 
for Fuel, for Timber, and for profit. Illustrated. 
Price, $1. 


New Kdition, Kxlra Fine Binding. A complete Trea- 
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A Complete Treatise on Butter Makinjf at Factories and 
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A Work on the Breeds. Breeding, Kearing, and General 
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Caponizing. 100 Engravings. Octavo. Price, il.50. 

TEN ACRES ENOUGH. A Practical Treat- 
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as to the best mode of Cultivating the Smaller Fruits, 
such an Strawberries, Kaspbcrries, Blackberries, etc. 
Price, «1. 

FLAX CULTURE. A Manual of Flax Culture 
and Manufacture, with Directions for Preparing 
Ground, Sowing and Harvesting, including Hemp and 
Flax Culture in the West, and Preparation for Market. 
Price, 10 cents. 


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Drawings to Working Scale for City, and Country 
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ICA. By Henry W. Herbert. In two su|)crb royal oc- 
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newly written, compiled, and perfected. By S. D. & 
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tions for llaccs; Management in the .Stable; on the Track; 
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GUN, ROD, AND SADDLE. Nearly Fifty 
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Embracing the Game of North America, Upland Shoot- 
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Forest, Prairie, and Mountain Sports, Bear Hunting, 
Turkey Shooting, etc. Illustrated. 2 Vols. Price, %*. 
t^Any of the above books w ill be sold on the Pacific 

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Tbla paper la printeU with Ink furnished by 
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St.. Philadelphia & 59 Gold St.. N. Y. 

Volume XVI.] 


Number 3. 

A Plant Pretext for War. 

It is commonly reported that the pretext 
which the Idaho Indians make for beginning 
the war which is now raging, was encroachment 
by settlers upon "Big Camas Prairie," upon 
which grew large quantities of the "camas" 
bulbs, which the Indians esteem highly for food. 
The Indian claim that the war was undertaken 
in this defense of their food resources is strongly 
denied by the settlers, who assert that the 
"camas" was only a pretext, and that the war 
really sprang from the evil dispositions of the 
aborigines. However this may be, the "camas" 
becomes a subject of peculiar interest, as being 
ostensibly the bone of contention, and therefore 
we choose it and several kindred bulbs and 
roots for illustration this week. 

Camas root or "wild hyacinth" {Camassia 
esculenta) is shown in Fig. 1. This root re- 
sembles an onion in shape and a hickory nut in 
size. It bears a pretty blue flower. The root 
is dug in June and July. When eaten raw the 
taste is pleasant and mucilaginous ; when boiled 
it somewhat resembles that of the common 
potato. The Indian mode of preparing it for 
future use is to dig a pit, line it with rocks, 
upon which a tire is made, and, when heated 
sufficiently, the heated stones are swept clean 
and the roots are heaped upon them ; grass or 
twigs are next laid over the pile, and, finally, a 
covering of earth. After several days the pit is 
uncovered, when the white roots are found to 
be converted into a thoroughly cooked, dark- 
brown, homogeneous mass, of about the con- 
sistency of softened glue, and as sweet as 
molasses. Cooked in this manner, the roots are 
often made into large cakes, by mashing and 
pressing them together, and, when slightly 
dried in the sun, they become rather pliable and 
tough, and look like plugs of black navy 
tobacco. Its color does not recommend it to the 
taste, but it is sweet, mucilaginous, and as agree- 
able as the fresh root, excepting a slight smoky 
flavor acquired in baking. In this pressed form 
it keeps softer than in the raw state or when 
simply cooked, and may be kept for a year or 
more. The roots, when boiled in water, yield 
a very good molasses, which is much prized, 
and is used on important festival occasions by 
various tribes. The Indians of Cape Flattery, 
the Nez Perces, of Idaho, and those of Pitt 
river, California, are the greatest consumers of 
this article of diet, under the name of camas 

Kouse root {Peucedanum amhiguum) is shown 
in Figs. 2 and 3. The root of this plant is dug 
in April or May when in bloom. It grows on 
hills and mountains which are so poor that grass 
will not grow upon them. When fresh it is 
like the parsnip in taste, and as it dies becomes 
brittle and very white, with au agreeable taste 
of mild celery. It is easily reduced to flour. 
When its brown epidermis is removed, innumer- 
able small dots are revealed. Both the roots 
and the flour will keep several months. It is 
sometimes called bread or biscuit root by trav- 
elers, and kouse root by the Indians of Oregon 
and Idaho. 

Prairie potato or "bread root," (Psoralea 
esculmta, Fig. 4. ) It is also called Indian 
turnip, pomme de prah-k of the French, and 
tip-sin-nah of the Sioux, who use this root very 
extensively. It is generally the size of a hen's 
egg, of a regular ovoid shape, with a thick, 
leathery envelope, easily separated from its 
smooth internal parts, which become friable 
when dry, and are readily pulverized, affording 
a light, starchy flour. It is of a sweetish turnip- 
like taste, is often cut in thin slices and dried 
for winter use, and is very palatable, however 
prepared. The Indians of Kansas and Nebraska 
consider this root an especial luxury. The 
Indians of the St. Croix river offer these roots 
as a peace offering to the Great Spirit. 

Fig. 5 is wild sago (Calochortua luleus). The 
Utahs call it sago. The root is the size of a 
walnut, very palatable and nutritious. The 
Indian children of California, Utah and Arizona 
prize it as the children of the whites do confec- 
tionery. The Mormons, during their first years 
in Utah, consumed this root extensively. 

The Idaho Statesman says: " The Big Camas 
prairie is a beautiful and fertile valley, 
from 25 to 30 miles in length, with an average 
width of at least 10 miles. Within these bounds 

there is every variety of surface, nearly all of 
which is susceptible of cultivation. There is 
no portion of it which could not be easily 
drained and converted into grain fields if needed. 
It has all been surveyed into sections at the ex- 
pense of the tax-payers of the nation, and 
should be now open and ready for settlement. 
It lies contiguous to the Overland stage road, 
leading from Boise City to Kelton, and also to 
the stage road connecting the Overland road 
with the mines in Alturas county. Its exclu- 
sive occupation by Indians merely for the pur- 
pose of hunting and digging roots is impracti- 
cable in the present condition of the country, 
and would prove a source of constant trouble 

Fig. J 

Bermuda Grass as a Levee Protector. 

We have heaped both praise and blame upon 
the tenacious Bermuda grass which our friend 
Mr. Rich, of Sacramento, found he could do 
anything with but kill. In fact its aggressive 
character seems to be about the only objection 
to it. Like fire it is an excellent thing in its 
place, but it is greedy and hard to restrain. 
Now while our farmers in many parts are 
mourning the inroads which last winter's turbu- 
lent streams made upon their meadows and 
levees, Bermuda grass creeps into view and 



and danger. The settlers have thus far used 
it only for grazing purposes during the summer 
months, but the advancing settlements will 
soon make it desirable and necessary for the 
site of permanent homes. The Indians covet it, 
not because it produces the camas plant, but 
Liecause it is contiguous to the roads and settle- 
ments. Were it isolated from these, they 
would never make it a summer resort as they 
do. As to tlie destruction of the camas by the 
hogs, this has merely been used as a pretext for 
begging and levying contributions upou the 
whites, as all tlie hogs that have ever 
been on the prairie have never dimin- 
ished in any perceptible degree the yield 
of the camas root. This year there were 
no hogs on the prairie, or next to none, while 
the cattle men and stock raisers were disposed, 
as heretofore, to share with the Indians when- 
ever they killed a beef, or had other provisions 
to spare," 

promises great things. We cannot do better 
than give the grass a chance to speak for itself, 
as it does in a letter of a Georgia farmer, Mr. 
H. H. Parks, to the Countri/ OentUmaa. He 
purchased a farm in Coweta county, Georgia, 
through which- ran the Wahoo creek. The 
great trouble experienced by the former owners 
of this land, was the overflowing of the creek 
during freshets. No small amount of money 
had been expended iu building up the washed- 
out places along its banks, and building levees. 
The land being of a sandy quality, none of 
these oljstructions could be made to stand. The 
first thing Mr. Parks did was to straighten the 
banks, build up the washed-out places, and set 
it in~Bermuda grass. The next thiiig was to 
build a levee at the upper end of the valley, 
where the creek had washed out a large quan- 
tity of sand. Out of this sand the levee was 
built. Not a few persons prophesied that the 
first time the creek got out of its banks, away 

would go the levee. When it was completed, 
just enough soil was thrown over the surface 
to give the Bermuda grass root-hold. Mr. Parks 
was sure that if no freshet came until the grass 
could take root, the levee would be safe. It 
proved a success, and not a few have been erect- 
ed since, and set in Bermuda grass. Mr. Park 
says: "This grass will stop washes anywhere; 
I have seen guUeys 10 feet wide stopped entire- 
ly by its growth. Thousands of old worn-out 
fields in Georgia are being brought up by the 
growth of this grass. It runs on the ground 
like vines, and every joint takes root, and sends 
up a stalk and blade that catches everything in 
the way of sediment and trash. It is used now 
on the great Mississippi levees, and has proved 
the most successful of any growth ever tried to 
hold them from washing away. It is not only a 
valuable grass for the purposes mentioned, but 
it is one of the best grasses for grazing purposes 
in the known world. Hundreds of negroes in 
Georgia feed their mules on nothing else, and 
make their crops with them too. This Ber- 
muda grass was brought from the island of Ber- 
muda about 40 years ago, by a cousin of mine, 
and planted in his garden in Greensboro (Ga. ), 
and from those few grass roots it has spread, 
until not a town or city in Georgia is without 
its velvet green skirts over its suburbs, and 
along the streets and alleys." 

Rye-Grass and Liquid Manure. 

There were experiments begun some time ago 
by one of our leading dairymen in the growth 
of rye-grass, with irrigation through iron pipes 
laid through the fields, the water being dis- 
tributed by hose attached to hydrants here and 
there. It was also designed to apply the liquid 
manure gained by flushing out the cow barn with 
water, the floor being tight and sewered for 
that purpose. We hope at the close of the 
season to have report of a year's work on this 
plan. As this experiment is going on it is in- 
teresting to mention that a similar plan, so far 
as the application of liquid manure goes, has 
beea long in practice by Mr. Mechi, a leading 
English farmer, and he reports excellent results. 
He thus describes his method and apparatus: 
"With a pump, worked when required by a 
strap from our fixed steam-engine, the liquified 
manure is forced through underground iron 
pipes to a hydrant, to which w attached some 
lengths of fire-engine hose. The affair is, in 
fact, simply a pump to force it, iron pipes to 
convey it, and leather pipes with a nozzle to 
distribute it, just as is done from a fire-engine. 
After clearing a space of Italian rye-grass, we 
irrigate, and then, in six weeks, it is again 20 
inches to 30 inches long. I once made three 
ton of hay per acre May 31st, and in six weeks 
the rye-grass was nearly as high as the table. 
When the engine is at work, either grinding or 
chaffcutting, we have merely to slip the driving 
strap on the pump rigger, and away goes the 
sewage. The solid and liquid manure go together 
from under the sparred floors and from the tank. 
This is decidedly a paying operation. Themanure 
of to-day may be feeding growing crops to-mor- 
row. We get heat and moisture together, so that 
the growth is tropical. One acre of Italian rye- 
grass sewaged will give as much as four acres 
unsewaged. Mr. Lawes said before the Com- 
mons Committee that no amount of ordinary 
manure, applied during the summer months, 
could compete with the sewage. It pays best to 
put it on as strong as the plants can bear it. 
Every farm which has a fair water supply 
should have a few acres sewaged. Italian rye- 
grass is a biennial, so that there should be 
several fields piped. I find it a capital prepa- 
ration for peas and then turnips, and wheat or 
barley. My iron pipes Hj years ago only cost 
me X,^i per ton, delivered on the farm, so that 
each 9-foot length of 3-inch pipe, weighing 1 
cwt. , only cost .5s. , this, of course, in quantities. 
They are as efl^ective now as 26 years ago, and 
especially almost as clean as new on the light 
land. " 

This is in some respects a more elaborate 
apparatus than our dairy-man has arranged, 
but the principle to be tested is the same, and 
it will be of value to know what results will be 
gained. Of course the enlistment of so great 
capital would only be warranted at present in 
locations where the milk can be turned to better 
account than is now possible in butter and 
cheese making. 



[July 20, 1878. 


We admit, uneiidoreed, oiiinionsof cDrresiioiideiite — Eu» 

Turkeys, Rice, Wheat in Hills, Etc. 

Editors Press: — Excuse something of a 
mixed dish in the way of a letter this week 
about raising turkeys, cultivating rice, experi- 
ment with wheat, the ch^at or chess in Tulare 
county, the army worms, etc. 

A lady I have met on this trip, living on as 
dry, barren and lonesome a looking point of the 
foothills in Merced county, as can be found in 
all this valley— one, too, who was formerly ac- 
customed to town life with all its attractions — 
remarked to me somewhat in this wise: " Why, 
they are all the time saying people can't do 
anything to make money out here. I lind I 
have been able to raise over .§400 worth of 
turkeys a year with very little trouble and no 
expense l)ut my time. " In answer to a question 
how much grain she fed them, she said she fed 
them nothing whatever!— they lived and grew 
fat on weeds and bugs alone, one weed espe- 
cially being 

Their Principal Food. 

She showed me the weed, telling me that when 
it is young they eat the whole plant, then as it 
blooms and seeds continuously through summer 
and fall, they live upon the seed chieHy. It is 
a fact and weed worth knowing. The ]>lant 
is one of the most generally distributed "dry 
weather weeds" throughout San .Joaquin and 
Sacramento valleys, and indeed through the 
State generally. Its common rvame is "mul- 
lein," or, in some localities, "abolition weed," 
a familiar, whitish, hairy, l()W-.spreading weed, 
not belonging to the mullein tribe at all, but 
closely allied to the crolons. 

For water they depend on what is hauled for 
household purposes from the Merced river, or 
what stands in a cut of the Farmers' canal — 
lately described. This lady assured me she 
sent 44 fat gobblers last (Christmas by rail, via 
Merced, to San Francisco, and made $1.'}.') liy 
their sale, after paying freight. Yet she has 
the fewest possible facilities for raising turkej's, 
or anything else, being in an entirely unculti- 
vated region of the foothills, several miles from 
any farms or town, the friends with whom she 
is living being connected with the construction 
of the Farmers' canal. I saw numbers of her 
turkeys, old and young, feeding upon this weed 
and evidently thriving well. 

A late Rural makes incjuirics about 
Bice Culture. 

A few miles northeast of Hanford, I have seen 
lately the first rice patch I have met with any- 
where in my rounds through California. It is 
on a piece of land rented by Co). .1. M. Strong, 
who formerly made such valuable experiments 
in cotton-raising on Merced river, but who now 
lives in Visalia. Without having then seen the 
inquiries, I wished very much to collect some 
facts about it, but could learn little, except 
from what I saw, because six or eight Chinamen 
were in charge, irrigating and freeing it from 
■weeds, with no white man near who was posted. 
Efforts to gain information from the "Must 
Gos" were about as instructive as is usually the 
case when you try to learn anything of value 
from John. His "no sa-ve" is a sure stumbling- 
block. But this Lean say: There were several 
acres well prepared for irrigating from a side 
ditch drawn from the Mussel Slough ditch; the 
rice appears to be growing well, the plants be- 
ing from 12 to 18 inches high. I have since 
learned that the best South Carolina rice was 
obtained for seed. It is to be hoped that Col. 
Strong will give your readers full reports of the 
progress and results of his useful experiments, 
and your querist can, no doubt, get the desired 
information by writing to him. 

The Experiment with Wheat 
Is one of considerable interest as regards light 
seeding, tried by Mr. James Pursell in his gar- 
den, some five miles north of here. Tiie last 
week in February, he checked off one sijuare 
rod of well-])ulverized soil into square feet. In 
the center of each square foot he planted one 
plump grain of wheat, about an inch and a half 
deep. This was i'li grains to the square rod. 
After the wheat had attained a safe hight, he 
irrigated it regularly from his well, but he 
thinks the grain did not get as much water as 
it would by the usual irrigation from ditches. 
Results: Fine grain four feet high, heads large, 
plump, and at regular hights. It has tillered, 
or stooled, well, generally ranging from 30 to 90 
stalks and heads from each grain, or an average 
of from 50 to 60. He is carefully saving the 
heads, and judges from those already gathered, 
that the yield will be about '.Vi pounds, or half 
a bushel to the square rod, which would be at 
the rate of 80 bushels per acre. From this ex- 
periment he concludes that 11 pound.s per acre 
of the best seed, planted at regular depths, 
with a good drill, whose teeth are a foot apart, 
would be ample seeding, with proper irrigation. 
As it is, our farmers generally sow, even where 
they have irrigation, from three to six times 
that amount, and without irrigation, in some 
places even 12 times that amount, or about two 
bushels per acre. This heavy seeding has, no 
doubt, resulted from the amount of cracked or 
otherwise defective seed, from loss of much 
seed by covering too deep, and a still greater 

amount destroyed by birds, squirrels, gophers, 
rats, and field mice. Speaking of drilling 
wheal, reminds me of an interesting fact I 
learned among English farmers, while with 
them two years ago. They frequently drill 
their wheat in rows so far apart, that while it 
is yet low they cultivate and "weed" it by run- 
ning small plows between the rows. They 
think it "pays" them to do this. 

Cheat or Chess, and Army Worms 
Are giving the farmers some trouble here, as 
they are elsewhere in the State. In some fields 
where too much water has drowned out or 
stunted the wheat, that old pest of the farmers, 
from time immemorial, has taken its place. 
The variety of this " cheat " here seems to be 
the same that I have seen at times in my own 
wheat fields in Stanislaus, Merced and Fresno. 
It is probably the same species that has been so 
disappointing to the hopes of the farmers in 
Sonoma, Napa, Contra Costa and other counties. 
It is, no doubt, a separate and distinct plant 
from wheat, as is argued by I'rof. Hilgard. It 
has long bee?i known as such by botanists in all 
civilized countries. 

The army worms, which appeared some 
weeks ago around \'isalia, have been found in 
greater or less numbers on the alfalfa, the green 
weeds, cabbages and other vegetables, for the 
past two weeks, in this fine irrigated country. 
They are very similar in size, appearance and 
habits to the army worms which frequently 
work such destruction in the cotton fields of the 
Gulf States. The first set that appear early in 
the summer are not dreaded so much as tlieir 
numerous progeny later in the season. U'e see 
accounts now of their ravages also in Ama<lor 
and Yuba counties. Here they have done little 
mischief as yet, though very thick in places. 
I have sent specimens of cheat and army 
worms, collected on Maj. McQuiddy's place, 
four miles northeast of here, to Prof. Hilgard, 
that he may tell us how they compare with the 
species found elsewhere. I hope we shall soon 
hear from him through your columns on these 

Like many of the older ranches in this 
Mussel Slough Country, 
Maj. McQuiddy s shows how great and desira- 
ble a change can be wrought by systematic irri- 
gation in a short time. A large part of this 
country is now a garden spot, though four 
years ago almost a desert. The Major's house 
and yaril are well shaded by large gums, figs 
and other fruit trees. His peach, apricot and 
plum trees are now in full bearing, tlie fourtli 
year from tlie seed. His grape vines and fig 
trees are loaded with fruit. He has four-year- 
old orange trees growing well from the seed. 
He has enough alfalfa, from which, by five 
cuttings per year, he gets regularly 10 tons liay 
per acre. In his yard, he has, growing rankly, 
the only specimens of "poke weed" I have 
seen in the State. He brought the seed from 
Tennessee. He gives we the very valuable fact 
that a wash made from "poke" roots is as 
effectual a cure for scab in sheep as any wash 
known. He prefers it to the wash made from 

More hereafter of the crop here and the great 
changes made by four years of irrigation and 
industry. J. W. A. Wkigut. 

Hanford, July 5th, 1878. 

Notes from Ventura County. 

Editors Press: — Ventura county, adjoining 
Los Angeles county, has a climate very similar, 
varying as you go back from the sea and ascend 
the hills. But every part of it has its daily sea 
breezes, varying much in different localities, 
and the humidity of the air being much greater 
near the coast than back, tends to keep it very 
cool for miles back from the coast. San Buena- 
ventura, the county seat, often abbreviated to 
"Ventura," for true business purposes is a neat, 
quiet little town, of perhaps near 2,000 people, 
counting the .Spanish-speaking population, who 
are yet remaining to study the pictures of 
American advancing civilization. Their som- 
ber adobes wit'n ancient trough tilings are strik- 
ingly in contrast with the cheerful adornment 
of our more modern edifices. 

The county buildings are not costly, but neat 
and plain, and the same may be said of the other 
public edifices. The public school is (juite an 
imposing structure of brick, occupying an ele- 
vated position, and judging by the printed pos- 
ters of candidates offering their services and 
desiring to be elected as trustees, it is a very 
high honor to serve the people and boss the 

Ventura is a seaport town, with its steamer 
landing or wharf, and would be still more im- 
portant if not obliged to divide its shipping 
business with the sister town of Hueneme, 12 
miles east, where there is also an excellent 
wharf and storehouses that claims a liberal share 
of the farmers patronage. Daily connection is 
made with S. P. R. I!, by stage to Newhall 
station, about 60 miles by pleasant route up the 
Santa Cl-ra river and valley; passing the vil- 
lages of Saticoy and Santa Paula, and the 
Camulos Ranchos, the most elegantly fitted up 
in all its appointments of buildings, with varied 
fruits anil adornments of vines and Howers, of 
; any of the Spanish-American homes, I have yet 
' seen. In the immediate vicinity is a large set- 

tlement of Spanish-Californian farmers who are 
trying to Americanize and use patent imple- 
ments and are raising good corn and barley. 

Soon after passing the Camulos Rancho you 
will find yourself in deep cogitations, as every 
advancement up the winding valley changes the 
scenery, and reveals new and beautiful nooks, 
valleys and bluffs, with the Jettle river passing 
by. It seems so strange that there is no house 
or home for about 15 miles or more, except the 
Newhall mansion. This vast track of valley 
and hill land is owned by JI. H. Newhall, the 
well-known auctioneer on Sansome street, San 
Francisco. The Newhall station is the Ven- 
tura R. R. depot. 

Here you catch a strong scent of the 
Star Petroleum Refining Works, 
Located near by, where the steam engine that 
does tiieir pumping is run by coal oil or some of 
the ligliter products of the refinery. According 
to Prof. Gunning and other oil experts, this 
whole belt, from Los Angeles to Newhall and 
on down nearly to the coast at Ventura, is a 
genuine oil belt, and when properly developed 
will be remunerative. 

Uses for Petroleum. 

All through N'entura county where I have 
been, the farmer that wants the black tarry 
petroleum drives to some open Howing spring 
and dips it up free of charge. It is much used 
for lubricating purposes and as cure for vermin 
on hogs. The most convenient method of ap- 
plying is by making a wallow hole and then 
pouring the petroleum on top of the water. 
The hogs have no antipathy for it, but fre- 
quently drink some of it. Some attempts are 
being made to develop Howing wells alxmt mid- 
way between Newhall and Ventura. \\'hen 
one enterprise of this character is proved a suc- 
cess, there are scores of locations equally prom- 
ising, and life and energy would soon be devel- 
oped in farming, for then a home market would 
be created for various products. 

The Honey Interest. 

To a stranger, seeing so much of the county, 
hills and mountains, with long, steep canyons, 
all covered with coarse wild bush and weeds, 
might consider it a worthless waste of land thus 
piled up by the side of narrow valleys. But in 
this hasty judgment he finds he errs greatly. 
The highest bush on those hills is utilized and 
will this year yield its rich nectar to the busy 
bee. All along the hills and up the ravines are 
the homes of beemen cozily housed, and at the 
distance of a few rods tlie city of bee-hives and 
the honey-house are placed. Beekeeping is 
not the lazy business that some may imagine, 
for it nas its labors and cares, and success and 
profit mainly depend on proper labor manage- 
ment. If the consumers of honey in the great 
cities could see the perfection of machinery 
and cleanly manipulations that takes the honey 
from the comb free from all impurities and cans 
it, returning the uninjured comb to be refilled ! 
by the bees, it would surely add additional 1 
satisfaction to the luxury and maybe increase 
the amount of sales. Again, when they would 
see these isolated families losing the benefits of 
society and schools to harvest this nectar of 
high mountain fiowers, they should quite wil- 
lingly give a remunerative price for the luxury 
thus furnished. 

The heavy losses in stands of bees by the 
drouth of last year is probably now made whole, 
and so far the season is proving a good one. 
This county now ranks high as a bee county, 
and claims several very able apiarians. 

Land Matters. 

The great drawback to this county has been 
the unsettled titles. Many settlers who sup- 
posed they were on government lands found 
they were within grant boundaries, and left; 
otliers became renters and not actual settlers 
and improvers. If the entire county was free 
from grant titles and open to purchase in 160- 
acre tracts, there would soon be an improving 
condition. .Some express tlie hope that Mr. 
Newhall may buy the More grant, and some 
other titles to land in the Santa Clara valley, 
and then build a railroad from Ventura to New- 
hall station, and divide up the land in the val- 
ley into small farms and offer it cheap to the 
actual settler. Such an enterprise recjuires not 
large capital, as the lauds would quickly .sell at 
advanceil prices and would be ample security for 
most of the purchase money, and pay well as an 
enterprise in competent management. 

Present Crops. 

This season the wheat grew well, but the 
prevalence of wet rusted it so that but little 
will be harvested. Barley very heavy, but so 
badly lodged that it cannot count for more than 
half a crop. iCorn even on high hills looks well, 
and j)romise8 now a large yield. Fruit a mod- 
erate crop, and potatoes and beans very fair. 

The drawback is the cost of getting to a cash 
market. Some make complaint of wharfage at 
.^1.25 per ton to get to the ocean steamer as ex- 
orbitant and oppressive; especially does it show 
on heavy cheap produce. The good sense of 
the owners of wharf property will adjust all 
real grievances of this nature. 

The dairy and pork interests are rather light- 
ly represented in this county. Twice witliin a 
fortnight has the county seat been out of butter 
so that the first-class hotels had none on the 
table— San Francisco sends down some to sup- 
ply this deficiency. There is plenty of honey, 
but a lack of milk. 

Harvesting is progressing quietly; wages from 
$1 to $3 per day, but many iille men not need- 
ed, or not willing to work for the wages given. 
Owing to the amount of weeds and dampness 
in the mornings, they find a dump-box header 

wagon most convenient, and drive right along 
with the header till a full load and then dump 
and keep right on with the header, and each 
round dump so as to form a windrow. One 
header wagon thus attends the header; and 
about five wagons same kind will keep the sep- 
arator going if well manned. It strikes me the 
same dump wagon will beat the derrick un- 
loader to drop the straw at the threshing self- 
feeder. All seem to think it very economical, 
and both grain and labor-saving. The inven- 
tor's name is supposed to be hono publico, as it 
is not patented. B. W. Crowei.l. 

Ventura County, July, 1878. 

Who is Uncle Josh? 

Editors Pkes.s: — The person who r,egaled us 
with "A Talk About Manure" in the Press of 
the loth inst. , does not appear to like the way 
we farmers deal with manure in this State, and 
he also threw in some gratuitous expressions 
about a party whom he styles "Dick Slasher," 
and which I suppose he thought very funny. 
I should have thought that he would have told 
us what to do with the manure, seeing that he 
was so pained about the waste. I suppose that 
what he said may be true enough, but I must 
say that I don't think it <iuite fair for a person 
to write in the way he did without signing hit 
real name. It looks a little like Indian warfare, 
shooting at you from behind a tree and you 
don't know which tree he is behind. I have 
talked with several of my neighbors about it 
and I think we can guess who "Uncle Josh" is; 
but a person who has been several years to an 
agricultural college, if he has anything to say 
that is worth saying, he needn't be afraid to 
sign his name to it. 

In conclusion if "Uncle .losh" has anything 
more to say to us or about us, let him say it 
like a man and sign it properly, and we will at 
least respect him the moie for it, even if we 
don't see any sense in what he says. 

Richard Derlasher. 
Santa Rosa, June 28th. 

That Talk About Manure. 
Editors — A writer in the Press sign- 
ing himself "L'ncle Josh ' seems rather disposed 
to ridicule the California farmers' method of 
dealing with the manure question. I have 
heard it said that no person has a right to con- 
demn any particular plan or method of doing a 
thing unless they can show a better one. 
Whether this be true or not, I think that 
"Uncle .losh's" talk would have been more ac- 
ceptable if he had seasoned it with a few practi- 
cal suggestions that any plain, common-sense 
man could have understood. Perhaps he in- 
tends to do this in a future number, but if he 
had just mentioned that he would it would 
have relieved us of any anxiety on the subject. 
What he said about the treatment of manure is 
all true, for I know of many farmers in my im- 
mediate neighborhood who are very glad to let 
the rain wash the manure out of their way, but 
I suppose that they have found from experience 
that it don't pay to bother with it. I for one 
am fully satisfied, from many years' experience, 
that it does not pay me to spend much time 
around the manure heap, and 1 believe that to 
adopt the costly method given by learned agri- 
cultural writers, would be just throwing so 
much money to the dogs. My land is a stiff 
adobe and I have tried manure on it and saw 
no difference in the places where the manure 
was applied from other places. Perhaps I did 
not apply it projierly. I only keep my stock up 
during the wet season, and what manure I make 
is made at that time. I do not store my ma- 
nure and I suppose that some of it does get 
washed away. I do not know anyone around 
here that does store his manure, in fact very 
few of the farmers have room to store their 
feed and a man who would store his manure 
and leave his feed out in the rain would be 
likely to be laughed at. I scrape up what ma- 
nure I have in my barnyard and haul it out 
after harvest, as I have time, and scatter it on 
the surface, and it is plowed in in the fall. If 
"Uncle Josh" can tell me of a better way to 
apply it that does not involve much labor and 
expense I shall be glad to hear from him. 

Anthony Driscoll. 
Santa Rosa, June 29th. 

The Enemies of Carp and Precautions 
Against Them. 

Editors — On the 8th inst. I was very 
politely called upon by Mr. Oliver, of Forest- 
ville, for whom I had stocked a pond with six 
carp fiah, two large ones and four small ones, 
to investigate his pond. His pond is 66 feet 
square and, in the deepest place, four and a half 
feet deep. He said that he thought there was 
something wrong with his fish and that he had 
seen a turtle in his pond, and he wanted me to 
help draw the water off and see what was the 
matter. I gladly accepted the invitation, and 
at it we went. When we got the water off, we 
found that there were three of his small originiil 
fish gone and two of the young ones with their 
tails bitten oH' up to the first fins. We found 
231 young ones altogether, and there were four 
different sizes of them, showing to me that they 
spawned as much as four times in the season. 

July 20, iSyS.] 


He should have had over 1,000 young ones. 
We also found in his pond a big turtle and some 
10 or 12 what I call "water dogs." I think 
the turtle is what bit the fishes' tails off and 
caught his three yearling fish. I also think 
that the "water dogs" will catch small fish. 

I am of the opinion that these and the king 
fisher is (or will be) our greatest pest on our 
fish culture. Still there are other things that 
would devour them if suffered to be with them. 

I am of opinion it would pay to fence in our 
ponds with broad boards, say, one or two feet 
high, and then one, six inches broad, projecting 
over on top, so nothing could crawl over, and 
screen both the inlet and outlet of our water. 

I see nothing wrong with my fish, but there 
are some "water dogs" in the ponds, which may 
eat some, but I can spare some, and then they 
will be thick enough for my supply of water. 

Levi Davis. 

Forestville, Sonoma county, Cal. 

[The facts which Mr. Davis sends us will be 
valuable to all who are trying experiments with 
fish ponds. The culture is one of great promise 
and we shall always be glad to receive notes 
from the fish culturists. — Eds. Press ] 

Arrangements for Live Stock at the 
State Fair. 

Mr. Boruck, President of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, gives in the Spirit of the Time% 
an outline of what the managers have done to 
eucourage an exhibition of live stock at this 
year's fair. We quote as follows : It would be 
difficult to arrange a premium list which was 
better calculated to effect this object than the 
one under consideration. The amounts are 
liberal, exceeding those of former years, and the 
classification gives every grade and every kind 
an opportunity. The first department is that 
of Live Stock, and there are offered over 200 
premiums, the whole aggregating nearly $7,000. 
Class first is thoroughbred horses, and there are 
premiums for all ages, also for families ; chiss 
second is graded horses; claSs four, draft horses; 
class five, roadsters ; then come carriage horses, 
road teams, saddle horses, colts, which have not 
been entered under the other classifications, and 
sweepstakes for the best without regard to the 
families. Jacks, jennets, and mules conclude 
this portion. Li all there are 70 premiums 
amounting to $2,570. 

The cattle are marshaled under the flags of 
Durham, Alderney and Jersey, Devons, Here 
fords, Ayrshires, Holsteins, Holderuess and 
graded cattle. The premiums are (iO, and 
the money amounts to .f2,4;)5. It is not likely 
that in fixing these premiums there was any 
intention to equalize the amounts given to tlie 
horses and cattle, still after deducting the pre- 
miums for jacks, jennets and mules, there is 
very little difference, that for cattle being a few 
dollars in excess. Inasmuch as we ran up the 
sums in a hurry a more careful computation 
might change the figures somewhat, but not 
enough to make much variation. 

Sheep, swine, goats and poultry are duly 
cared for, and the number of premiums M, 
whilst as in the preceding list, there has been 
due discrimination in tlie allotment. 

Carefully looking over the prizes in this de- 
partment we fail to see where it could have 
been materially altered without injury. Whilst 
it is full, there is not a single premium which 
is not important, and from foals and calves up 
to the matured animals there is a place for 
every animal which has pretensions to excel- 
lence. With such an array is it not surprising 
that many stalls, pens and coops are required, 
and in these essentials the grounds of th».- State 
Society are well furnished. The speed pro- 
gramme necessitates a large number for the 
horses engaged, and, as by a rule of the Society, 
the animals which take part in the races cannot 
be exhibited in families, the stall room is pro- 
portionally increased, there having been great 
additions made since the last fair to the stalls 
and pens, and in making these the beauty of 
the grounds has been greatly improved. The 
angles between the stables and the track on the 
south, which foimerly were occupied with stalls 
and pens, have been cleared, and the space 
sown to blue-grass. This has not only added to 
the appearance, but has increased the comfort 
of the stalls which are on the southwest corner 
of the grounds, by giving a free circulation of 
air. These stalls have been raised and the up- 
per portion made available for the storing of 
grain and hay and sleeping places for those who 
have horses in charge. This utilizes for the 
horses a great many which formerly were used 
for feed and sleeping rooms. The new ones 
erected have been built on the wide streets 
which give plenty of room for the people, and 
afford walking phices for the hDrses. The pens 
have been removed to a better situation, and 
altogether the improvements have been jiuli- 
ciously planned. The supervision has been a 
"labor of love" to the Secretary, whose long 
experience taught him the importance of having 
things right, and also gave him the knowledge 
of what had to be done to make them what was 
wanted. To estimate the value of the exhibi- 
tion which must surely follow this catalogue of 
awards to the live stock of the State, and also 
to the whole of the Pacific coast, would require 
a person of very sanguine temperament, aud his 
figures would be below the mark. 

The Feeding Value of Wheat Straw. 

A short time since we had articles from nu- 
merous contributors on the subject of utilizing 
straw, and the general verdict was that much 
good will be done by showing the value of ma- 
terial which is often permitted to waste. By 
way of strengthening this side of the question 
we adduce the experience of a Kentucky farm- 
er, as relatecf in the Rural World. He says: 
In the fall of 1864 I had about 40 head of 
mules, 35 head of cattle, 70 head of sheep, and 
other stock in proportion, to carry through the 
winter, and had but little hay. Stock fodder 
and corn could not be bought in the neighbor- 
hood. I became alarmed, thinking of the slim 
chance of keeping them from starving through 
the winter. I could not sell them even at a 
great sacrifice. I remembered some wheat I 
had and what I been told of the great value of 
wheat straw as a food, by one — when traveling 
in the East in 1863 — who has been feeding wheat 
straw exclusively, as hay, for a number of years, 
and selling his grass hay. As Providence would 
have it, I had ricked the summer before, off of 
about 100 acres of wheat, not to use as hay — 
for I had been erroneously taught that it was 
worthless — but because many hands around 
the thresher were idle, and I did not wish the 
straw thrown upon my clover. I at once deter- 
mined to try the experiment. I built a rail 
pen around each straw rick, with a barn shed 
attached, and a pond of water in each lot. I 
put about 25 head of mules in one lot and 
about 36 head of cattle in the other. I built a 
pole rack all around each rick, so as just to let 
the head enter and yet prevent them from 
tramping on the straw; gave each rick a good 
drenching of strong salt water, all over, and at 
the sides and ends, throwing it up under the 
straw the best I could. I bid them live or die, 
for it was the best I could do. To my great sur- 
prise they ate the straw greedily, and seemed to 
prefer it to grass hay. The 25 head of mules and 
35 head of cattle were not out of that lot dur- 
ing the winter, and lived upon that rick of 
wheat straw entirely, all winter and spring, 
except seven bushels of corn, given all of them 
one very bad, snowy day, and two small loads 
of grass hay, during the winter, and one load of 
indifl'erent stock fodder, given all of them, 
every two or three weeks, as the opportunity 

They came out late in the spring, in about as 
good condition as mules and cattle that had 
had a good supply of corn, grass hay, stock 
fodder, etc., and well cared for during the same 
time. Shortly after they were taken from the 
lot I sold them to a drover at the same price as 
those that had been wintered upon grain, hay, 
etc. The drover said he could not discover any 
difference in flesh, appearance, etc. 

From that day to this I have been a great ad- 
vocate of wheat straw hay, and always will be. 
I have my wheat straw cut as green as possi- 
ble, so as not to shrivel the grain. This im- 
proves the (|uality of the flour. I ha\ e ricked 
or stacked the greenest straw, sufficient to feed 
all of my stock abundantly through the winter, 
and, although I have much timothy, red top, 
oi orchard grass and clover hay cut, I sell this, 
except the clover hay, and feed the wheat 
straw to my stock. I sell the grass hay 
because it will bring more in the market than 
wheat straw, and not that it is more valuable 
for food than grass hay. 

Drone-Killing Birds. 

Editors PRE.'iS: — I have followed the raising 
of bees for the last seven years, and made it my 
only occupation. I, at one time, thought the 
bee-bird was destroying my bees, and what to 
do to get rid of them I did not know, for there 
were hundreds of them in the spring building 
their nests in the oak timber under which my 
bees are sitting. After watching them very at- 
tentively for several years I discovered they did 
not eat the working bees, but fed on the drones. 
Around my house, and for .300 yards below and 
above, there are small oak trees, under which 
my bee-hives are sitting. I can sit in my door 
and see hundreds of bees coming in and going 
out of the hive, and sitting on twigs are half a 
dozen bee-birds. They paid no attention to the 
working bee, but as soon as 1 would hear a 
drone I could see one of the bee-birds give a 
sWoop and capture him. A drone is much 
larger than the honey bee, and they make a 
louder noise and can easily be seen and heard at 
a distance. In of the bee-bird being an 
enemy to the working bee he is their friend. 
He is a protector of the poultry yard; a crow 
or hawk dare not come near my premises. If a 
stray one should come this way he will be cer- 
tain not to try it again. The bee-bird is the 
king and terror of the feather tribe. As soon 
as they and the honey bees kill off the drones 
the bee-bird disappears and you see him no 
more until the next spring. Some people kill 
the bird-bird and examine his craw and find 
bees in it and that is suHicicnt evidence to con- 
demn him, but if they would be more particular 
they would find the food to be drones. This is 
my experience and my conviction. 

J. J. Simmons. 
San Joaquin Bridge, July 10th, 1878. 

[What is the observation of other beekeepers 
on this point? — Eds. Press.] | 

Floating Apiaries on the Mississippi. 

We read in Eastern exchanges accounts of 
floating "bee-palaces" which Mr. C. 0. Perrine, 
to Chicago, has set afloat upon the "father of wa- 
ters." His enterprise is thus described: He 
has fitted up two large barges. Each barge has 
a capacity and conveniences for a thousand 
hives of bees. Mr. Perrine's plan is to start 
with his bee-palaces and his one thousand col- 
onies from southern Louisiana when the honey 
flowers are in full bloom, to remain but a day 
or two at a landing, and move up each night to 
another landing and a fresh field. He thinks 
the bees of from one to two thousand colonies 
will take the cream from the country around 
the landing from one to two miles distant in 
one or two days. In this manner he expects to 
move up the Mississippi to St. Paul, a distance 
of nearly 2,000 miles, where he will arrive 
about the last of July. 

Returning he will halt about two months 
above St. Louis, and will reach Louisiana with 
his j)alaces and bees in October. It will be his 
object to take the autumnal flowers at each 
point in their prime, precisely as he takes ^he 
spring [flowers in his advances up the river. 
He expects his early swarms on his boats to 
mcrease his colonies to 2,000 in April and May. 

The colonies of bees are in hives with mov- 
able combs, on the most approved plan of mod- 
ern hives. These stand in four walls, five hives 
one above the other, nearly the whole length of 
the boat, about 250 hives in each|line. 

The walls of colonies on the right side and 
left side have openings for the bees to come 
out on the water front; a space of two feet be- 
tween the hives and the guards answering for a 
gallery for the bee-man to walk on, in front of 
the hives. 

In the middle of the boat there are two other 
walls of colonies 250 hives in each, facing an 
inner court six feet in width. The bees from 
these colonies reach the open air through the 
skylight opening in the roof above the court. 

Between the first and second rows of hives 
from the outside there is an aisle three feet in 
width, for the convenience of the bee-man in 
handling the hives and the honey. 

The distance from the barge deck to the roof 
over the colonies is 15 feet. 

The space below decks is ten feet in width 
and about seven feet high, and is to be used for 
sleeping apartments, making and repairing 
hives, handling and extracting honey and put- 
ting it in marketable shape. The dining and 
cooking-room will be on the steamer that tows 
the bee fleet. 

To run the steamer and manage the barges 
and bees, from 15 to 20 hands will be needed. 
The cost of the whole establishment, barges, 
bees, steamer and the complete outfit will not 
be much short of $1.5.000. 

Mr. Perrine has been engaged in the honey 
business in Chicago, 12 or 13 years, and has 
lately made it a special study. He has dealt 
largely in California honey. He expect to find 
the best market for his honey in Europe. 

When and How to Prune. 

Editors Pkess:— -"Why do you write on the 
subject of pruning now," said a friend the other 
-day; "you wouldn't have us prune all summer, 
would you ?" Yes, when I go in the orchard I 
take my knife with me, and if 1 see a limb or 
sucker that needs taking oft' I do it, without 
regard to the season. Now I don't say that 
you had better put ofi" your pruning, at the 
proper season, to do it by piecemeal in this 
way; but if you have overlooked or neglected 
some, or find new shoots where you don't want 
them, take them off at sight, as it is always in 
season for such work. But the best time to do 
the general pruning is just before the buds 
swell for blooming and leafing out. Then you 
can see better what you want out, and it saves 
a waste of growth and puts a greater vitality 
into what remains. And remember this should 
be done every year, as long as the tree lives; 
and it will live much longer and bear better 
fruit if properly pruned. I frequently cut a 
limb full of fruit from a tree, when I find one 
where I don't want it, and a surplus of fruit on 
the tree. If 1 find my trees throwing out too 
many young shoots, I cut them out any time, 
if convenient; and the tree and fruit is benefited 
by it. Again, if I see two or more young 
shoots growing from the ends of the main 
limbs or stem of the tree, I pinoh off the tender 
ends of all but one, that I want to make the 
main tree or limbs, and that checks the growth 
of them so that the one left will get ahead in 
growth and thus prevent a fork that should not 
be, and gives the nourishment of the tree to 
such as need it. 

Now with regard to enhancing the produc- 
tion of the tree by pruning, I will give one or 
two cases out of many to illustrate. Several 
years ago I took charge of a fruit farm belong- 
ing to a nurseryman and orchardist, who had 
differed with me on pruning; as he did not 
prune at all. In the farm was a fine thrifty 
winter nellis pear tree, 10 or 12 years old, that 
had bloomed regularly for several years, but 
had never produced any frUit. "Now," said 
the nurseryman, "if you can make that tree 
bear fruit, then I will have some faith in your 
theories, " 

As soon as I looked at the tree I felt sure 
that I knew the remedy. With pruning shears 
I went into it and took out two-thirds of the 
small limbs at the first pruning, and as the 
fruiting season came on the tree was full of 
young fruit. When the pears were as large as 
cherries I pruned it again, cutting out nearly 
half of what I had left at first pruning, and the 
result was a crop of excellent pears, and the 
tree continued to bear as long as I had charge 
of it. 

Another case was an early harvest apple tree. 
The tree was thrifty and bore heavy crops, but 
the fruit was small and ill-shaped, because the 
tree had never been pruned, and the top was so 
thick and the apples so numerous that they 
could not mature. I served this as I did the 
pear tree, only more so, and thinned the apples 
as they grew, and was not troubled any more 
with little nurly apples. 

I mention these two cases as samples, and be- 
cause these varieties of fruit are inclined to 
these troubles. The remedy is a thinning out 
of the numerous small branches and over- 
crowded fruit. M. P. Owen. 

Sequel, Cal. 

Finger-and-Thumb Pruning. 

Editors Press: — Those of our nurserymen 
who favor us with directions for tree culture in 
their catalogues advise that, in the winter prun- 
ing of fruit trees, from one-third to two-thirds 
of the previous year's growth be cut away. Is 
this economical management ? It seems to me 
like the way many men use their hogs. Let 
them get in fair order part of the season, and 
then let them fall off again in flesh. In fact it 
is Californian style all through. Our cattle, 
sheep, and even our dairj' cows are used the 
same way. 

It seems to me the better plan would be to 
look over the trees in the growing, season, and 
when the shoots have attained the desired 
length, just to nip out the points. The strength 
of the tree would then be largely thrown into 
the permanent wood, instead of being used up 
in maturing lengthy shoots that are to be cut 
off in winter. Moreover, the fruit buds would 
probably be more numerous and better devel- 

Nipping-in too early in the season causes the 
development of too many laterals, but in the 
right season it seems to me a very beneficial 
practice. Cannot some of our nurserymen give 
us a little of their experience in the Rural ? 
On account of last season's drouth fruit buds on 
plums, peaches, etc., did not seem to mature 
properly, and fruit failed to set this spring. I 
feel sure Mr. Felix Gillet knows all about 
finger-and-thumb pruning; perhaps he will re- 
cord his practice. I have to thank him for a 
copy of his little work on "Fragari culture," 
kindly sent me some time ago.. 

Edward Berwick. 

Monterey, Cal. 

Proposed Railway to Yellowstone Park. 

The Railwaij A(ie \o6^s with distrust upon a 
project mooted in Omaha. A company has 
been incorporated in Nebraska with the ambi- 
tious object of building a railway to be called 
the Omaha & National Park railway, from 
Omaha via the Niobrara valley to Yellowstone 
park. This great national pleasure ground, it 
may be necessary to remind our readers, lies in 
the northwestern corner of Wyoming Territory, 
and is a tract of land 55x65 miles in extent, 
near the center of which lies the Yellowstone 
lake, a body of water 15x22 miles in size, with 
an elevation of 7,427 feet above the sea. This 
region, which has wisely been set apart by Con- 
gress for the public, comprises some of the most 
sublime and astonishing natural features to be 
found on the earth, and in the course of time as 
the means of access are improved, it will be the 
resort of wonder seekers from the four quarters 
of the globe. The project of a railway from 
Omaha, however, is almost chimerical. The 
distance is at least 800 miles, and while the 
route up to the Niobrara valley nearly to the 
Wyoming line is practicable, the remaining half 
of the distance is largely a wild, mountainous, 
barren, unpeopled country, through which a 
railway will be, for decades at least, only a 
dream. It is not supposable that the projectors 
of the "Omaha k National Park railway" think 
seriously of such a destination as the name indi- 
cates. The National park, however, will, be- 
fore many years, be accessible without difficulty, 
as the proposed line of the Northern Pacific 
railway runs up the Yellowstone river through 
Montana, to within ,50 miles or so of the Wyom- 
ing line, and the prospects for the completion 
of that great enterprise now seem encouraging. 

Export OF American Implement.s. — One of 
the best markets for American implements for 
husbandry is South Africa. There we compete 
with Great Britain as well as in her other col- 
onial possessions in Australia and New South 
Wales. These British possessions and Ger- 
many are the largest markets for American 
hoes, shovels, forks, etc. The trade centers 
we have not yet reached direct are Austria, 
Denmark, the East Indies, China, Italy, Spain, 
Turkey and Greece. In South America our 
best markets are the Argentine Republic, Chile, 
Colombia, Uruguay and Peru. Cuba and Porto 
Rico use quite a number of our implements, 
but the Dutch and French West Indies San 
Domingo and Hayti know nothing of the Amer- 
can plow. 



[July 20, 1878. 

Corresjiondcnce cordially invited from all Patrons for this 

Worthy State Lecturer's Appointments. 

The State Lecturer will visit the followin^' Granges on 
the day and date herein given, prepared to hold a private 
meeting; at each Gran;;c for the i,'ood of the Order, and 
also a public meeting at such hour as each Grange may 
determine, to which |>ublic niectiiiff everybody is invited. 
We bespeak for I5ro. Pilkington a most hospitable recep. 
tion and l.irge turn outs, and those who can ought not to 
miss hearing him on Grange topics, for he discusses 
them with an earnestness and ability positively his own. 

I. C. Steble. 

Amos Adams, Master of the State Grange. 

Secretary of the State Grange. 

Name of Grange. County. Time. 

American Valley I'lumas Tuesday, July 23d 

Indian Valley. Plumas Thursday, .July 25th 

Plumas Lassen Saturday, July 27th 

Surprise Valley Modoc Tuesday, July HOth 

Eagleville Modoc Thursday, Augiist 1st 

Cedarville Modoc Saturday, August 3d 

Northeast Modoc Monday, Augxist 5th 

Modoc Modoc Wednesday, August 7th 

Davis Creek Modw Satuniay 10th 

Crescent City Del Norte. . Wednesday August Nth 

Rivelluttah Humboldt. . Saturdav, August 17th 

Sable Bluff Ilunibnidt Monday, August I'.ith 

Kerndale Humboldt. .Wednesday, August 22st 

Mattole Humboldt Friday, August 23d 

Cahtii Mendocino. . .Tuesday, August 27th 

Potter Valley Mendocino. ..Thursday August 29th 

Lakeport I^ke Saturday, August :ilst 

Cloverdale Sonoma Monday, September 2d 

Healdsburg Sonoma Tuesday, September 3d 

Recovery of Money Lost by Grain Ship- 

Editoks Press: — At the time of the unfortu- 
nate failure of the firm of E. V.. Morgan's Sons, 
in 1874 — the firm which, for about 14 months, 
under Mr. Walcott's management, were ship- 
ping agents for the Orange in California, and 
whose failure was caused by the well-known 
and strong combination against them — it was 
noised abroad and made capital of to the great- 
est possible extent, to injure the good cause of 
the Grange everywhere. The loss to farmers 
on part of cargoes, amounting to about SIIO,- 
000 in all, was exaggerated to many times that; 
being run up in some instances to millions, 
with the object of weaning farmers from ever 
again trying to handle their products with some 
independence, according to their own wishes 
and interests. 

This being the case, 

Why Is It. 

That so little notice has been taken by news- 
papers in general of a late decision of the Su- 
preme Court of California, by which part of 
that loss to the farmers has been made good ? 

It was by the merest accident lately, that I 
learned the followiug facts from a farmer and a 
good Patron, who has recovered his loss by 
that decision, and I beg leave to make them 
known through your columns. 

It will be remembered by many that suit was 
commenced by several against Daniel Meyers — 
into whose hands Mr. Walcott's assets passed — 
to recover their losses amounting to some 
$60,000. A decision in one of the lower courts 
was made in favor of the farmers, but Mr. 
Meyers appealed to the Supreme ("ourt. The 
final decision has given the farmers judg- 
ment for $00,000, with interest to date, 
the latter about paying costs of suit. So that 
the farmers concerned have recovered their 
$60,000 after having been deprived of the use 
of it for a few years. No doubt, if suit were 
brought for the remaining .?30,000 or there- 
abouts, with interest, it could be recovered, if 
the claims have been kept in proper condition. 

Among the teachings of our good Order, we 
are wisely admonished to 

Learn from Our Failures 
As well as our successes. The Rochdale pio- 
neers of England had, in their early history 
some years ago, a lesson similar to ours in their 
loss of some ?i!3,000, in connection with a cargo 
of wheat which they bouglit. They profited 
by this sad lesson, they placed greater safe- 
guards around their business transactions, they 
went on more zealously than ever in their 
eiforts. Their perseverance and final success 
laid the foundation for the truly great work of 
the 1,000 and more similar co-operative socie- 
ties of the United Kingdom, whose combined 
trade amounted last year to over i5SO,000,(X)0— 
quite a bonanza in its way — all from small and 
humble, but sure beginnings, just as the oak 
grows from the acorn. 

Now, at least 

Two Lessons are Taught 
By this final recovery of ))art of the money lost 
by the breaking down of the shipping firm 
which enabled the farmers of California to real- 
ize hundreds of thousands of dollars, while it 
was at work for them. 

I. Had Mr. Walcott's assets been turned 
over to the Executive Committee of the State 
Grange instead of to Mr. Meyers, the suits 
would not have been necessary, for the losses 
would not have occurred. 2. After Mr. Mey- 
ers had obtained possession, if the amount lost 
had been made good to the losers l)y the broth- 
erhood, as was proposed by the Executive 
Committee, the injury to the good name of our 
Order would have been avoided, and the amount 
could have been eventually made good by such 
suits as have now recovered the $60,000. 

By this course, our farmers' great Order, 
which will I trust, be perpetual in its existence 
and benefits, as it was designed to be, would 
have been strengthened instead of weakened 
by this one failure in the midst of many suc- 
cesses — a failure which our enemies everywhere 
have made a great cudgel to beat us with, 
though it was not near so bad as they gener- 
ally represented. 

Far be it from me to allude to this matter for 
the purpose of throwing blame upon any one 
connected with our Vjrotherhood, or to "open 
wounds afresh." I merely wish to make known 
facts which will no doubt be gratifying to 
friends of the farmers' cause, as they have been 
to me, and to point out, in a fraternal spirit, 
two lessons by which I trust we may all profit 
in future transactions. J. W. A. \X. 

Tulare county, .July 12th. 

Delegates to the Constitutional Conven- 

Sacramento, July P2th.— The Governor to-day 
issutd his proclamation, declaring the following 
named persons to have been chosen members of 
the Constitutional Convention : 

County Delegates. 

For Alameda — Alex. Campbell, .Ir., Daniel 
Inman, Jno. <;. McCallum, Wm. Van Voorhees, 
J. V. Webster. 

Amador — Jno. A. Eagan, W. H. Prouty. 

Butte — .Tosiah Bouche, M. R. C. Pulliam. 

Calaveras — J. B. Garvey. 

Colusa — B. D. Glasscock. 

Contra Costa — Hiram Mills. 

Del Norte — James E. Murphy. 

El Dorado — Henry Larkin. 

Fresno — S. A. Holmes. 

Humboldt — Wm. J. Sweasey. 

Kern — V. A. (iregg. 

Lake — A. E. Noel. 

Los Angeles— P^dward Evey, Volney E. How- 
ard, J. P. West. 

Marin — Hugh Walker. 
Mendocino — F. O. Townsend. 
Monterey— N. G. Wyatt. 
Napa — Robert Crunch. 

Nevada — C. W. Cross, Hamlet Davis, John 
McCoy, John T. Wickes. 

Placer— S. B. Burt, J. A. Filcher. 

Sacramento — James Caples, P. Dunlap, A. C. 
Freeman, Thos. McConnell, T. B. McFarlaud. 

.San Benito — E. Nason. 

San Bernardino — U. S. Swain. 

San r>iego — Eli T. Blackmer, 

San Francisco — Clitus Barbour, Charles J. 
Beerstecher, Peter Bell, .John 1). Condon, Pat- 
rick T. Dowling, W. Luke Doyle, Samuel J. 
Farrell, Jas. 1!. Freud, Jos. O. (iorman, Wm. 
P. Grace, Thomas Harrison, Conrad Herold, 
Wm. P. Hughey, Peter .1. .Joyce, Bernard F. 
Kenney, Chas. R. Kleine, Raymond Lavigne, 
John F. Lindow, Thomas Morris, Henry Neu- 
naber, Thorwald Nelson, Chas. C. O'Donnell, 
James O'Sullivan, .Jas. S. Reynolds, Chas. S. 
Ringgold, H. S. Smith, John C. Stedmau, 
Charles Swenson, Alphonso Vacquerel, Patrick 
M. Wellin. 

San Joacjuin — J. R. AV. Hitchcock, David 
Lewis, .Justis Schomp, David S. Terry. 

San Luis Obispo — George Steele. 

San Mateo— W. S. Moffat. 

Santa Barbara — Eugene Fawcett. 

Santa Clara — D. W. Herrington, Thos. H. 
Lane, R. McComas, E. O. Smith, J. R. Weller. 

Santa Cruz — Daniel Tuttle. 

Sierra — H. K. Turner. 

.Solano — .1. M. Dudley, Joel A. Harvey, S. 
G. Hilborn. 

Sonoma — J. M. Charles, G. A. Johnson, W. 
W. Moreland, C. V. Stuart. 

Stanislaus — T. D. Heiskel. 

Sutter — (ieorge Ohleyer. 

Tehama — Henry C. 'tV'ilsoo. 

Tulare— , J. C. Brown. 

Tuolumne — John Walker. 

Ventura — C. G. Finney. 

Yolo — John M. Rhodes. 

Yuba— D. H. Cowden, J. F. McNutt. 

Joint Delegates. 

Contra Costa and Marin— (Joint) Thomas H. 

El Dorado and Alpine — .J. E. Dean and G. 
W. Hunter. 

Mariposa and Merced — G. M. Hard wick. 

Mariposa, Merced and Stanislaus — L. F. 
J ones. 

Mendocino, Humboldt and Del Norte — J. N. 

Mono and Inyo — Patrick Reddy. 
Napa, Lake and Sonoma~-H. C. Boggs. 
Nevada and Sierra — E. Barry. 
Plumas and Lassen — E. P. Soule. 
Plumas, Lassen and Butte — A. H. Chapman. 
San Diego and .San Bernardino — Horace C. 

San Francisco and San Mateo — L. D. Morse. 

.San .Joaquin and Amador — W. L. Dudley. 

Santa Cruz, Monterey and .San Benito — Wm. 
F. White. 

Siskiyou and Modoc — J. Berry. 

.Siskiyou, Modoc, Trinity and .Shasta — D. C. 

Solano and Yolo — Charles F. Reed. 

Trinity and Shasta — A. R. Andrews. 

Tuolumne and ('alaveras — Ii. M. I..ampson. 

Yuba and Sutter— J. H. Keyes. 

Delegates at Large. 

For First Congressional District — John S. 
Hager, John F. Miller, Joseph P. Hoge, Morris 

M. Estee, Eugene Casserly, Joseph W. Winans, 
Samuel M. Wilson, Wm. H. Ij. Barnes. 

Second Congressional District — Henry H. 
Haight, Henry Edgerton, J. B. Hall, J. M. 
Porter, AValter \'an Dyke, Hugh M. La Rue, 
.lames E. Hale, Rufus .Shoemaker. 

Tliird Congressional District — Isaac S. Bel- 
cher, Marion Biggs, James McM. Shafter, A. 
P. Overton, Benjamin Shurtleff, W. J. Tinnin, 
W. F. Heustis, John M. Kelly. 

Fourth Congressional District — .John Mans- 
field, W. J. Graves, P. B. Tully, (i. V. Smith, 
.J. J. Ayers, E. Martin, Byron Waters, George 
W. Schell. 



Rust. — Livermore Herald: Nearly all the 
late sown grain throughout the valley is more 
or less rusty. The disease occurs only in spots, 
however, and does not affect an entire field. No 
early sown grain is affected in the least. 

Exception- to Rusty Reports. — lieeord, 
July 6: We are gratified at being able to 
chronicle an item in opposition to the numer- 
ous compl.aints of rust in wheat. Mr. Leininger, 
of Nord, visited our ofJioe this morning. He in- 
forms us that he is engaged in harvesting 600 
to 800 acres on the red land, which has yielded 
an average of 34 bushels to the acre. .Some 200 
acres on the black land near Nord he 
thinks will not go over 15 bushels to the acre. 
His son-in-law, John Bowman, in Tehama 
county, near the Butte county line, has 400 
acres that averages .S8 bushels to the acre. 
Uncle Ben Bliven is harvesting a crop inside of 
the race track, which is yielding largely, and is 
estimated at .")0 bushels to the acre. Wiley 
Cooper has about 10 acres aiJjoining the town, 
known as the "Eaton tract," which is estima- 
ted to yield over 60 bushels to the acre. In 
view of the many items concerning rust, these 
facts afford an agreeable contrast. The wet 
winter was favorable to crops on the higher 
red land, while being fatal to grain sown on the 
black land. 


The Hahvest. — G'<i;f//«', July 13: Jjittleorno 
wheat threshing has yet been done in our sec- 
tion, but the reapers are everywhere busy and 
the promise of a good crop yield is assuring. 
.Some injury has been suffered from rust, but it 
is not so serious as it was feared it might prove, 
and the Tassajara section, according to report, 
has suffered from this cause more considerably 
than any other of the county. 


CouNTV Fair. — Ilepubliean, July \'.\: The 
premium list for our county fair, which takes 
place September 10th to l.^th, finally been 
published in pamphlet form and can be had at 
the office of the Secretary. Over $2,000 in pre- 
miums is offered. The classifications are as 
follows: 1st, Live Stock; 2d, Machinery, Imple- 
ments, etc. ; 3d, Mechanical Products, Inven- 
tions, Designs, etc. ; 4th, Textile Falirics, Mill 
and Domestic Products; 5th, Agricultural Pro- 
ducts; 6th, F'ine Arts, Juvenile Department. 
The premiums offered on live stock are 
especially liberal, ranging from $3 to $15. On 
poultry 16Bpremiums are offered, ranging from 
$2. .50 to $.5. It is now but two months until 
the fair will take place, and it is hoped that the 
people throughout the county will show their 
appreciation of the successful efforts of the 
Board of Managers in getting suitable grounds 
in readiness for the occasion, by a general,at- 
tendance, and by exerting themselves in help- 
ing to make a creditable display of stock and 
farm products. 


The State Survey. — Expoxitor, July 10: 
On Monday last, a surx'eying corps, under the 
supervision of A. G. Warfield, Jr., Assistant 
State Engineer, started for Fresno for the pur- 
pose of commencing the survey for a system of 
irrigation for the San Joaquin and Tulare val- 
leys, in accordance with the provision of the 
"act to provide a system of irrigation, promote 
rapid drainage, and improve the navigation of the 
Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. " Work will 
be first commenced on King's river, and will be 
extended to Kern river and Tulare lake. The 
survey will embrace a complete instrumental 
examination of King's river, and all the coun- 
try susceptible of irrigation from it. The par- 
ty consists of 10 men. They are equipped and 
prepared with excellent camping arrangements. 
The party will be in the field until the winter 
drives them in. Mr. Warfield will endeavor to 
meet everybody in this valley interested in irri- 
gation matters, and endeavor to gain ideas and 
experiences on this subject. Major Warfield 
bears a high reputation as an engineer, and is 
well posted on irrigation matters, having trav- 
eled through India, China, Japan, Italy, South- 
ern France, and Egypt, and personally exam- 
ined the irrigation systems of those countries. 
The problem of irrigation is of the greatest im- 
portance to this State, and its solution will be 
greatly facilitated by the investigations and 
theories of the .State Surveyors. Every facility 
should therefore be given them by the people 

Crop Prospects. — Bee, July 11: Crop pros- 
pects have changed much for the worse in Lake 

county during the past few weeks. Rust has 
attacked wheat and many fields are nearly 
worthless. That sown early has not perhaps 
been very seriously affected, but late sown 
wheat will be seriously damaged and some en- 
tirely destroyed. This is the first time, we 
learn, that rust has ever affected crops in this 
county to .my extent, and farmers are at a loss 
to know the cause of it now. The haying sea- 
son is now about over, and a very large crop 
has been cut, so large in fact, that it is not 
likely to bring remunerative prices for the pres- 
ent. The corn crop is generally good, and if 
no disaster happens to it, a full average crop 
will be raised. Potatoes promised exceedingly 
well until recently. The army worm has re- 
cently appeared in several localities and much 
damage is apprehended from its ravages, but 
we hope the danger anticipated may not be re- 
alized. The fruit crop will be a large one,, and 
of excellent quality. The only trouble in this 
line is, that there are not more orchards in full 
bearing. Cirapes are doing splendidly, and will 
bear a very full crop. 

Hay Pitching Device. — Journal, July 11: 
We saw a device at Mr. James Miller's ranch, 
Las Gallinas, the other day, which is at once 
simple, inexpensive and very effective. The 
hay is collected in cocks, weighing al)out a ton 
each, and is drawn to the barn with a hay drag, 
or "go devil," which, as the same is used to 
lift the hay into the mow, must be described. 
It is very simple: A horizontal bar, eight or 
ten feet long, having about five teeth inserted 
parallel with the ground, and on the top a per- 
pendicular frame, consisting of two uprights 
and a cross bar. At either end of the horizon- 
tal bar is attached a rope, long enough to clasp 
the sides of the cock, and looped in front, to 
take the whitHetree. Run the teeth under 
the hay, draw the rope well around the sides, 
and the cock may be drawn any distance with- 
out losing a straw. The pressure of hay on the 
upright frame lifts the teeth, and prevents their 
catching on the ground. Precisely the same 
method pitches the hay into the highest part of 
the mow. The cock is now in front of the barn 
door. Attached to the further rafters, close to 
the roof, is a rope with two tackles, or pulleys, 
one of which is run down and hooked to the 
load. The hoisting rope passes through an- 
other pulley, set in the front timbers of the 
barn, a little one side, to be out of the way, and 
thence under a roller, near the ground, to make 
the pull convenient. It the bam floor is higher 
than the ground in front, build an incline for 
the drag to run on, and as the hay rises in the 
mow. Lay a tew loose boards on it, parallel with 
the pulley ropes. Shift the drag, to face up 
the mow, start your Clydesdales, and in a jiffy 
your load of hay is housed. Mr. Martin Mil- 
ler originated this device, and has used it three 
seasons. He can bring up from the field and 
stow in the barn, .50 tons a day, with three less 
men than it would take to run the work by the 
old method, and accomplish one- fifth as much. 
The only outlay is the cost of the rope and pul- 
leys. It appears to us that many of our ranch- 
ers might adopt it, and effect a great saving of 


CoA.sT Crops. — Beacon: Crops down coast 
are looking well, and are giving a large yield. 
Many farmers in the vicinity of Cuffey's Cove 
will commence digging their potato crop this 


Hi.iE Wheat.— /nf/<j-, July 11: Dr. W. P. 
L. Winham has shown us a sample of some re- 
markable wheat grown this season on a tract of 
land, owned by himself and John Markley, in 
the northeastern outskirts of town. It is of 
the White Australian variety, and has very long 
heads. But what is chiefly remarkable about 
it is the fact that, in a large proportion of the 
heads, each pod has five plump and well devel- 
oped kernels, 'being equivalent to ten rows of ker- 
nels to the head! This seems incredible and we 
would scarcely have believed it, had we not 
seen it with our own eyes. The wheat was 
planted just before the first rains last fall, on 
the strong alkali soil that would not raise bar- 
ley, but which has turned out to be the best 
wheat land in the world. They have some 40 
acres of the wheat, and will save three or four 
acres of the best of it for seed. 

The Valley Crops. — The wheat harvest 
has commenced in the Salinas valley, and many 
fields are turning out better than was expected. 
Mr. S. M. .Shearer has shown us samples of the 
now crop from several localities in the vicinity 
of Gonzales, where the yield ranges from seven 
to ten sacks per acre. From (Jonzales down 
the yield will be mnch better. 

Bread Fki'it Tree.s. — .fff f on/- T'm /'oh: A cor- 
respondent sends us the following: In the 
northwestern corner of the capitol grounds 
stands a bread fruit tree (the rariea jHijmya). 
There were formerly two of these trees, which 
were growing finely, standing the changes of 
our climate well, but for some reasons they were 
removed in the fall of the year, when the frosts 
were coming on — the gardener not knowing 
their habits. One died and the other survived 
the shock, and is now about eight feet high and 
doing very well. This remarkable tree is 
worthy of more attention from our experimen- 
tal fruit growers, for its fruit and other proper- 
ties. The fruit is pear-shaped, from three to 
five inches in length, and two to four inches in 
diameter, flavored somewhat like a cantaloupe. 
It is sliced and eaten raw, or soaked in water 
to destroy the juice, then boiled and eaten as a 

July 20, 1878.] 



sauce with lemon juice, with which it makes an 
excellent conseive. Its juice extracted from 
the pulp makes an excellent cosmetic, removing 
freckles from the skin, and the leaves are some- 
times used instead of soap for washing. Dr. 
Browne, in his "Natural History of Jamaica," 
says the toughest meat or poultry may be made 
tender for cooking by steeping for eight or ten 
minutes in the milky juice of this tree. Dr. 
Holden, who witnessed the effect in the Island 
of Barbadoes, says in the third volume of the 
"Wernerian Society's Memoirs," that the juices 
of the tree cause a separation of the muscular 
fiber in meats that have been immersed therein, 
and that the vapor of the tree does the same, it 
being common for the people to hang meat in 
the top branches before cooking. The "An- 
nales de Chimie," a French work, states: "Fi- 
brine had been previously supposed to belong 
exclusively to the animal kingdom, but that 
this tree had been found to contain this sub- 
stance." It is a prolific bearer. One tree will 
supply a large family with an abundance of 


Chtccory. — Independent July 12: A chic- 
cory factory has been recently built on Brandt's 
ranch on the river, west of French Camp, and 
the old factory has been removed to Martin 
Ott's place, a mile or two further up. From 
these active preparations for business we judge 
that the industry of making chiccory is flourish- 
ing and extending. 

Tobacco Culture. — We mentioned a few 
days ago an experiment in the culture of tobacco 
being made by A. Dangers, of Roberts Island. 
The item was made from a cursory view of the 
plants from the deck of a steamer while passing 
the ranch. Mr. Dangers was in town yester- 
day, and informs us that he has two acres of to- 
bacco planted, nearly all of which is doing 
finely. A few of the plants were injured by an 
excess of water, but he is confident of having a 
fine growth. Fred Opitz, who lives with Mr. 
Dangers, is attending to the plants, and will 
cure the leaves by a new process, which he pat- 
ented two years ago while experimenting in to- 
bacco culture in San Diego county. His exper- 
iments were a failure in the south on account of 
the poor quality of tobacco raised in that appar- 
ently unfavorable climate. He haa faith in his 
process for curing, and with the luxuriant 
growth which the plants attain in the tules, he 
is confident of turning out a good merchantable 
quality of the weed. He will commence curing 
it in two weeks. We shall look forward to the 
result of the experiment with considerable in- 

Explosion and Loss of Life. — Serious ac- 
cidents on the harvest field are startlingly fre- 
quent. On Wednesday, a portable Ames' 
threshing engine belonging to Dick Richards, 
and in operation about three miles south from 
Grayson, exploded, instantly killing one man, 
fatally wounding another, and seriously injur- 
ing a third. The man killed had half his head 
knocked off, and the man supposed to be fatally 
wounded had a deep gash cut in his head, and 
the third man received a blow on the cheek 
from the Hat side of a piece of the metal blown 
out of one end of the boiler. One horse was 
killed, and the water-wagon blown oft' some dis- 
tance. Both ends were blown out of the boiler, 
and a portion of the bottom torn as if it had 
■been cloth. The damaged engine was brought 
to this city yesterday by the steamer Constance 
and shipped on the steamer Cit)/ of Stockton, to 
San Francisco for repairs. We are told that 
the report made by the explosion was heard at 
a distance of several miles. 

Grain Yield. — It is generally admitted that 
the grain crop of the San Joaquin valley will be 
greater this year than ever before. Although 
the rust has been very injurious in some locali- 
ties, and some fields have been damaged by 
overflow, the larger portion of the wheat-pro- 
ducing lands of this valley under cultivation 
will yield more than an average crop. 

Recovery from 'Rust.— South Coast, July 10: 
We were informed a day or two since by Mr. 
Isaac Gamble, that last spring he sowed about 
10 acres of wheat, and during the recent foggy 
weather it was attacked by rust, and to all 
appearances completely ruined. He had given 
up the idea of harvesting it, as the blades had 
either been eaten from the stalks or voluntarily 
dropped off. But a few days ago he concluded 
that he would examine the grain and see if it 
could be made any use of, and to his surorise 
found that each head was well filled with plump 
and rounded kernels, though the blades had 
been blown from the stalk before the blossom 
had set in. Will anyone explain this singular 
phenomenon ? 

Flax Cutting.— Tjv'fiitnc, July 13: The large 
average of flax in Los Osos valley will make a 
magnificent yield. Au ugly weed, called by the 
farmers "yel'ow-top," a first cousin to the 
much despised tar weed, has started up since 
the flax headed out, and now in many places 
overtops it. It will be a great annoyance in 
the harvest, but is otherwise harmless to the 
crop. The flax is ripening fast and the cutting, 
which will mostly be done with headers, will 
soon commence. 

Rust. — The scare that existed in this section 
some time since in regard to rust in wheat 
seems to have abated in a great measure, and 
we have reason to believe that the crop will 
turn out much better than was calculated 
upon. It has been found upon close examina- 
tion, in many fields that were supposed to be 
almost totally ruined, that a fair average crop 
will be gathered. We have been at some pains 

to procure reports from different sections, and 
the summary stands about as follows: In San 
Jose valley a full crop of both wheat and bar- 
ley; Las Tablas, no rust anywhere, a full crop; 
Salinas, the same; on the coast near Cambria, 
no rust. Around this city and near the Arroyo 
Grande the farmers suffer most, yet we have 
assurances that over half a crop will be realized. 

The Harvest. — Dixon Tribune, July 13: 
About 875 tons of grain had been received up 
to Friday morning, of which 560 tons had come 
in this week. Most of it is wheat, and only a 
small part barley. Among the farmers who 
have been hauling are R. Hall, Dan Mann, D. 
Shaw, Dudley, West, Anderson, Stuart, Brinker- 
hoff. Van Buren, Agee, Cook, Peters, Henry 
Meyer and John Meier. The last named was 
the first to get a load of wheat to town. As a 
rule the wheat is light weight this year. It is 
worse shrunken than expected. Some weigh 
as light as ll(j pounds to the sack, and the 
average is probably less than 150. At Batavia, 
only a small quantity of grain had been received 
previous to this week — mostly McCune & Gar- 
nett's, which was turning out quite well as to 
weight. Between 500 and COO tons have been 
received at Foster's station. Mr. F. estimates 
that the amount stored there this year will be 
fully 3,000 tons. From Elmira, we only hear 
that the crop is turning out very poorly. In 
the Vaoa valley the yield is probably light also. 

Grain Fire. — A fire broke out Tuesday 
afternoon in Mr. Agee's grain-field, four miles 
north of Dixon. Mr. Agee was engaged in 
threshing, and about an hour before the fire 
had moved his engine from the place at which 
the blaze originated. A strong south wind was 
blowing at the time, and the flames swept 
northeast with great rapidity. About 400 men 
quickly gathered at the scene of the conflagra- 
tion, and by great exertions succeeded in con- 
trolling the Kre, thus abating what at one time 
threatened to be the most disastrous fire that 
ever occurred in this vicinity. The loss will prob- 
ably not exceed .$800 or .$1,000, most of which 
will fall on Mr. Burns, whose farm adjoins that 
of Mr. Agee. 

Fruit Canning. — Santa Rosa Democrat, 
July 13: This is getting to be a business 
of more than ordinary importance in Cal- 
ifornia. The fruit canning company of Santa 
Rosa will, this season, if they can obtain the 
fruit, put up 100,000 cans for the market. They 
have already contracted with Messrs. Stanley & 
Thompson for the manufacture of 25,000 cans, 
and that firm are now at work on them, turning 
out, from the hands of one man alone, from .500 
to GOO cans per day. If sufficient fruit, of the 
quality desired, can be obtained, the company 
will run their canning establishment to its 
utmost capacity and may reach 150,000 cans. 
This is an institution that Santa Rosa should 
encourage and sustain in every way possible, as 
it will prove a great incentive to an increased 
culture of fruit in Sonoma county. 

Piling the Banks of Rus.sian River. — 
Healdsburg Enlerjirise, July 1 1 : The heavy 
rains of the past winter raised the water of 
Russian river to an unusual high m!i.rk, and con- 
siderable land bordering on that stream in this 
part of the county was washed away, causing a 
loss of several thousand dollars to quite a num- 
ber of farmers. Robt. Marshall, whose farm is lo- 
cated on the river, between Healdsburg and Gey- 
serville, informs us that his loss of land from this 
cause, has amounted, during the past two years, 
to about $2,000, the greater part being taken 
the past winter. He has just completed a large, 
pile-driver, 32 feet high, with 1,100-pound 
hammer, and is having piles made at Powell's 
mill for the construction of wing dams on his 
land. This will not only protect him from 
farther loss, but will probably recompense him 
to some extent by making new land on his 
place, from the deposits of sediment. Mr. Car- 
michael, whose farm is near Marshall's, will 
also use the pile-driver on his place. No doubt 
many farmers will soon follow the example. 

Venison. — Petaluma Arguft, July 12: The 
time for the protection of deer having expired 
on the first of the present month, our nimrods 
are already inaugurating an active campaign 
against this swift-footed and graceful game. 
Several parties from this vicinity are now in 
the Russian river and coast woods, where dfeer 
are supposed most to congregate. Mr. Ben 
Franklin returned to town yesterday from a 
short trip to Austin creek, where he bagged 
four fine bucks. Under the new game law 
sportsmen are allowed to hunt deer some two 
months earlier than formerly, but are restricted 
to the killing of bucks, it being declared a mis- 
demeanor to kill a doe at any time for a period 
of four years from the passage of the act. 

The Crop Outlook. — Enterprise, July 11: 
A gentleman who has visited every part of the 
county says the wheat crop, generally is light, 
especially from Fulton to Petaluma. The yield 
will average better in the vicinity of Geyser- 
ville than in any other section, many fields 
there averaging 30 bushels to the acre. The 
best field our friend saw in the county belonged 
to Mr. Galloway, of Dry creek, near Healds- 
burg, which turned out 50 bushels to the acre. 
Fruit is quite promising. Pears are looking 
splendidly and the market is well supplied with 
the earlier varieties. Peaches are doing better 
than was anticipated. Trees in the low and ill- 
drained grounds suffered severely from the ex- 
treme wet season, but on the foothills the or- 
chards are in the best condition. The peach 
crop in Alexander valley is as large as usual, 
and the fruit is exceptionally fine, both in ap- 

pearance and flavor. Heretofore most of the 
fruit from this valley has found a market at 
Reno and other mountain towns, and we sup- 
pose this season's crop will be sent in the same 
direction. Throughout the county grapes are 
in the best condition, and the yield will be 
probably as heavy, if not heavier, than ever be- 
fore. Corn never looked more promising, and 
the prospect for a large crop was never better. 
Root crops, generally, are doing well, beets be- 
ing especially forward. Insects have attacked 
the potatoes in some sections, but take the 
county throutjhout, the prospect for an average 
crop is encouraging. The blight has struck the 
potatoes in the Bodega country, and the indica- 
tions are that it will prove very destructive. 
Some of the largest producers say that a fre- 
quent change of seed potatoes is the best safe- 
guard against the blight or other disease. 

Danger in Late Sowing. — Healdsburg i^far/, 
July 10: It is proven without a doubt that 
grain sowing after April 1st is precarious busi- 
ness, almost certain to be accompanied by loss 
in the long run. It is the opinion of experi- 
enced farmers that a loss of two crops in three 
may generally be expected. As we go to press 
we learn that in this section late sown grain of 
all varieties is more or less affected by rust, and 
that down the river several fields of otherwise 
fine grain will not pay to cut. 

Grain. — Cor. Independent, July 12: It is esti- 
mated that the average yield per acre will be 
from 20 to 25 bushels. One thing unusual on 
the plains this year is the prevalence of rust. 
Old residents say this is the second time rust 
was ever seen on the sand. Although some 
late sown grain is badly rusted, it does not 
seem to injure the grain to any extent. As a 
general rule, wheat raised on the sand plains is 
remarkably sound and plump. 


Cattle Exposed to Indian Attacks. — 
Willamette Fai-rner, Jn\y 5: An exchange says 
that there must be eighty or ninety thousand 
head of cattle and horses left exposed to the 
depredations of the Indians by the recent out- 
break. The area of country where all this 
stock ranges embraces the Snake River valley. 
Big aad Little Camas Prairies, Rait river, Dixie 
valley and Bruneau valley. This estimate in- 
cludes about 19,000 head of cattle that were on 
their way to Cheyenne from eastern Oregon, and 
which had reached Camas Prairie and vicinity 
at the time the troubles commenced. Many 
horses have been driven off, but the cattle, 
with the exception of those slaughtered for food 
are still on the ranges, but unprotected in most 
instances, and no doubt badly scattered. The 
stockowners who have thus been driven from 
their homes and brokenjup as it were, will never 
return as long as the Indians remain in the 
country. They will not again trust their lives 
and property where the Indiane are permitted 
to roam; nor would a peace and the coercion of 
the Indians on reservations restore confidence 
in the minds of these settlers. They have been 
deceived too often. 

News in Brief. 

A CH.UN-GANG is to be organized in Santa 

Col. Fair, of Bonanza fame, is rusticating at 
Santa Cruz. 

The army worm is destroying vegetation in 
Trinity county. 

(i i;assuoppers are devouring every green 
thing around Reno. 

Output of coal in Great Britain and Ireland, 
last year, 132,000,000 tons. 

Last week there were, in New York city, 
732 births and 672 deaths. 

The Stockton Insane Asylum has all the pa- 
tients it can accommodate. 

Pipes are being laid in Russia from the pe- 
troleum wells to the Black sea. 

A SOAP mine has been struck in Richmond 
district, near Tuscarora, Nev. 

Tramps are becoming troublesome in Iowa, 
and other sections of the northwest. 

Frosts did great damage to garden stuff on 
the ranches of Alpine county last week. 

"The squirrels must go," is the burden of 
the farmers' cry in southern California. 

By the recent strike the Lancashire mill 
owners saved over .$3,000,000 in wages. 

There was an earthquake shock at Santa 
Monica on Wednesday night of last week. 

The outlook for hop growing about St. Helena 
is better this season than for several years past. 

A dispatch from Calcutta reports that 4,700 
houses have been destroyed by fire in Man- 

A MOVEMENT is On foot to Organize a Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in 

Joseph E. Lawrence, a California pioneer 
and journalist, died at Flushing, Long Island, 
July 15th. 

The Assessor of Los Angeles county reports 
an increase of half a million dollars in taxable 
property for 1878. 

Sixty female employees of the Patent Office 
have been discharged because of the reduction 
in the appropriations. 

Nearly 5,700,000 immigrants have arrived 
in this country since 1847, 4,000,000 of them 
being Germans and Irish. 

The heat has become fearful in St. Louis, 
Mo. On the 15th inst. 150 persons were pros- 
trated by sunstroke, between 40 and 50 of these 
cases proving fatal. Like casualties ha\ e hap- 
pened in many other Eastern cities, 

Cases of drowning seem to be very nun is 
in the East the present summer. 

The first carload of Bartlett pears from Cali- 
fornia have arrived in New York. 

The funeral of Isaac Friedlander was very 
numerously attended last Sunday. 

A valuable diamond has been washed from 
the gravel, at Myrtle creek, Oregon. 

Four hundred and sixty Mormons have 
arrived in New York from Europe. 

Three men were kUled by the explosion of a 
boiler at Queen City, Texas. 

The amount coined at the U. S. Mints during 
the year ending June 30th, was $81,118,921.50, 

The assessment roll of Santa Clara countv 
foots up $57,280,730, that of Sonoma $15,460,'- 

Several deaths in the Eastern States have 
been reported daily from lightning during the 
past week. 

The great four-mile washout on the Colorado 
desert has been repaired and trains commenced 
moving again. 

Hoedel the attempted assassin of Emperor 
William is to be beheaded. He was insolent 
and defiant. 

A famine is reported in the State of Sonora 
and Sinaloa, Mexico. At Mazatlan there is no 
flour, and people are emigrating. 

A great conspiracy against the Sultan is re- 
ported discovered in Stamboul, and over 50 
persons have been arrested. 

Prince Peter, of Aldenburg, condemns uni- 
versal military service as the cause of socialism 
and general discontent in Germany. 

W. C. Rhinelander, late of New York, 
gives, by his will, $49,975,000 to his four 
children and $25,000 to five orphan asylums. 

The whipping-post has been re-established in 
Delaware and Virginia; stripes to be inflicted 
for petit larceny and other minor offenses. 

Latest advices received from Brazil are that, 
in the provinces of Ceara in that Empire, the 
number of deaths from famine exceed daily 100. 

The exact cost of the construction of the 
Paris exhibition buildings and grounds is now 
estimated at 45,300,000 francs, or $9,060,000. 

Joseph Ma/.zio, a native of Switzerland, died 
near Sacramento last week from sunstroke, the 
thermometer standing at the time at 115° in the 

Continued rains with wind and sultry 
weather create fears of damage, both from 
lodging and rust, to the wheat crop of Minne- 

In the city of New York last week Dr. Car- 
ver shot and broke 5,000 glass balls in 500 min- 
utes, but came near losing his eyesight by the 

The recent storm at Pittsburg and vicinity 
was the most disastrous one, in loss of life and 
property, which has visited that locality for 

William Sutcliffe of New Orleans, who a 
few weeks ago defeated Frank Pointze in a 24- 
mile swim, was drowned in the Mississippi river 

The British government has cancelled an 
order for 40,000,000 cartridges, and various 
other indications point to a stoppage of war 

The body of (iuy Stewart, the boy who was 
reported missing from Dayton, Nov., about 
three weeks ago, has been found in the Carson 

Several Sutter county farmers, who have 
threshed their crops, find that the yield per 
acre is much less than estimated, it averaging 
from 10 to 12 bushels to the acre. 

A recently stolen safe, with its contents, 
valued at $270,000, belonging to Michael 
Richard, or Rathrockville, Pa., has been re- 
covered, with everything intact. 

Edward Spencer, the founder and chief pro- 
prietor of the Western Morning A^eics in Eng- 
land, and his two sous, were drowned recently 
while bathing near Plymouth. 

There were 2,470 failures in the United 
States during the last three months, with $48,- 
753,000 liabilities, against 3,355, with .$82,078,- 
000 liabilities during the first three months of 
the year. 

A NEW vein of coal has been struck in the 
Carmelo mine, Monterey, which averages seven 
and a half feet in thickness, and the deeper 
they go the more the quality of the coal im- 

The Dandola, one of the most powerful iron- 
clads in the world, was successfully launched at 
Spezzia, Italy. She will be armed with 100-ton 
Armstrong guns, carrying projectUes of 2,500 
pounds weight. 

It is probable that the maximum amount of 
standard silver dollars authorized to be coined 
by the silver bill, $4,000,000 per month, will be 
turned out at the mints for the next four 

Mrs. California Cornwell, the mother of 
five children and the wife of James F. Cornwell, 
a prominent sheep raiser on the San Benito, 
committed suicide at her residence Saturday 
morning, while in a state of temporary insanity. 

The value of the exports from the United 
States last year exceeded the imports to the 
amount of $251,000,000. During the last four 
years we have exported nearly $600,000,000 
worth of merchandise more than we have im- 

Staten island is a picture of desolation, the 
contrast between the present aspect and that of 
last year being most marked. Only a few per- 
sons are cultivating any portion of the island, 
potatoes being the only crop cultivated at all. 
The levees have been repaired, and are believed 
to be stronger than ever before. 



[July 20, 1878. 

The Mosquitoes of the Joaquin. 


(An Attack on the Pests, not the Places.) 

1. The mosquitoes of the Joaquin, 
—There's just no use o' talkiii" 
Arc not the sort for balkin', 

By Huy common ways. 
So sure "as you go aincinK 'em, 
-1 wish that Keaniey'd hunt: 'em 
They'll bleed you iiijfhts and days 

Z The mosquitoes of the Joaquin, 
With loud sonjfs and with bills keen, 
Can soon make a fat man lean. 

By tricks queer and ways dark. 
Your sleep is broke in the uiiddle, 
When they be^rin to fiddle. 
They "climb the trees and bark '." 

S. Your mosquito-bars are nowhar, 
Somehow the 'skceter'll be thar. 
It's a fact, sir, on the squar ! 

He's bound to get inside. 
Once I had a friend that tried it, 
And know he never lied it ; 

Jle says they "plugged" his hide 

i. There, at Grayson and Hill's Ferry, 
These pests are vicious very. 
It's frightful how they uerri/ 

A fellow out of sleep. 
You mav woo Morpheus with toddy. 
No use ! they'll take your body ; 

I'ray well your soul to keep. 

5. Our friend had real lively times. 

While he fought, and heard their chimes, 
Lay, and fumed, and planned these rhymes, 

Thinking of the Joaquin. 
When he arose, soon after dawn. 
Hundreds there, thoueh scores were gone I '■ 

—Just no use o' talkin' ! 

. a. He tried his "level best" to sleep. 

Nor "slept a wink." till dawn did peep ; 
While scores of pests their vigils keep, 

He fought, and thought, and tossed on. 
Was e'er the like found anywhere, 
For sounds and bites, or sounds by pair'? 

—Unless it be "in Boston'/" 

7. He thought of songs celestial, 
"Jubilee," and "Festival." 
This, he says, was BKxT i al, (best of all '.') 

—■This music of the wings. 
Babies' cries, when they are tuvtliingl 
Thunder-storms Oh ! they're soothing '. 
But this was not, "by jings 1" 


He recalls the Anvil Chorus ; 
He thinks of things that bore us. 
Bad as an ox can gore us. 

—Though on a smaller scale ; 
And while many a siren sings, 
Dreams the world's just full of things. 

That sting with bill or tail ! 

Settlers, they say, never mind it. 
Though rough ail strangers fihd it. 
For they all get badly bit ! 

I call such things a curse. 
You think not? Well, you just try 'em ! 
Talk of " perdidi diem f" 

Perdidi nwUin'i worse ! 


Ye who live without tmiakeHen, 
And such devourin' creeten, 
Sing hallelujah meters. 

For blessings ye enjoy ! 
Don't stay long on Joaquin river ; 
You'll havt;a healthy liver, 
And sleep icitliout alloy. 
San Joaquin Valley, July 2d, 1878. 

Loss and Gain. 

[Written for the Ri ral Press by Faith ] 

It was a beautiful, quiet spot. A low ram- 
bling farmhouse nestled among grand old elms 
and maples. Luxuriant vines clambered and 
twined about the broad old-fashioned porch, 
and the air was redolent with the perfume of 
roses. On a low couch lay a girl, pale and deli- 
cate as some wild flower, her head propped up 
with snowy pillows, her thin hands folded upon 
her breast, while waves of shining nut-brown 
hair fell all about her shoulders. 

Hearing a step upon the gravel walk, she 
turned her face toward the gate, while her eyes 
lit np with au expression of pleasure. 

A young man was walking leisurely toward 
the house, and his pleasant face and easy grace 
of manner at once prepossessed you in his favor. 
Approaching he knelt beside the girl, and tak- 
ing the white hands outstretched to him cast a 
look full of tender pity upon the beautiful face 
as he gently asked, 

"Are you better this morning, Oracle ?" 

"I feel no pain, Roy, only a great weariness 
and an intense longing for rest. You are very 
kind to come here to help me to pass the long 
weary hours away, but I feel that I shall not 
need even your presence to make me happy e'er 
the springtime comes again." 

"Do not say that, Grace. It is like a knife 
piercing my heart; I cannot, will not give you 
up. God will not take you from me. You are 
dearer to me than all the world beside; He 
must not — " 

"Hush, Roy! God's ways are not our ways; 
He is merciful and kind, and all things He doeth 
in His infinite wisdom. Life has been very full 
of sorrow and suflfering for me, but He has never 
failed me, His arms have been round about me 
and angels have ministered unto me. Still, 

there was a time when the thought of leaving 
all here was bitter indeed; a time when my 
heart bled and cried out that I might be spared 
this cup. But that is all passed, and, dear Roy, 
much as I love you, I am longing, oh, so much, 
to pass the golden gate of my heavenly home. 

"Cirace, 1 cannot believe that we must part. 
Y'ou are better to-day than you have been for 
weeks, and you will continue to gain strength 
as the summer advances, and in the balmy 
autumn days, when Nature is so dreamily 
beautiful, we will travel southward, and the 
warm sun of that genial clime will kiss the roses 
into your cheeks once more. 

"It cannot be," she answered, "do not de- 
ceive yourself with false hopes. The end is 
coming and you must prepare your heart to 
meet it with resignation." 

"Dear girl, try to rid yourself of those gloomy 
forebodings. l.,et us talk of something more 
cheering. ^Ve are to have a picnic to-morrow 
in Brendon wood and all anticipate a day of 
rare pleasure. How much I regret your ina- 
bility to be with us. ' 

"Do not let the thought of me cloud your en- 
joyment; I shall be happy knowing you are so, 
and 1 am never lonely here. They are all very, 
very kind to me, and aunt Ruth is the best of 

"I am fully aware of that Grace, else I should 
not leave you so much to her care; but I must 
not stay with you this morning, much as I 
would wish to, yet there is so much to be ar- 
ranged and attended to to-day, and we are al" 
so busy over there. But promise before I go, 
Gracie, that you will not let those despondent 
feelings take possession of your mind again, 
and that you try to be hopeful for the future 
as I am. Will you do so 

"I promise to be all that you wish, Roy," 
she answered, as he pressed her hands at part- 
ing, a great love shining in her eyes the wliile. 
Years after he remembered the look wliich ac- 
companied her words, and the almost glorious 
beauty which shone in her face. He passed 
out at the gate and a turn in the walk hid him 
from view, while pitying tears stole down her 
cheek and dropped slo«ly upon the clasped 
hands, and sobs shook her delicate frame as the 
rough winds toss a frail Hower. 

"Oh, poor Roy 1 you will suffer so keenly; miss 
me so much. My Heavenly Father if it were 
possible that — Oh, (iod ! forgive me, is my sin- 
ful heart still clinging to earth after all my 
struggles, am I still unresigned to Thy will '/ 
Savior lay thy healing hand upon my heart, oh 
iielp me to say in very trutVi, "Thy will be 
done." No anguished heart ever yet sought 
consolation at the foot of the cross and received 
it not. "t'onie unto me all ye that labor and 
are heavy laden, and I will give you rest." 
Years ago (Jrace Wilmot had heard and accepted 
the blessed invitation and the promise had 
never failed her yet, and did not fail her now. 
Calmed and strengthened, she fell fjuietly to 
sleep as a wearied child might rest upon its 
mother's breast. 

The following morning the sun rose in cloud- 
less splendor, and all Nature awoke with smiles 
and gladness. The day promised to be unus- 
ually tine, and at an early hour the gay party 
of pleasure seekers resorted to Brendon wood, 
every preparation having been made the day 
before for a grand time amid the giant trees of 
the tine old place. No lovelier spot could have 
been selected, and all came prepared to contrib- 
ute to the enjoyment of the day. Among them 
Roy Norman moved, scattering pleasant words 
and smiles, for his ready wit and agreeable 
manner made him a general favorite, and many 
a pretty face grew rosy with pleasure as he stop- 
ped to exchange common-place remarks or 
passed a harmless compliment. 

But no one could appropriate any especial 
part of his attention to herself, since he was 
kind and agreeable to all alike. 

Y'et it was observed when not engaged in con- 
versation, a shade of sadness would steal over 
his face, and he seemed oblivious to the gay 
voices and laughter around him. 

In truth, he could not shake ofi' a certain unde- 
tinable dread, a sad forboding caused by his 
visit to Grace the previous evening. True, he 
had hoped against hope, and had been, or tried 
to be, blind to the evidence of his own eyes. 
Hoped only because despair would be so bit- 
ter. He saw, day 'oy day, the sweet face grow 
thinner, and the slender hands weaker, and 
lately the delicate limbs had refused to support 
her slight weight. It all rushed through his 
mind with terrible distinctness, and the cer- 
tainty of tlie great loss so near, made it almost 
impossible to wear the mask of careless gaiety 
above his aching heart. 

At last the long day drew to a close and the 
happy groups dispersing, returned homeward. 

Riding leisurely along the shadowy forest 
road, Roy's thoughts settled upon the painful 
subject which had disturbed them so much 
throughout the day. Memory ran back to the 
time wlien he first saw Grace Wilmot, then a 
pale, thoughtful child of ten years. How well 
he remembered the sad face and down-cast eyes 
of the or])han, brought by Mrs. Archer from the 
distant city, where her only sister, Grace's 
mother had died. 

Mrs. Archer was a bustling worldly woman, 
but possessed of a heart warm and tender, and 
this one sister of hers had been very dear to 
her, and when the little girl was left so entirely 
alone, for her father had died in her infancy, 
.Mrs. Archer received her "little Maggie's 
child," as she called her, with open arms, and 
took her into the warmest corner of her large 
heart. Childless herself, she lavished all the 
wealth of her mother-love upon Grace. 

Thought flew over time's highway and Roy 
saw her budding into glorious womanhood, fair 
as a water lily, with a queenly grace and a 
mind rich in all that beautifies female character. 
It was at this period of their lives that they 
both awoke to the sweet knowledge of how dear 
each had become to the other, and how neces- 
sary each were to the other's happiness. He 
knew her to be of humble })arentago and pos- 
sessed of a home only through the charitable 
kindness of her relatives; while his own family 
ranked among the oldest and wealthiest in the 
country, yet he deemed wealth and position as 
little compared to her intrinsic worth and 
nobleness of character. But just as she was 
ripening to most glorious womanhood her 
health, always delicate, gave entirely away, 
and consumption, that dread foe of the human 
race, seized her and was bearing her surely and 
swiftly to the grave. 

She was fully aware from the first that her 
days on earth were numbered, and that divine 
religion, which had been her chief consolation 
through so many trials, was now her stronghold 
in this last ordeal. It was a bitter struggle be- 
tween earthly love and heavenly; but in the 
end "that peace which passeth all understand- 
ing" enveloped and filled her heart to complete 
fullness, and she waited calmly and resignedly 
for the summons of the Master. 

She had endeavored from the first to impress 
upon Roy's mind the certainty of their separa- 
tion, but he utterly refused to believe. It 
seemed to him an evil too great to occur, and 
his strong young heart battled mightily against 
the overwhelming thouglit. But her conversa- 
tion the previous evening, together with the 
gradual, though plainly perceptible change in 
her appearance, had aroused him to a keen 
sense of the impending sorrow, and all his be- 
ing rebelled and cried out in bitterest agony. 
To give her up, the one love of his lifcl The 
pearl of all womankind! Must she go down to 
the tomb hidiien from his sight forever'/ 

He was aroused from his sad reflections by a 
cracked voice close beside him saying — 

"Sorry to trouble you, Mr. Norman, but will 
ye please come over this evenin' '! Mrs. Archer 
think as how Miss (irace is kind o' sinkin' or 
somthin', and .she hears her a wisperin' som- 
thin' about ye sir, and Mrs. Archer she thought 
niebbe you wouldn't mind riding over a bit, 

It was Mr. Archer's "chore boy," .Tim, and 
Roy saw at a glance there was more in the boy's 
mind than he dared to express, and, without a 
word, he wheeled his horse anil rode rapidly in 
the direction of the farm-house. Arrived at 
the gate, he Hung himself from the saddle and 
walked with all the composure possible to 
assume toward the house. At the door he met 
Mrs. Archer, with troubled, tear-stained face. 

" How is (Jrace ? ' he asked, in tones slightly 
tremulous in spite of all his self-control. 

"I fear she will not last till morning. She 
has sank rapidly since noon." He waited to 
hear no more, but passed into the room. A 
single glance convinced him her Aunt Ruth's 
fears were well-founded. Her eyes were closed 
and a deathly pallor was upon her features. 
She slightly stirred, and unclosing her eyes, 
lifted them in pleased surprise to his face. 

"Oh, Grace ! my poor darling, are you much," he pleaded pitiously, falling upon his 
knees and clasping the cold hands. 

"The end is very near, dear Roy," she 
whispered faintly. " I am jiassing swiftly and 
painlessly away. I thank the dear .Savior that 
the hour is at hand. mo, beloved, once 
more; and, oh, do not grieve so. It is so sweet 
to go beyond this vale of sin and sorrow. God 
will comfort you and bring you safe home to 
me at last, where there is no death, neither 
sorrow nor crying for the — " 

Her voice ceased, and she seemed to have 
indeed passed away, while a low wail of bitter 
anguish filled the room. 

Presently the eyes unclosed and the sweet 
voice repeated clearly and distinctly, 
"Jesus can make a dying bed 

Feel soft as downy pillows are; 
While on his breast I lean my head. 
And breathe my life out sweetly there." 

A smile of infinite peace and joy settled about 
the sweet mouth, and, with the last word, the 
pure spirit of Grace Wilmot took its upward 
flight toward the Eternal City. 

The grief-stricken Roy arose, gave one long, 
lingering look, through blinding tears, upon 
the beautiful face, kissed once and again the 
faultless lips and marble brow, then left the 
weeping relatives with the dead. 

One week after that never-to-be-forgotten 
evening, he bade adieu to old scenes and associa- 
tions, and sailed for distant lands, hoping, amid 
new and untried fields, to find some alleviation 
to that crushing burden of sorrow, which seemed 
indeed too heavy to be borne. 

Years have passed, and we find him still a 
wanderer in search of the rest time has failed to 
bring, and the blight which fell upon his young 
hopes is none the less keenly felt, though time 
has strewn silver thickly in his hair. Y^et, 
through all the weary pain, his heart tells him 
always his great loss is Grace Wilmot's eternal 

A French lady, who was on her first visit to 
England, was walking in Kew Gardens, the 
other day. She was, on the whole, much 
pleased; but was greatly shocked at the notice 
which she read at every turn, that " Bird-nest- 
ing is strictly forbidden." "How severe you 
are and cruel in this country," she at last sor- 
rowfully exclaimed, "that not even the little 
birds may not make their nests in your public 
gardens ! " 

Scrap-Book Paste, 

Editobs PKE.SS: — Seeing an inquiry in the 
Rl RAi, of June 2'2d for a paste for scrap-books, 
I give with pleasure my method of making 
paste and using it. Put a teaspoonful of laun- 
dry starch in a teacup with just enough cold 
water to moisten it and make smooth; then fill 
the teacup with boiling water, stirring briskly. 
It should be very thick. This I use immedi- 
ately, and as I generally work at my scrap-liook 
two or three hours at a time, can easily make 
fresh paste when needed again. This does not 
make the paper in the least stiff, and I always 
put my book under press after having finished 
for the time, so that it dries smoothly. I use 
an old toothbrush or any soft brubh to apply 
the paste with. Have also a smooth board be- 
side me on which to place the scraps for past- 
ing, and a cloth wrung (]uite dry out of hot 
water to wipe the surplus paste from it each 
time. I also separate short pieces from 
the rest so that I can easily select from them 
to fill up a column if necessary, and keep 
straight columns. My great grievance is that I 
am not allowed to clip from the Ri ral Press. 
I have often thought how nicely I would arrange 
the RuRAi.'s pages for preserving the "Home 
Circle" and the numerous recipes and other 
matters of particular interest for reference, but 
I hardly think the Rural'.s editoi would thank 
me for turning everything topsy turvy in the 
ofiice, so will keep the improvement to myself 
for the present. A. E. P. 

Cajon Mountains, July 8th, 1878. . 

The Little Shoes did It. — A young man, 
who had been reclaimed from the vice of intem- 
perance, was called upon to tell how he was 
led to give up drinking. He arose but looked 
for a moment very confused. All he could say 
was, "The little shoes did it !" With a thick 
voice, as if his heart was in his throat, he kept 
repeating this. There was a stare of perplexity 
on every face, and at length some thoughtless 
young people began to titter. The man in all 
his embarrassments, heard this sound, and 
rallied at once. The light came into his eyes 
with a flash — he drew himself up and addressed 
the audience; the choking went from his throat. 
"Yes friends," he said, in a voice that cut its 
way, clear as a deep- toned bell, "whatever you 
may think of it, I've tohl you the truth — the 
little shoes did it ! I was a brute and a fool; 
strong drink had made n.e both, and starved 
me into the bargain. 1 suU'ered; 1 deserved to 
suffer. But I didn't suffer alone — no man does 
who has a wife and a child, for the woman gets 
the worst abuse. But I am no speaker to en- 
large on that; I'll stick to the little shoes. It 
was one night, when I was all but done for, 
the saloon-keeper's child holding out her feet 
for the father to look at her fine new shoes. It 
was a simple thing; but friends, no fist ever 
struck me such a blow as those little new shoes. 
They kicked reason into me. What business 
have I to clothe others with fineries, and pro- 
vide not even coarse clothing for my own, but 
let them go bare? says I; and there outside 
was my shivering wife and blue-chilled child, 
on a bitter cold night. I took hold of the lit- 
tle one with a grip, and saw her chilled feet. 
Men, fathers I if the little shoes smote me what 
must little feet do ? I put them, cold as ice, to my 
breast; they pierced me through. Yes, the lit- 
tle feet walked right into my heart, and away 
walked my selfishness. I had a trifie of money 
left; I bought a loaf of bread and then a pair of 
little shoes. I never tasted anything but a bit 
of that bread all the Sabbath day, and went to 
work like mad on Monday, and from that day I 
have spent no more money at the public house. 
That's all I've got to say — It was the little 
shoes that did it. "—Albany Press. 

Wife Fattesino in ApRirA.— Speke re- 
mained in Karagwe for a month, but (irant was 
detained there by serious illness until the 
spring of 1802, when he rejoined his comrade 
in Uganda. During their stay with Bumanika 
neither of the explorers saw cause to change the 
first opinion they had formed of that chieltain's 
personal character, but more intimate inter- 
course with him showed that he held mai y 
fctrange and superstitious beliefs, and indulged 
in practices the reverse of civilized. One of the 
latter, which appears to have struck Speke 
most unpleasantly, was the fattening of the 
women of the court to such an extent that they 
could not stand upright. Scarcely able to 
credit the reports he heard of this peculiarity 
in the royal females, the English leader ob- 
tained an interview with the king's eldest 
brother and his wife. On entering the hut, he 
found the old man and his chief wife sitting 
side by side on a bench of earth strewed over 
with grass, and partitioned like stalls for sleep- 
ing apartments. The wife could not rise, and 
so large were her arms that between the joints 
the flesh hung down like large loose-stuft'ed 
puddings. This result, the husband triumph- 
antly informed his guests, had been obtained 
by milk, and milk alone. "From early youth 
upwards," he said, pointing to rows of milk- 
bowls on the ground, "we keep these pots to 
our women's mouths." — Heroex of South Afri- 
can DUcore.ry. 

A LITTLE girl was reproved for playing out 
doors with boys, and informed that, being seven 
years old, she was "too big for that now." But, 
with all imaginable innocence, she replied: 
"Why, the bigger we grow the better we like 

July 20, 1878.] 




In winter sta- 

How to manage a menagerie: 
ble 'em. In summer, Barnum. 

The sword may be less mighty than the pen; 
but how about the scissors ? 

"Do fish sleep ?" is a scientific question. "If 
they don't, what are they doing in the river's 
bed ?" 

Said an Irishman, in the course of an eloquent 
speech: "Mr. Chairman, the gals is the boys to 
do it." 

Little boy at the opening of a proposed spell- 
ing match: "Let's start fair, grandmother, you 
take Nebuchadnezzar and I'll take cat." 

If you would be clear and forcible, don't use 
foreign words. Be natural. A man never 
stops to hunt up a foreign word when he is 
stung by a hornet. 

A SAILOR put a saddle on hind part before. 
A bystander showed him his error; but the 
sailor exclaimed, "How do you know which 
way I am going to ride ?" 

.lohn and Ida, married, 

Lived in Idaho forlorn, 
'Cause John hunt; round that tavern 
And let Idaho the corn. 

A POLiTirAL speaker accused a rival of " un- 
fathomable meanness," and then, rising to the 
occasion, said: "I warn him not to persist in 
his disgraceful course, or he'll find that two of 
us can play at that game! " 

Folks who can't understand why robins are 
sent to eat up all the cherries should remember 
that in .all probability the robins can't under- 
stand why human beings are sent to do the 
same thing. 

Pkofe.ssor: "Can you multiply together con- 
crete numbers ?" The class are uncertain. 
Professor: "What will be the product of five 
apples multiplied by six potatoes?"' Freshman, 
(triumphantly): "Hash." 

The Siamese Twins Outdone. 

Y®i^H^ poLks^ C@nJ|^jPt. 

Letty's Pocket. 

[Written for the Ri ral Presn hy Loraine.] 
Letty Mason was a bright-eyed liotle girl, 
with red cheeks, and brown hair that never 
would stay where it was put unless tied down 
with a ribbon. 

"Come here, Letty," said her mamma, one 
day, "let me see what you have in your pocket.'' 
Letty was so long getting ready to come, that 
she had to be called a second time ; and mamma 
found it a difficult matter to put her hand into 
the aforesaid pocket, as it was full, clear up to 
the top. 

"Why, what is all this?" said she, pulling 
out the contents one by one ; and it was rather 
an odd collection: There was a doll's dress, two 
spools on a string, a piece of a shoe buckle, a 
piece of chalk, a soiled handkerchief, two oyster 
shells, some pea-pods, a string of beads, a bunch 
of wilted hollyhocks and a handful of pebbles. 

"What a naughty girl !" said mamma, "that's 
a nice looking mess to have in your pocket, now, 
isn't it ? A little girl's pocket, too ! No wonder 
it's torn down, with such a weight — all those 
dirty shells and stones ! Now, Letty Mason, 
I've told you a great many times not to fill your 
pockets so full of trash, and you do not mind 
one word that I say. I shall take your pockets 
all out now, every one of them, and sew up 
your dresses ao you can't have any. (io and 
bring me your old blue dress that hangs in the 
corner of the closet." 

Letty pouted a little, when mamma did not 
her, and relitctantly brought the dress 

Eastern exchanges are filled with descriptions 
and engravings of a pair of twins a la Siamese, 
which excel their prototypes. The following 
is a description of them: The St. Benoit twins 
are two distinct and separate organizations. 
They have two perfectly formed and natural 
heads and bodies as far as the last rib. Below 
that the two bodies are fused into one. Each 
has two arms, but only one leg. When a pin is 
thrust into the right leg the right girl will cry, 
while the left girl continues her previous occu- 
pation — generally a broad smile. Other exper- 
ments show that each of the twins is entirely 
separated from the other, and one may be 
sleeping while the other is Laughing. They 
have l)ut one abdomen, l»ut the heart and up- 
per intestines in each are separate and inde- 

When taken to the library both began to cry 
heartily in the same tone, and when one stop- 
ped, the other stopped, and when one thrust its 
chubby fist into its mouth the other did the 
same. At first they refused to allow the spec- 
tators to examine them, notwithstanding the 
coaxing of their mother, and they cried so 
much that she was compelled to take them back 
to a private room, where after awhile they be 
came quiet. When ushered into this room the 
visitors found one of them fast asleep, while 
the other was wide awake and laughing. 
Shortly the sleeping one woke up and began a 
plaintive "cry," in which the other joined 

The twins were born at St. Benoit, about .30 
miles from Montreal, Canada, where their par 
ent and grandparents, who are descended from 
the original French settlers of the country, have 
resided for nearly a 100 years past. They are 
seven months old, perfectly healthy, h.andsome, 
and, judging from appearances, have the same 
chance of life as ordinary children. The par- 
ents have one other child, a girl two years old 
entirely free from blemish, and the present 
twins are the first instance ever known of any 
"freak" of nature in the family. One of the 
twins has been christened "Mary" and the 
other "Rosa" Mary is slightly smaller than her 
sister and has a darker complexion. 

Tramps. — "What shall we do with our 
tramps ?" is the question that seems to have 
prominence east of the mountains. Several 
towns in Iowa have adopted a .system that is 
said to be working very well, and whilst it 
gives employment at a very small remunera- 
tion it prevents loss of life — on behalf of the 
tramp — loss of property by fire and larceny on 
behalf of the citizens. The county authorities 
have erected a cheap kind of barracks, where 
tramps are allowed to sleep on benches or on 
the floor; no beds or clothing being allowed 
them, and if they choose to work upon the 
streets they are boarded and'paid — if good ser- 
vice is done — 25 cents per day in addition. In 
many instances the labor of these men is leased 
by the citizens at a nominally higher rate, who 
put them to work in their yards or gardens, 
and all who refuse *o take lodgings at the 
tramp barracks are arrested for vagrancy and 
put upon the streets, made to work out a fine, 
and then given a limited number of hours to 
got out of the county limits. — Colusa 81m. 

Government Surveying. — There are at 
present four Government surverys in progress. 
Two under the direction of the Engineers' De- 
partment, one commanded by Lieut Wheeler, 
and the other by Lieut. Clarence King; the 
■ other two under the auspices of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior, and comic wded by Prof. 
Hayden, and the last by Mr. Powell. 

She never liked that dress very much, because 
it had no pocket in i t, and after it was put on 
she went away into the sitting-room and stood 
by the window thinking the matter over. 

"Well, now, '" said she to herself, "it's awfully 
mean tliat I can't have .any pocket in my dress — 
big girl as I am, and Ben has three in every 
one of his jackets, besides two in his pants. 
One, two, three, four, five," counting on her 
fingers. " O, my! five pockets to one boy! 
Mercy sakes ! I wish I was a boy. 

"I'm going to have one, so now, if I have to 
make it myself," she continued, hunting through 
the l)ig work-basket to try to find something to 
make one of. But there was nothing there 
suitable and she went upstairs to the bureau in 
her mamma's room, pulled out one of the 
drawers and fumbled around till she came to a 
long stocking. 

"That will do first-rate," said she to her- 
self. " It won't have to be sewed up any, and 
mamma has such lots and lots of them, she 
don't need this one I am sure." 

Letty shut up the drawer and hunted about for 
a needle and thread and scissors, and then went 
into a back room that was used for a store 
room. Here she sat down behind a big box, 
where no one would be likely to see her, and 
went to work. First she cut a round hole in 
the side of her dress, where a pocket is usually 
placed, and then proceeded to sew in the stock- 
ing. She could not sew very well and it took 
her a long time, and the stitches were rather 
long and uneven. But at last it was finished 
and Letty regarded it with considerable satis- 

"It's pretty long," said she. "I can hardly 
reach down in it, but then it will hold ever so 
much; " and going into her own little room, 
she commenced to fill it with some of the 
things she liked to carry about with her so 

Uncle Philip came home with papa to lunch 
that day. Letty was very fond of Uncle 
Philip, and came running into the parlor to 
speak to him. 

" What is that hanging down from your 
dress ? " said mamma. 

" Sure enough, " said papa, "what is it? It 
looks very funny." 

"Why, that's my pocket," said Letty, look- 
ing down at it, "but, dear me! it's too long." 

"I should think so," said Uncle Philip, 
" your dressmaker must be a funny woman to 
make such a pocket as that. Let me see what 
it is." 

"She didn't make it, I sewed it in myself," 
said Letty, turning around to run out of the 

But her papa would not let her go. He said 
he wanted to take a look at that wonderful 
pocket, and when he saw what it was, he burst 
out a laughing, and they all laughed, laecause it 
did look very funny. 

Letty's mamma laughed, too, although she 
was vexed with her little girl for cutting such 
a place in her dress, and she made Letty wear 
it, just as it was, all the rest of the day for a 

Letty was careful what she put into her 
pockets, whenever she had any, after that, and 
did not try to make any more for herself out of 

Notes on Consumption. 

Dr. Geo. H. Napheys, an eminent physician, 
says: A particular kind of exercise is to be rec- 
ommended for those whose chests are narrow, 
whose shoulders stoop, and who have a hered- 
itary predisposition to consumption. If it is 
systematically practiced along with other means 
of health, we would guarantee any child — no 
matter how many relatives have died of this 
disease — against its invasion. It is voluntary 
inspiration. Nothing is more simple. Let her 
stand erect, throw her shouldeis back, and the 
hands behind; then let her inhale pure air to 
the full capacity of her lungs, and retain it a 
few seconds by an increased effort; then it may 
be slowly exhaled. After one or two natural 
inspirations let her repeat the act, and so on 
for 10 or 1.5 minutes, twice daily. Not only is 
this simple procedure a safeguard against con- 
sumption, but, in the opinion of some learned 
physicians, it can cure it when it has already 

A correspondent of an English medical jour- 
nal furnishes the following recipe as a new cure 
for consumption: Put a dozen whole lemons in 
cold water and boil until soft (not too soft), 
roll and squeeze until the juice is all extracted, 
sweeten the juice enough to be palatable, and 
then drink. Use as many as a dozen a day. 
.Should they cause p<ain or looseness of the bow- 
els, lessen the quantity and use five or six a 
day until better. By the time you have used 
five or six dozen you will begin to gain strength 
and have an appetite. Of course as you get 
better you need not use so many. Follow these 
directions and we know that you will never re- 
gret it if there is any help for you. Only keep 
it up faithfully. We know of two cases where 
both of the patients were given up by the phy- 
sicians, and were in the last stages of consump- 
tion, yet both were cured by using lemons, ac- 
cording to the directions we have stated. One 
lady in particular was bedridden and very low; 
had procured everything that money could pro- 
cure, but all in vain, when, to please a friend, 
she was finally persuaded to use the lemons. 
She began to use them in February, and in 
April she weighed 140 pounds. She is a well 
woman to-day. 

Fruit Butter. 

Dieting for Health. 


In looking out doors, do you notice how 
bright is the green of the grass and leaves ?" 
asked an elderly gentleman of a little Danbury 
girl, whose home he was visiting. ' 'Yes, sir. " 
"Why does it appear so much brighter at this 
time ?" he next asked, looking down upon the 
bright, sweet face with tender interest. "Be- 
cause Ma has cleaned house and you can see 
out better, " she »aid. 

Dieting for health, says HaWn Journal, has 
sent many a one to the grave, and will send 
many more, because it is done injudiciously or 
ignor.antly. One man omits his dinner by effort, and thinking he has accom- 
plished wonders, expects wonderful results, but 
by the time supper is ready he feels hungry as 
a dog, and eats like one, fast, furious and long. 
Next day he is worse, and "don't believe in 
dieting" for the remainder of his life. 

Others set out to starve themselves into 
health, until thej system is reduced so low that 
it has no power of resuscitation, and the man 

To diet wisely, does not imply a total absti 
nence from all food, but the taking of just 
enough, or of a quality adapted to the nature o" 
the case. Loose bowels weaken very rapidly — 
total abstinence from all food incre.ases the de 
bility. In this case food should be taken 
which while it tends to arrest the disease, im 
jiarts nutriment and strength to the system. In 
this case, rest on a bed, and eating boiled rice 
after it has been parched like coffee, will cure 
three cases out of four of common diarrhoea in 
a day or two. 

Others think that in order to diet effectually 
it is all important to do without meat, but al 
low themselves the widest liberty in all else 
But in many cases, in dyspeptic conditions 
the system particularly, the course ought to be 
reversed, because meat is converted into nutri 
ment with the expenditure of less stomach pow 
er than vegetables, while a given amount of 
work does three times as much good, gives 
three times as much nutriment and strength as 
vegetable food would. 

Beef Tea. — Prof. Pepper, in a lecture on 
typhoid fever, in the Philadelphia Mtdicnl 
Times, observes: "Indeed, as has been very 
thoroughly proven by Dr. Horace Hare in ex- 
periments made at the University laboratory, 
laeef boiled in the good old-fashioned way in a 
bottle with water gives us a resulting solution 
which contains only about one-fourth of one 
per cent, of nourishing material. The beef tea thus 
manufactured is chiefly a solution of the salts 
of meat, and is, therefore, not nutritive, and 
only valuable as a stimulant to digestion. But 
there is another way of making beef tea which 
gives better results. Take a quantity of ten- 
der meat, and, after cutting off the fat, chop it 
up fine, put it in a bowl, pour a pint of water 
over it, and let it stand over night. It may 
possibly be well to keep the water just on a 
simmer; do not raise the temperature above 
140°, however, or you will coagulate all the 
albumen, and so either leave it on the sieve in 
straining, or introduce it into the stomach in 
the form of curds. After this simmering solu- 
tion has been allowed to stand over night, pour 
it into a pipkin and heat it again gently, with 
enough salt to give it flavor, and, if necessary, 
add a drop or two of muriatic acid. Then pour 
it out over a hair sieve into a jar. The result- 
ing solution will contain all the nutriments 
possible, and is the most valuable kind of 
stimulant and laxative. 

The American Oroar gives the following ac- 
count of the manufacture of fruit butter: "In 
general only dried fruit is used from which to 
make the butter. They can and sometimes do 
use the green fruit, but it is not so practicable 
in the cities. The principal kinds made are 
from apples, peaches, and quinces. Recently 
they have commenced making pear-butter also. 
It is not easy to get dried quinces in the market, 
consequently during the season when they are 
ripe the green fruit is used and its manufac- 
ture pushed, and a large quantity also put up 
in hermetically sealed cans for use later in the 
year. We saw several hundred cans that would 
hold two or three hundred pounds each await- 
ing the incoming fruit. Apple and peach but- 
ter, however, are the kinds mostly made. Al- 
most any reasonable amount of these kinds of 
goods can be found at all seasons, and conse- 
quently the manufacture can continue all the 
year round. As a matter of fact, however, 
there is generally very little to do in July and 
August, the dull months. We were told that 
the southern dried fruit was better suited for 
the purpose than that of the north and west. 
The dried fruit is first carefully washed and 
sorted, and picked over and soaked, so as to 
^et everything out that ought not to be in. It 
is then put into large copper kettles holding 
about 1,.500 pounds, which are surrounded by 
team jackets, and in which is a stirrer run by 
machinery. Then a sufficient quantity of sugar 
is put in, and enough water to answer the pur- 
pose, and the batch is cooked and constantly 
stirred until it is done, which takes about four 
hours. One kettle can thus make about four 
batches running full time, and the three large 
kettles used by this firm can turn out, when 
ully at work, at least 18,000 pounds of fruit 
butter a day — about nine tons. After it is suf- 
ficiently cooked, which the experienced manu- 
facturer can very accurately judge, it is forced 
through a peculiarly constructed sieve, which 
revolves upon a row of pestles, by which pro- 
cess any cores or lumps are prevented from 
going into it. It is then passed down into 
another department, where it is put into pails 
ready for shipment. The pails are of different 
sizes, holding respectively .5 pounds, 6 pounds, 
and 35 pounds. The goods will keep excellent- 
ly well under all favorable circumstances, and 
will bear shipment to all parts of the country. 
It might not be best to have it on hand in a 
southern latitude in the middle of the summer. 
We do not know an article that promises to be 
more popular and useful than this. It mingles 
the utile cum didre to perfection, and no well- 
regulated grocer's establishment should be 
without it. It is cheap enough to sell readily 
and give a good margin for profit. It is only 
nine years ago that this article was first intro- 
duced into the market of Philadelphia, and only 
two years since its manufacture was begun here. 
The wholesale trade generally handles these 
goods. Fruit butter may be made in the coun- 
try very easily and cheaply. The same pur- 
pose that sugar subserves in manufactories here 
may be acccomplished there by the use of cider. 
When apples are ripe make say three barrels of 
cider. Then pare and core four bushels of ap- 
ples. Then boil down the three barrels of cider 
to one and a half, and set it convenient to the 
copper kettle, in which place the four bushels 
of apples. Pour on the apples from the cider 
enough to answer the purpose and fire up. As 
the cider boils away add more and more until 
it is all used up and the contents of the kettle 
are brought down to a proper consistency, of 
which one must be judge. A little practice 
will make one perfect in this process. This is 
for apples. It will apply equally well to any 
other kind of fruit from which it is practicable 
to obtain the juice as one would from apples." 

FAVonnE Meat-Pie. — Take cold roast beef, 
or roast meat of any kind, slice it thin, cut it 
rather small, and lay it, wet with gravy and 
sufficiently peppered and salted, in a meat-pie 
dish. If liked a small onion may be chopped 
fine, and sprinkled over it. Over the meat 
pour a cupful of stewed tomatoes, a little more 
pepper, and a thick layer of mashed potatoes. 
Bake slowly in a moderate oven, till the top is 
a light brown. This makes a very good dish, 
and is a very great favorite with parties who 
do not usually like meat pies. 

Rice Soup with Curry. — Melt in a sauce- 
pan two ounces of butter with a tablespoonful 
of finely chopped onions; fry until slightly 
browned; add two tablespoonfuls of curry pow- 
der, mingle well, dilute with two quarts of 
stock broth, and boil 10 minutes; prepare a 
pint of hot boiled rice in a soup-tureen, pour 
the soup over the rice and serve. 

Macaroons. — Blanch four ounces of almonds 
and pound with four spoonfuls of blange flower 
water; whisk the whites of four eggs to a froth; 
then mix it and one pound of sugar, sifted with 
the almonds to a paste, and, laying a sheet of 
wafer paper on a tin, put it on in different little 
cakes the shape of macaroons. 

Yorkshire Muffins.— Take one tablespoon- 
ful of butter and two quarts of flour, add salt to 
your liking; make the dough stiff" enough for a 
spoon to stand in; stir in one teacupful of yeast; 
let it rise over night, and in the morning bake in 
muffin rings and serve for breakfast while hot. 



[July 20, 1878. 

DEWEY Si CO., Publishers. 
A. T. DEWEY. \V. 15. EWER. 

Office, 202 Sansome St., N. E. Corner Phie. St. 

A.NNTA1, Si'BSCKipTioxs, 84; si.\ months, 82; three 
months, 81.25. Wlien paid fully one year in ailvance, 
riFTY CBST8 will be deducted. No nkw names will be 
taken without cash in advance. Remittances bv re^s- 
tered letters vr P. O. orders at our risk. 
AvgRTiaiNO Rates. 1 week. 1 month. 3 nios. 12nios, 

Her line 25 .SO 82.00 8 6.00 

Half inch (1 square). 81.00 83.00 7 .10 24.00 

One inch 2.00 5.00 14.00 40.00 

Lar^e advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
in extraordinary tyi)e or in particular parts of the paper 
at special rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 

OiR Easter.n Editorial Corres|iondent, R. Gkimsiiaw, 
Ph. D., can be addressed at No. 108 Liberty Street. N. Y. 

Our lateM forms go io press Wednesday eventng. 

Quack Advertising positively declined. 

Examinations for Phylloxera, 

We lately made niicrosco])ic examinations of 
vine roots in a case of suspected phylloxera, 
and found the eggs and newly hatched larvie of 
the insect in abundance. Thougli we regretted 
' the discovery, it was no less a fact. It is time 
very man whose vines show signs of disease 
and enfeebled growth knew whether this ruin- 
■ ous pest was in his vineyard or not. Many 
I have not the skill nor the appliances to make 
' close microscopic examinations for themselves, 
but they should not be denied full knowledge, 
j For obvious reasons a man who may have the 

The Scientific Press Patent Agency. 
DEWEY & CO,, Patent SoUcitors. 


W. B. KWER. 

6. n. 8TR0NU 


Saturday, July 20, 1878. 


EDITORIALS.— A Plant Pretext for War; Bermuda 
Grass as a Levee ProteeU>r; Rye-Grass and Liquid Ma- 
nure, 33. The Week; E.\aininations for Phylloxera; 
Cheese for the Arm.v and the People; The Centennial 
Harvester, 40. California Ajfrieulture in 18:^5; The 
(.California Plow of To.ilay, 41. The Resources and 
HisKiry of Shasta County, No. .5; Sudden Death of Mr. 
Eriedlander; Fatal Heat in the Western States; Notices 
of Recent Patents, 44. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. -Camas and other Indian Food- 
Roots, 33. A California Plow in 1878; A California 
Plow in ls:i5. 41 

CORRESPONDENCE -Turke.vs, Rice, Wheat in 
Hills, Etc.; Notts fnim W'litura C<)unty; Who is I'ncle 
.loslr.', 34. 'I'lic Enemies of Carp and Precautions 
Airainst Tbcm, 34-35. 

THE STOCK YARD — Arrangements for Live Stock 
at the Stale Fair; The FeedinL' Value of Wheat Straw, 

THE APIARY - Drone-Killing Birds; Floating Apia- 
ries on the Mississippi, 35. 

HORTICULTURE. -When and How to Prune; Fin- 
^'cr-and- rhumb Pruning' 35. 

.Miuiey l^ost by Grain Shipnu-nts; Delegates |to the Con- 
stitutional Conventinn, 37. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties of California and Orei;on, 36-37. 

NEWS IN BRIEF on 37 and other pages. 

HOME CIRCLE —The .Mosquitoes of the San Joaquin 
(jioetry): Loss and Cain; Scrap-liook Paste; The Little 
Shoes Kid It; Wife Fattening in Africa, 38. Chaff; The 
Siamese Twins Outdone; Tramjjs, 39. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. Lettv's Pocket, 39 

GOOD HEALTH. -Notes on Consumiition; Dieting 
for IK.altb; liccf Tea, 39. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -Fruit Butter; F.avorite 
.Meat- Pic; Kic e .Sciup with Currv; .Macarmms; Yorkshire 
.Muffins, 39 

MISCELLANEOUS. -Proposed Railway to Yellow- 
stone Park; Export of Anieriran Implements, 35. 


Wanted -An Exjierienced Broom-Maker, Thos. McCowen, 
Porno, Potter Valley, Cal. ; Thirteenth Industrial Exhi- 
bition Meehanica' Institute, San PYancisco, Cal , 1S78, 
J. U. Culver, Secretary. 

The Week. 

As we rode up through Alameda county tliis 
Wednesday morning, we witnessed rather un- 
expected yet not unprecedented scenes. Heavy 
clouds rolled aloft while around the horizon 
sunlight was playing. The gentle rain was 
marking its light diagonals tlirough the air, 
ruled by a sliglit breeze from the northwest. 
As we rode along, knots of men were standing 
in the shelter of the buildings; evidently dis- 
cussing the danger of losing a day from the 
harvest machinery which stood waiting in the 
fields. The dust was still; the air was hlled 
with liquid perfumes like those which attend 
Eastern summer showers. As we rode farther 
northward toward the city the shower area was 
passed and all was again bright and arid, and 
the threshers were in full motion. The storm 
had vanished like a dream. 

This week's Press will be found to contain 
many things of interest. We announce the suc- 
cessful working of machines which enable the 
grain grower of the San .loaciuin to place his 
standing grain upon the Oakland wharf in 24 
hours. This seems almost sensational, but such 
is the result secured by labor-saving machinery. 
This account of mechanical trium])h stands be- 
side the record of California agriculture in 18.3"). 
Who that reads and marks the progress made 
in a generation can tell whither we are going 
and what will be the facts a generation hence? 
Hand labor is rapidly being eliminated from 
agriculture as well as from manufactures. What 
will be the result? It is a couclusion not to be 
jumped at, and we leave it for fuller thought. 
Certain it is, however, that the world does not 
go backward. Those who are left behind are 
forgotten. He will succeed who sets his sails 
BO that the breeze of progress will fill them and 
speed his bark. 

I scourge just appearing in his vineyard and pro- 
poses to light it, does not care to have his ill 
fortune proclaimed through the newspapers. 
Therefore we make this proposition to subscri- 
bers of the Press: If any one of you 
find marks of disease in your vines, and desire 
to know whether the phylloxera is present or 
not, send samples of the leaves and pieces of 
the thick roots and line roots or tendrils, ad- 
dressed to the "editor of the Kvral Press, 
care Dewey & Co., No. 2(yl Sansome St., S. F'. 
The root samples need not be large, and if roots 
a'ld leaves be securely tied (not pasted) in 
strong paper they can be sent by mail at one 
cent per ounce postage. Put your initials on 
the package and at the same time send your 
name and postoflice address in the letter, en- 
closing stamp for reply. For all subscribers to 
the Press, who comply with these instructions 
we will make microscopic examination of the 
specimens sent, and communicate the results by 
private letter, free of charge. We will do this for 
all sending samples unless we should find the ex- 
aminations were more numerous than we have 
leisure hours to spend upon them. The editor as 
a rule does not have time to attend to matters 
not intended for publication, but in this matter 
we are willing to "make time" in some way 
because of tlie importance of it. We are led to 
make this proposition to friends of the Kckal, 
because we believe that some of them are dwell- 
ing in darkness on the phylloxera question, 
through fear of the shade which the publication 
of finding phylloxera in their vines would cast 
upon their property. While this is going on 
the insect is multiplying. Therefore, we ofTer 
to tell our readers the facts, as the divorce law- 
yers say, "without publicity," hoping thus to 
win them to vigorous efforts to stamp out the 
growing evil. This ofter of free work for indi- 
vidual interests must be restricted to those who 
are subscribers to the Ktral, and to 
such it stands open until notice is given of its 

Cheese for the Army and the People. 

We alluded last week to the effort of Gov- 
ernor Seymour, of New York, to gain informa- 
tion through our foreign representatives con- 
cerning the chance for increasing our exports 
of dairy products. Another movement which 
the same public spirited gentleman is pressing 
upon the attention of the government is the 
advisability of introducing cheese as a part of 
the regular army rations. This proposition is 
of interest on this coast in several ways. First 
it will naturally increase the consumption of 
cheese directly, and therefore favor our cheese 
producers, because it is becoming more and 
more the practice of the government to buy 
food supplies for western soldiers in western 
markets instead of freighting provisions from 
eastern producing regions. This is as it should 
be, for tlie taxes which we pay for supporting 
the army should be returned to us as far as 
possible for supplies which we can produce, 
and not taken wholly from us to the benefit of 
distant producers. It has been shown that the 
United States can be furnished with salted beef 
as well here as to buy it in Chicago and ship it 
to this port, and the result is that contracts for 
army and native supplies are awarded to our 
provision packers. This movement could well 
be carried farther, and embrace our dried fruits 
and vegetables instead of eastern fruits, etc., 
which we believe are now used for tliis pur- 
pose. .So too, if cheese be introduced as an 
army ration we shall demand that there be no 
invidious distinction made in favor of cheese 
from any particular .State, but that all dairy 
regions shall have free opportunity to profit by 
the new demand. Commenting upon the propo- 
sition of Governor Seymour, the American 
Cultivator estimates that the army of the United 
.States would require of cheese as a ration, 
about 50,000 pounds per week, or at the rate of 
'.2,5-M),000 pounds annually. This would not be 
nmch cheese when one takes the amount into 
•omparisoB with th« aggregats productioB af 

the United States. It might be a question too 
whether even this amount would be called for 
if the Indians and Congress continue their re 
ductions of the army. However this may be 
the new ration would dispose of a certain 
amount of cheese directly and indirectly would 
influence consumption as we remark below. 

Putting good cheese upon the list of army 
supplies would call tlie attention of the people 
of this country to the fact that cheese is not 
fitted merely for a side dish as a luxury, but 
for men who reijuire a food which will give and 
sustain strength during severe physical exertion, 
there is nothing better than well made and well 
cured cheese. There is no reason why cheese 
should not be a part of the diet of the laboring 
man in this country as abroad. It is true that 
meat is cheaper here than it is in more thickly 
settled countries, and this is a fortunate thing 
in many ways, but there are cases in which it 
would be highly advantageous to count upon 
cheese more as a staple instead of a fancy arti 
cle of diet. It is concentrated and consequent 
ly easily transported. It is tenacious of its 
good qualities, if well made, and consequently 
is fitted to be trusted where trust in more per. 
ishable articles would be disastrous. It has 
been claimed that one pound of cheese contains 
as much nutritious matter as three pounds of 
good meat, and men who are undergoing active 
physical labor generally have full power to 
digest and assimulate its nutriment. If tliis 
fact were more generally known and acted upon 
it would appear that cheese is in truth a low 
priced fooil as compared with other supplies 
purchased by the laborer. 

Much of the future of dairying in this coun- 
try, as we remarked last week, depends upon 
increasing the consumptive demand. Kven if 
the consumption should be increased at the ex 
pense of a reduction of the consumption of 
meat it would be a gain to the farmer in the 
end, for as his lands increase in v.alue through 
the settling up of the country, he can maintain 
fertility and gain a better interest upon his in 
vestment by dairying than by meat production. 
We hope that cheese will be made an army food 
and a food for the people generally until its 
consumption is increased many fold. 

In his presentation of this subject, Mr. Sey 
mour makes a point concerning the retail selling 
of cheese which is of universal application and 
should V)e widely published. He says: "When 
I wrote letters to the heads of the army and of 
the State department, I had not merely in my 
mind the interests of the farmer, but the wants 
of our laborers. They would save not only 
cost, but, as it is a prepared food, and there is 
no loss in its use from fragments, they would 
save many times the inconvenience of making 
fires and cooking meats. If those who have 
charge of our charities in large cities would look 
into this, they will find that tliey can save much 
and help and benefit the poor by giving them 
this article, which will not subject them to the 
troubles and wastes of cooking. I am firm in 
the belief tliat it will be a great blessing to all 
classes, to the army, to lalmrers, to tjie poor 
and rich alike, if we revive the use of an arti 
cle which we find in all other countries is looked 
upon as one of the main reliances of the human 
race for strength and health. The difficulty in 
the way of this is the fact that the small 
amount used Viy each family incre.ases its cost. 
If you go to the shops of those who deal in pro- 
visions in this city, in the heart of the cheese 
making country, you will find that they charge 
a larger jirofit upon it than upon other things. 
If you ol>ject to this and say, why do you 
charge as much jirotit on two dollars' worth of 
cheese as you do on eight dollars' worth of flour? 
the fair answer is that there is a large and 
steady call for flour, but a small and uncertain 
one for cheese. This proves that the more you 
can get into use, the cheaper it will be. This 
brings us to the point, what must dairymen do 
to make a full demand ? I answer, make the 
low prices at which you now sell serve you, and 
turn them to account. By a wise course you 
can make them lay the foundations of future 
prosperity. You can make them in the end 
help you, and help the merchants, and help 
their customers. Now is the time to show the 
world how cheap it is in your hands, what are 
its merits and why it should be used. If you 
do this, the merchant finding a large call for it 
will sell at a less profit. That's a universal law 
in trade. The customer will pay less and you 
can get more. I hope much from tVie rejiort to 
be made by the army officers. But you must 
do much for yourselves. You must make dis- 
plays, and teach the public the great value of 
your industries, and teach oflicials its impor- 
tance to the prosperity of our country and the 
finances of our government, by exhibitions of 
your products which will attract public atten- 

Ketukner. — We announce to interested 
friends that Messrs. Uewey and Ewer, publish, 
ers and proprietors of the Press, have returned 
from their Yosemite excursion, and are at their 
posts of duty again. They are refreshed by the 
respite from business and by the outdoor life 
which they have led. They desire us to return 
thanks to all the friends who showed them 
kindness during their sojourn in the country. 
As the trip was one for recreation, we do not 
expect our travelers will do much, at present, 
in the way of descriptive articles, but the in- 
formation which they secured during the jour- 
ney will doubtless work to the advantage of 
the Piiua in many ways. 

The Centennial Harvester. 

Last year we gave the news about a combined 
machine brought out in the San Joaquin valley, 
which claimed to take the grain from the stem 
and deliver it to you in sacks, thus doing its own 
heading, threshing and sacking as it moved over 
the ground. The inventor was Mr. Kice, of 
Modesto. Last year's work in the field, though 
encouraging, was not perfect, and the machine 
was remanded to its inventor and builders to 
remedy mistakes, and let the public see what 
they could do after another harvest's tiial. A 
number of the machines wjre built during the 
winter by Messrs. Holt and Rice, of Stockton, 
and spoken for by several leading San Joaquin 
farmers. We made arrangements some time 
since that one of our most cautious and trust- 
worthy readers in the valley, Hon. C. J. Cressey, 
should watch the machine for us during the 
this season's harvest and advise us of its success 
or failure. Mr. Cressey ordered one of the ma- 
chines that he might test its working to his own 
satisfaction, and he now favors us with assur- 
ance that it is a success. 

The Centennial harvester is a combination of 
the ordinary header and separator. It is op- 
erated by four men and 16 horses, and is moved 
at the rate of from two and one-half to three 
miles per hour. Its sickle bar is 16.J feet long, 
and at the speed mentioned cuts and threshes 
two acres of grain for each mile the machine 
travels. Its average cutting is from .3.5 to 40 
acres per day. It cuts the grain the same as an 
ordinary header, and instead of being put into 
a header wagon and hauled to a stack, it is, 
before touching the ground, carried on an apron 
to the separator, where it is threshed, run into 
sacks, which are sewed and dropped on the 
ground as the harvester moves round the field. 
Thus, with but one handling, the grain is headed, 
threshed, sacked and ready to haul out of the 
field to the warehouse or depot. 

Mr. Cressey says he sets the harvester at work 
in his grain field in the morning, and at night 
he has from .3.') to 40 acres cut, threshed and 
put into cars, and at five o'clock the next morn- 
ing the ears are at Oakland wharf, with the 
wheat ready to be placed on shipboard. Cliarmed 
with this quick work Mr. Cressey recalls the 
fact that from six to ten years ago (and before 
building of the railroad), after spending weeks 
in cutting, stacking and threshing his grain, he 
had to haul it, with teams, 60 miles to Stockton 
for market, consuming five and six days each 
trip, and at an expense at which the freight by 
rail diminishes into insignificance. Now he can 
cut his grain one day and have it in market the 
next, and he can draw against it at once to pay 
his men and other expenses. This is quick 
work on a large scale, which we believe the 
world has never known before. 

The cost of these machines is S2,000. This 
appears to be a large amount to pay for a single 
implement to use on a farm, but Mr. Cressey 
reminds us that every farmer who seeds 160 or 
more acres of ground, needs at least four horses 
for this work. Thus by using the power they 
already have, six farmers, adjoining each other, 
could unite in purchasing a liarvester. Four 
of the six could, with their 16 horses, opeiate 
the machine, and the other two with a team, 
could haul the sacks of grain from the field. 
Thus by helping e.ich other they can cut, 
thresh, and haul from the field the wheat or 
barley from S-O to 40 acres each day, and thus 
turn their own resources to fullest account. 

The account given us by Mr. Cressey is 
supplemented by the results of a study made 
of the harvester in the field by the editor 
of the -S'((/» Joai/uin Valley Argus, The 
editor says: "We visited one of the large 
harvest fields of Mr. C. H. Hufl'man; and 
after following tlie harvester around for half 
an hour, we were fully satisfied that it was 
all that the builders and inventors claimed it 
to be; and also, that Mr. Hufl'man was master 
of the situation. The result of the test is, that 
with 16 good mules, four men, plenty of oil, 
and Mr. Iluffmaii as captain, pilot and engineer, 
40 acres of wheat can be cut, threshed, cleaned 
and sacked in one hour. Mr. Hull'man pro- 
nounces it a perfect success, and says that it 
does not lose one kernel more than the old 
header, an<l that ^10 will pay for all the im- 
provement necessary for its perfection. He is 
terribly in earnest, and so much pleased with 
the harvester that he has already purchased 
two of them. We are assured that Mr. Hufl'- 
man will save this year at least §9,000 in the 
harvesting of his crop, by reason of the use of 
the harvester instead of the common header 
and thresher." 

This testimony is unequivocally in favor of 
the machine. Such being the case, we see no 
reason why the California inventors should not 
receive the S;25,000 reward which the Austra- 
lian government ofl'ers for such a machine. 

It is fair to announce that the idea of cutting, 
threshing and sacking grain at the same time, is 
also being worked out by another inventor who 
will have his apparatus in the field in time for 
test this year. 'The method is somewhat differ- 
ent from the combined machine described 
above, and it will doubtless soon be made public. 

On File.— "Blackberries," G. R.; "Apri- 
cots," J. S.; "Have," or "Be,"E. B.; "Cheat," 
A. B.; "Household Economy," etc., N. ; "Irri- 
gating Canals of Tulare Co.," etc., J. W. A. 
W.; "The Great Western," W. H. S. 

July 20, 1878.1 



California Agriculture in 1835. 

Editors Press: — At a time when California has taken a 
foremost ))Iace among the wheat-producing: sections of 
the world, when permanent agriculture furnishes the 
chief income of our State, it may be interestin(f to those 
concerned in husbandry to see what was written about 
California 4;i years aj^o, when the sections that are now 
broad cultivated fields were unfenced plains, over which 
the herds of wild cattle roved at will. The extracts are 
from " Forbes's California," an exceedingly rare book, 
published in London in 1839 and written by Alexander 
Forbes in 1835.— Charlkh B. Tukrill, San Francisco. 
Forbes's Description. 

The lands of California are almost exclusively 
in the hands of the missionaries, and conse- 
quently its agricultural operations are chiefly 
carried on by them. This art or science is well 
known not to be even now in a very advanced 
state in Spain, and could not possibly have been 
well understood, even in its then state, by the 
monks who first settled in California in the last 
century. The actual state of agriculture in this 
country, which has not in any degree improved 
since its first introduction, may consequently 
easily be imagined to be most rude and back- 
ward. It is not thought necessary by those 
primitive farmers to study the use of fallows or 
green crops, to adopt the six or seven 
shift, or any other shift whatever ; nor to study 
the alternation of white and leguminous grains, 
or any such modes of improved husbandry ; 
these are refinements they never heard or 
dreamed of. Their only plan of renovating the 
fertility of an exhausted soil is to let it rest from 
culture, and to abandon it to its native weeds 
until it may again be thought capable of bear- 
ing crops of grain. From the superabundance 
of land in the country, a second cultivation of 
exhausted ground is not resorted to for many 
years and perhaps not at all. 

The grains chietiy cultivated are maize or 
Indian corn, wheat, bailey, and a kind of small 
bean called frijol ; this bean is in universal use 
all over Spanish America, and is a most pleasant 
food. They are cooked when in a ripe state, 
fried, with lard, and much esteemed by all ranks 
of people. 

Maize is the staple bread corn and is culti- 
vated in rows or drills. The cultivation of this 
grain is better managed than that of the others, 
and ia certainly superior to what might be ex- 
pected from such rude farmers and with such 
implements of liusbaiidry as they possess. 

The California Plow. 

The plow used, not only in California, but in all 
other parts of America inhabited by the Spanish 
race, is of great antiquity — and is also, I believe, 
still used in old Spain. It is composed of two 
principal pieces, the one which we shall call the 
main piece is formed out of a crooked branch 
of timber cut from the tree, of such a natural 
shape as to form the main piece, which consti- 
tutes of itself the sole and handle or stilt ; it 
has only one liaudle and no mold board or other 
contrivance for turning over the furrow, and is 
therefore only capable of making a simple rut 
equal on both sides ; a share is fitted to the 
point of the sole, but without any feather, and 
is the only iron in the whole construction of 
the plow. [A front view of this piece of iron is 
given in the little figure just in front of the 
plow. — Eds. Press.] The other piece is tlie 
beam, which is of great length, so as to reach 
the yoke of the oxen by which the plow is 
drawn ; this beam is also formed of a natural 
piece of wood, cut from a tree of the necessary 
dimensions, and has no dressing except the 
taking oil of ihe bark; it is inserted into the 
upper part of the main piece, and connected 
with it by a small upright piece of wood on 
which it slides, and is fixed by two wedges ; 
by withdrawing those wedges tiie beam is ele- 
vated or lowered, and by this means the plow 
is regulated as to depth of furrow, or what 
plowmen call, giving more or less earth. 

The long beam passes between the two oxen 
like the pole of a carriage or ox-wain, and no 
chain is required for drawing the plow; a pin 
is put through the point of the beam which 
passes before the yoke, and is fixed there by 
thongs of rawhide. The plowman goes at one 
side of the plow, holding the handle or stilt 
with his right hand, and managing the goad 
with his left. There are never more than two 
oxen used in these plows, and no driver is re- 
quired; the plowman managing the plow and 
directing the oxen himself. The manner of 
yoking the oxen is not as is done in the north 
of Europe, by putting the yoke on the shoul- 
ders and fixing it by a wooden collar or bow, 
round the neck : the yoke is placed on the top 
of the head close behind the horns, tied firmly 
to their roots and to the forehead by thongs, so 
that instead of drawing by the shoulders they 
draw by the roots of the horns and forehead. 
When oxen are so bound up they have no free- 
dom to move their heads; they go with their 
noses turned up, and seem to be under great 

The Spanish Carts. 

Their carts are drawn by o^xen yoked in the 
same manner; and in this case, they have to 
bear the weight of the load on the top of their 
heads, which is certainly the most disadvanta- 
geous mechanical point of the whole body: this 
renders their suffering more complete than in 
the plow, and it is truly distressing to see poor 
animals writhing under a load, which, on their 
backs or shoulders, they could easily support. 

The form of the ox-cart is as rude as that of 
the plow; it is composed of a l)ottom frame of a 
most clumsy construction, on which is raised a 
body of a few bars stuck upright, of a great 
bight, and connected at the top with other 
slight bars; this cart ii usually without lining, 


Names of Jurisdictions, Missions 
and Towns. 


PRESimo OK Sax Francisco 

Town of San Jose de Guadalupe. 
Mission of .San Francisco Solano. 

Do of San Riifael 

Do of San Francisco 

Do of Santa Clara 

Do of San Jose 

Do of Santa Cruz 


Presidio of Monterey 

Village of Branciforte 

Mission of San Juau Bantista. . . . 

Do of San Carlos 

of Na. Sa. de la Soledad . 

of San Antonio 

of San Miguel 

of San Luis Obispo 



PRESinio OF Santa Barbara 

Mission of La Purissima 

Do of Santa Ines 

Do of Santa Barbara 

Do of Buenaventura 

Do of San Fernando 

Town of La Re.vna de los Angelos. 


Presidio of San Dieqo 

Mission of San Gabriel 

Do of San Juan Capistrano. 

Do of San Luis Rey 

Do of San Diego 

Total Fanegas . 


Maize or 











25,144 10,926 





Frijol or| 
Small Barley. 

zos. Peas. 


















1,644 I 7,405 














but when used for carrying maize., it is lined 
with cane tied to the upright bars. The pole 
is of very large dimensions, and long enough to 
be fastened to the yoke in the same manner — as 
the beam of the plow. This also adds greatly 
to the distress of the poor oxen, because, the 
pole being tied fast to the yoke which rests on 
their heads, they feel every jerk and twist of 
the cart in the most sensible manner; and when 
the road is full of stones, sloughs, and all man- 
ner of obstructions, as it generally is in Amer- 
ica, it appears as if the animal s head would 
every moment be twisted ofT ! 

The wheels of the California ox-cart, as well 

plows at work together. With these plows it 
is not necessary to divide the Held into ridges 
or brakes. As they are equal on both sides 
they have only to begin at one side of the field 
and follow one another up and down, as many 
as can be employed together without inter- 
fering in turning round at the end, which they 
do, in succession, like ships tacking in a line of 
liattle, and so proceed down the same side as 
they came up. 

A harrow is totally unknown, and where 
wheat or barley is sown a bush is generally 
used to cover in the seed; but in some places 
instead of this, a long heavy log of wood is 


as those of the other Spanish Americas, are of a 
most singular construction. They have uo 
spokes, and are composed of only three pieces 
of timber. The middle piece is hewn out of a 
huge tree, of a sufficient size to form the nave 
and middle of the wheel all in one: this middle 
piece is made of a length equal to the diameter 
of the wheel, and rounded at the two ends to 
arcs of the circumference. The two other 
pieces are made of timber naturally bent and 
joined to the sides of the middle piece by keys. 
Manner of Plowing and Seeding. 
From the construction of the plow as already 
described, it will be perceived, that there being 
no mold-board or feathered shear, the'furrow 
cannot be cut up and turned over as with an Eng- 
lish plow, a rut only being made; consequently 

drawn over the field, something on the plan of 
a roller, but dragging without turning round, 
so as to carry a portion of the soil over the seed. 

In the cultivation of maize, when the field is 
sufficiently plowed or crossed, a rut or furrow 
is made by the plow at the distance intended 
for the drills, which is generally five or six feet. 
In this rut the seed is deposited by hand, the 
laborers carrying it in small baskets, out of 
which they take a handful and drop from three 
to five grains at once, which they slightly cover 
with their foot from the loose earth on the side 
of the rut; and so proceed, depositing a like num- 
ber of seeds at the distance of about three feet. 
In this state the seed is left to spring up to a 
moderate bight, and then the plows are again 
put to turn a furrow on each side of the rut 


the soil can only be broken by successively 
crossing and recrossing the field many times; 
and it is evident that however often crossed by 
a machine of this kind, the root weeds of any 
tenacity can never be cut, so that this mode of 
plowing must always be very imperfect; and 
although four or five crossings are often given, 
yet the soil is not sufficiently broken or the 
weeds eradicated 

The necessity of giving so many crossings is 
a great waste of labor; and as the plowing is 
deferred until the commencement of the rains, 
and very near the time of sowing, an immense 
number of plows must be employed; it is no un- 
common thing to see on the large maize estates 
in some parts of Mexico, upwards of a hundred 

toward the young plants, thus forming a drill. 
When the maize grows up to a considerable 
hight, it is commonly cleaned by hand, by pull- 
ing up the weeds; the middle between the 
drills is again turned up by the plow passing up 
and down, and the labor is then finished. 

The sowing of maize, as well .as of other grains 
in Upper California, commences in November, 
or as near the commencement of the rains as 
possible, and the harvest is in the months of 
July and August. 

The process of harvesting maize is as follows: 
The laborer carries with him a large and very 
deep basket of wick^i work, with which he 
proceeds along the drills and fills it with the 

heads of maize; when full he carries it 
back to the end of the field where an 
is stationed, and into which he empties uis 
basket; when the cart is full it proceeds to the 
place of deposit. In this way the stalks are all 
left; and when all their heads are gathered the 
cattle are then turned into the field to eat up 
the leaves and such part of the stalks as are 
eatable; these are found to be very nutritious; 
and the cattle get fat at this season more than 
on the best grass pastures. 

The next operation is to separate the maize 
from the head or husk. This is done by rubbing 
the full head against a few empty husks bound 
together, and is a very tedious operation. 

Wheat is sown "in broadcast" on land pre- 
pared as for maize. In the south of Cali- 
fornia, owing to the length of the dry season, 
it is cultivated by irrigation ; but in tlie north, 
and particularly round the bay of San Fran- 
cisco, * * * the rains and dews are sufficient 
and irrigation is unnecessary. * * * At pres- 
ent, from the unskillfulness of the culture and 
the inattention to procure good seed, neither 
the quantity nor quality is equal to what they 
ought to be. The cultivation of wheat is at 
present but very limited, although from the 
excellence of the soil and climate, and the 
abundance of land fit for the production of this 
grain, upper California ought to be, and one 
day must be, the granary of all South America. 

Barley is cultivated but in small quantities, 
no use being made of it except to feed horses. 
They make no malt liquor or spirits from this 
grain. Oats are not known in any part of 
Spanish America. All kinds of grain in Cali- 
fornia are threshed out at once, without stack- 
ing or housing any part of it with straw. 
California Crops of 1831. 

The table on this page gives the whole produce 
in grain of Upper California, in the year 1831, 
calculated according to the localities, and in 

Taking the Faiifi/a at two and one-half English 
bushels, the harvest of 1831 will be as follows : 


Wheat 7,8.57i 

Maize 3,414i 

Frijol .514 

Barley 2,314 

Beans, garvanzos and peas 338 

Total (juarters .- 14,438 

Now, reckoning the following as the average 
price of grain in California at the present time, 
viz., wheat and barley two dollars the fanega, 
or £1 58. the English quarter, and maize at one 
and one-half dollars, or €1 per quarter, the fol- 
lowing will be the value of the produce in 
English money. 

t. (f. (1. 

Wheat 9,822 17 6 

Maize 4,268 00 

Barley 2,314 00 

Peas and beans, reckoned as barley 825 00 

Total 17,266 17 6 

[Thus it appears from this early writer upon 
<'aliforiiia agriculture that the value of the 
agricultural productions of the State for 1831 
was about $80,285. Thirty-five years later, in 
1876, the value of the juheiU crop alone was 
$40, .3.39, 5,59. What an increase in a single 
generation? — Eds. Press.] 

The California Plow of To-day. 

For the purpose of showing contrast by illus- 
tration as Well as in words, we give in connec- 
tion with the engraving of the California plow 
of 1831, one of a California plow of 1878. AVe 
choose this one of the several powerful and 
beautiful gang plows now in use in this State, 
because it is a California invention and Califor- 
nian in manufacture. It is the latest pattern 
of gang plows made by the Sweepstake Plow 
Company of San Leandro. We doubt if our 
progress in agriculture during the last 47 years 
could be better shown at a glance than by the 
two plows shown upon this page. In the one 
case there is the old crooked stick which has 
come down from days of pagan darkness, and 
held its place in the soil until within the mem- 
ory of a man half-grown. Eight upon the 
track of this rude instrument comes the per- 
fected machine, by which tlie plowman as he 
rides along can regulate his deptli and width of 
cut, at the same time overturning the soil com- 
pletely in two or three furrows, if he chooses to 
add another plow to his frame. Thus has our 
agricultural achievement of to-day came into ex- 
istence almost in a point of time; as Minerva 
sprang full-formed from the brain of Jove. 

It is hardly necessary to speak at length of 
the excellences of the modern plow shown in the 
engraving, for they are generally known to our 
readers. And yet we cannot refrain from 
noting how the rude wedges in the old plow 
pole of 1831, by which a deep or shallow cut 
was secured, have grown into the handy levers 
by which not only depth of cut but width of 
furrow may be accurately altered by simple 
motions of the hand. How the little piece of 
iron which was a "point" indeed, and nothing 
more, has changed into an adjustable "slip- 
share." How, by its double levers the plows 
can be made to work at different depths, so that 
the hillside is conquered and becomes as the 
plain. How by fiexible or self-adjusting pole 
the plow is made to cut even depths on uneven 
surfaces, and the "hog- wallow" country no 
longer vexes the plowman. All these points of 
working in contrast with the rude and ineffi- 
cient performance of the plow of 1831 show not 
only the advancement of our agricultural arts, 
but how the mechanic in his shop has kept his 
art abreast of the needs of a progressive agri- 



[July 20, 1578. 


(A Preparator}' School to the Uuivcraity.) 

A Pirst-Class Boarding School, 

Established iii the interests of higher education, and in 
opposition to the cramming- s.'stem of small colleges and 
military academies of the State. The next 

Term Will Commence July Twenty- Fourth. 


July Twenty-Second and Twenty-Third. 

By request, instructions have been provided during 
the summer months for students preparing for the Au- 
gust examinations at the University. For catalogues or 
particulars, address 


Berkeley, Cal. 

Note.— We desire to call special attention to the or- 
ganization of our Grammar Department, separate from 
the Academical, and solicit the patronage of parents and 
guardians of small boys 


Choice imported Italian Queens, from best districts in 
Italy, 37 each. Testeil Italian Queen Bees, from se- 
lected mothers, ?3. llKK-KtEPEBS Text Book, just issued 
after being thoroughly rewritten and enlarged, now forms 
the only standard work on apiacultnre. price, \Vi\Kr cover, 
60 cents; muslin. SI. 25; old edition, 40 cents. Quinby, 
$1.W; "Langstroth oil the Honey Uee," Si Other works 
on apiacultnre and agriculture for sale at jjublishers' 
prices. Bee Keeperg' Slagazine, 81.50 per annum. 
King's New Bellows Smoker, for subduing bees, by mail, 
$1.25. Hives and other bee-keepers' bUl)plie3 for sale. 
For particulars, address 

W. A. PRYAL. Oakland, Cal. 



Comer of Front and M Streets, Sacramento. 


Fruit & Packing Boxes Made to Order, 


Communications Promptly Attended to. 
COOKE & SONS, Successors to Cookr & Gregory. 

DIVIDEND notice! 

The German Saving' and Loan Society.— For the half 
year ending .Tune 3li, 187S, the Board of Directors of the 
German Savings and Loan Society has tleclared a dividend 
on Term Deposits at the rate of eight (8) per cent ]>er an- 
num, and on ordinary deposits at the rule of six and two- 
thirds (tij) per cent per annum, free from Federal Taxes, 
and payable ou and after the 15th dav of .luly, 1878. By 
order. GEO. LETTE, Secretary. 


San Francisco Savings Union, 5S2 California street, cor- 
aer Webb. — For the half year ending with June 30, 1878, 
a dividend has been declared at the rate of eight (8) per 
cent per annum on term deposits and six and two-thirds 
(631 per cent per annum on ordinar\ deposits, free of, Fed- 
eral Tax, payable on and after Tuefdav, July 16, 1878. 

LOVELL W HITE, Cashier. 



Families wishing to spend the summer in the country 
will find this a cheerful home, and beautiful scenery of 
such endless variety as tempt to healthful exercise and 
recreation. We furnish good accommodations and an ex- 
cellent table. Good fishing and hunting t>ii the premises. 
Two trains from San Francisco, per Vallejo and Najia 
Valley Railroad, pass the Si-aiion daily. 

Address, E B SlII I'H, Itulhcrford", Napa County, Cal 

^^^ot M^/j^ Calvert's Carbolic 


I \ $2 Per Gallon. 

After dipping the sheep, is use- 
^ ful for preser\ing wet hides, de- 
H / stroying the vine pest, and for 

6 / wheat ilrcssings and disinfecting 

J y purposes, etc T. W. JACKSON, 
Y S. F., Sole A^ent for Pacific Coast 


248 J STREET, 


Special Attention to Pitting Eyes. 


(Between Bhoaovat axd WASHisoTO.-i.) 



McAFEE BROS., Real EaUte ivnd Loan Hrokcrs, 
202 Sansome Street, - San Francisco. 

Hand Pki.ntinu Press Wanted.— Parties having a sec. 
ond baud Washington or other hand printing press which 
they wish to dispose of, will please address this oHice 
stating price, size and conditiau. 

Grrangers' Bank of California, 

42 California Street, 


Authorized Capital - $2,500,000, 

In 25,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $405,009. 



Manaoer AND Cashier, 

Secrktary FRANK McMULLEN. 

The Bank was opened on the first of August, 1874, for 
the transaction of a general banking business. 

Having made arrangements with the Importers' and 
Traders' National Bank of N. Y., we are now pre- 
pared to buy and sell Exchange on the Atlantic States at 
the best market rales. 

Thomas Fli.vt, President. .1. W. Foard, Manager. 

Ferd. K. Ri le. Secretary. 


The California Farmers' Mutual 


209 Sansome Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

At a meeting of the Board of Director.^ of the California 
Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Association, held on the 
lOlh day of April, ls7S, a resolution was adopted appoint- 
ing J. W. Foard, Esq. , late Insurance Commissioner of the 
State, (iencral .Manager of the business of the Company. 

Fkrd. K. Rule, Sec'y. Thomas Fli.nt, President 

Office of Is'smANrB Commissioner, ) 
San Francisco, May 24th, 1S7S. f 

I, Jons C. M.KVNABD, hereby certify that I am Insurance 
Commisstoiiur of the Stale of California, and have super- 
vision of Insurance business in the State, and as such 
Coniniissioncr further certify that the Califurnia Farmers' 
Mutual Fire Insurance .\.'isociation of San Francisco is a 
corporation i)roperIy tirganiztd under the laws of this 
•State, and possesseil of a paid-up capital of two hundred 
tiiousaiid dol ar.-i (s200,000), equal to gold coin of the 
United States, is authorized to do business in the State. 

And 1 furiber ccnify that upon an examinatirm of the 
books and papers of the said Company, it is shown to be 
possessed of goijd, valid assets, amountiug to the sum of 
three hundred and twenty-six thousand six hundred and 
seventeen dollars and twenty cents (5:V20,fU7. 20); and has 
outstanding liabilities, as defined by the laws of the Stale, 
amounting to one hundred and twenty thousand three 
hundred and two dollars and thirty -seven cents (1^120,302 - 
37), e.\clusive of capital slock. 

As witness my baud and oHicial seal, the day and year 
first above written. 

[Seal.] (Signed.) J. C. MAYNARD, 

Insurance Commissoner. 

Presenting the above Certificate of the Insurance Com- 
missioner, the Company wuuld call the attention of the 
public to the fact thai in this, the fourth year of its exist- 
ence, and after pronqit payment of all its lossfs, amount- 
ing 111 the aggreg;ite to ilii'.IMS, it shows a clear surplus 
for the benetit of policy holders of $20(>,314. Sci over and 
above $115,721.32, set apart as required by the law, as a 
rc-in>uraiice reserve. 

Within the past half year radical changes having been 
made in the inanagcment of the Company's affairs, a con- 
tinuance of the public patronage hitherto accorded it, is 
solicited at 209 Sansome Street. 

Thomas Flint, President. J. W. Foard, Manager. 

Ferd. K. Ri'LB, Secretary. 


Do you want to buy, sell or exchange lands or other 
property in anv part of the U. S. or Canadas? Are you a 
Soldier or Sailor, in want of a Patent? Why not obtain 
more Bounty or Pension ? Do you want to locate Govern- 
ment or State Lands without settlement? Why not? 
When 1 have the wvll-known Apjiroved Soldiers Addi- 
tional Homesteads, under seal of the General Land Otfice, 
anil that can be located without settlement, upon an3' 
Government .*1. 2.1 or S2 .'>0 lands, subject to homest-ad. 
TheSioiix Ilalf-lireed Scrip, for location ujjon misurveyed 

Land Warrants and Scrip of all Kinds 
For cash, or part on time. Good title given or no pay. 
Have you any lands » ith an imperfect title to sell, or 
choice vacant lands you know of which coidd he located 
to advantage; or claims not lawfully held, which ne could 
contest. Let me hear from you in full, and I will do my 
best to inform you what is to your advantage. 

I will mail you a circular explaining all, and a copy of 
the new Pension Law. Address, (jiliiinly) 


General Land. Scrip and Warrant Broker, Siotx Citt, Ia. 


Hanford, Tulare County, - - California. 



And Pure Brown Leghorn Fowls. 

it3"Seotch Colley (Shepherd) Pups for sale. Importe<l 
parcutage on both sides. 



tamplilets free. Office, Yoke, Pa. 

' "^'•'.'C l;«H»ins are exceedingly popular. The best 
pCCTAIIpAMr of evervtliiiig on the tables. 
nL.OIHUnnnl, |),„,n.r furnished at the low 

NO. 218 SANSOME ST., S. F. ^",1ty 

CENTS, from flve^to eight P. M. Visitors to S. F. should 
tr)' tb« Palace. 


A thorough training school for the beat colleges. Also, 
offers a s^ilid, practical, business course, including book- 
keeping. Location unsurpassed; methods most approved; 
health jireserved and physical development secured by 
daily gymnastic and brief military drill. Preparatory de- 
departmcnt tor lads in successful operation. Attention 
invited to methods and terms. Address for particulars, 
D. P, SACKETT, A. M., Principal, 

Oakland, Cal. 

N. B.--The next school year will commence July 30th. 


24 rust Stiu-f't 

Near Kearny, 
San Fruncitco, Cal. 

The lar^'cst and best Business College in America. He 
teachers are competent and experienced. Its pupils are 
fn>m tlie bust class of youn^' men in the State. It makes 
Business Education a specialty; yet its instruction is not 
confined to Book-keeping and Arithmetic merely, but gives 
such broad culture as the times demand. Thorough in- 
struction is given in all the branches of an English educa- 
tion, and Mmicrn Languages are practically taught. The 
discijiline is excellent, and its system of Actual Business 
Practice is unsurpassed. 

Ladies* Departmkn't. — Ladies will be admitted for in- 
struction in all the Uepartments of the College. 

Tklkoraphic Dkpartmknt. — In this Department young 
men and young ladies are practically and thoroughly fit- 
ted for operators, both by sound and |>aper. 

For further particulars call at the College, 24 Post 
street, or address for circulars, E. P. HEALD, 

President Business Colleu'e. San Francisco, Cal. 


Washington, Alameda County, Callfomta. 

The Thirteenth semi annual term of this Institution 
will commence on 

Thursday, August 1st, 1878. 

For fidelity and ability in teachers, for purposes of a 
solid, practical edncaiion, and for bealthfuliiess and 
beauty of surroundings, this Institution will compare 
favorably with any on the Pacific ' oast. 

For catalogues and further information, address 

S. S. HARMON, Principal. 

Washington, Alameda Co., Cal. 


Lamb's Family Knitting Machine. 


That linits flat or tubular w..rk of all Pizes; 

NaiTOws and widens on hosiery or tubular work; 

Kutis a regular rit^ht-anglud heel, as b> hand; 

Narrows «.'tf th>.- ti»e; 

Knits a sock or stocking complete; 

Knits luitleuB or gluves of any fiize without seam; 

Forms genuine iCibhed or Seam, d work; 

Knits the Double. Flat, or webs; 

Knits ail elastic seitmed-stitcb Suapender with button-holes; 

Knits the Afghan stitch, Cardigan Jacket stitch, Fancy 
Ribbed stitch; the HuiHod Plaid stitch, the Nubia stitch, 
Shell stitcli. Unique stitch. Tidy stitch, etc. 

It is now the standard machine for manufacturing, and the 
only family knitter tliat tills the bill. Local agents wanted. 
Send for circulars to 

J. J. PFISTER & CO., General Agents. 

Manufacturers of knitted goods and dealer in woolen yarns. 
120 SUTIEK STKEKT, Kuom 40, San Francisco. 

West Berkeley Lumber Yard, 


(.Suc(.-esiK)rs to Z. B. Hey wood iS: Co.) 

Lumber, Shingles, Sash, Doors, Lime, 
Brick, and Builders' Hardware 

Sold at the Lowest San Francisco rates. Strict atten- 
tion given Country Orders. Boats loaded at 
wbarf for all i>oints on the San Joaquin 
and Sacramento rivers. Cars of the C. I'. R. R. 
Co. loaded at the yard. Orders received at 22 Califtirnia 
Street, San Francisco, or at the hardware store of G. W. 
Babcock, 9:<f> Broadway, Oakland. 

JOHN F. BYXBEE, Proprietor. 


Fasionable Cards, no two alike, with name, 10c 
postpiid. GEO. 1. R1C£D & CO., Nasiau, N. T. 

Lands for Sale and to Let. 

Land for Sale in Napa County. 

I am offerintr my lands in Fobs Valley, ten miles north 
of Napa City, for sale, as follows— to wit: 

One tract of 800 acres, including' my homestead. 220 
acres of which is choice valley land, the balance jpood 
prazinjf land, is well watered, has a large supply of wood, 
is well improved, has a comfortable dwelliofir of nine rooms, 
burn, Ki'iHa^O't sheds, etc. Also, a (food orchard and 
choice vegetable ffarden. Price, $15.00 per acre. 

Also, one tract of 1,020 acres, about 100 acres of which is 
valley, the balance jfood graz ng hills, is well watered and 
has enough wood on it to pay for it. Price, $5.00 per acre. 
Also, one tract of 300 acres, 40 acres tillable, a portion 
can be irrigated from springs, has a large amount of wood 
on it and 500 rods of stone fence. Is well suited to run- 
ning a small dairy, and raisiu^pigs and chickens, by which 
a good living can be made, price $2,000. The climate is 
choice, being shut in from the chilly coast winds, but has 
just breeze enough to make it pleasant, title perfect. The 
above lands lay contiguous. I w ill sell the whole or either 
one of the above tracts on easj f^rms— a liberal portion 
can remain at 10 per cent, per annum. If desired, will sell 
with the land, 1,500 head oi .Spanish Merino sheep. Come 
and see me, asl am determined to sell. Address the un- 
dersigned at Napa City. WILLIAM CLARKE. 


One thousand six hundred acres of deeded land, in 
T. P. 19, N. K. C W., in Colusa County, situated near 
Stoney Creek, on the county roail, from Lecsville to Elk 
Creek, comprising No. 1 farming land, and first-class 
grazing lands, all enclosed- Good house, seven rooms, 
well finished and painted. Two large barns, one wagon 
house, one wool house, large store house, wood house and 
other small buildings complete. Two good wells of pure 
cold water and a large bprmg of never-failing water run- 
ning about one mile through the ranch. The house is 
surrounded with shade and ornamental trees. All the 
farming utensils and about 50 tons of hay will be thrown 
in if purtha-sed soon. Any one wishing to engage in the 
dairy, or stock business of any kind, cannot find a better 
location in the State. Price. ^..50 per acre, one half down 
and the balance to suit purchaser. For further particu- 
lars, apply to James W. Oood, Colusa, or the undersigned. 

Elk Creek P O., Colusa County, Cal 


$4,000. -Two Hundred Acres of 
Land in Mendocino County. 

Thirty miles from the county seat, and 20 niile« from 
the Co,a8t. one of the healthie.nt localities in ihe State, 
especially for consiimpliveB. The pi ice is fenced off in 
!>i.\ different fields. Plenty of water and timber for all 
purpoties. A good orchard. Vegetahlea of all kinds 
grow well. A guod dwelling with 8i.\ rooms, ceiled and 
painted inside, gixid frame ham, granary, storehouse, 
smokehouse, etc. 

Also, Six Hundred acres of grazing land, well fenced, 
three miles from the above farm, plenty of water and 
timber for all purposes. Price. $2,260. 

For further particulars, address "B. T.," care of 
UEWEY & CO., Pacikic Kiral Press office, San Kran- 
cisoo, Cal. 



Employment Agents, 

Nos. 623 & 625 CLAY STREET. 
The Pioneer Office of San Francisco, Establiabed in 1857 

or A personal experience of over ten years, and an ex- 
tended aeiiuaintanee with the wants of employers and em- 
ployees of the Pacific Coast, give us facilities not easily 
acquired tor meeting Ihe requirements of the public in 
every deiiartment of labor. Special attention given to 
jirocnring/nrni help of every kind, both male and female; 
experienced men for farm machines; Mi,.iiJiE!«, Bitter 


and Gardk.vers. 

We take special pains also to furnish the best of SCAK- 
niNAViAN, Germak, French and Irish Domestics. Gen- 
tlemen connected with the office, and speaking these lan- 
guages, give us extended ac(|uaintance with this class of 
help, and enable us to furnish the best to be bad in 
San Francisco at rrri/ Wiorf nofic<^. All ordera promptly 
allended,/ree of cunt to the employer. Address by letter 
or in person, 

CHOSETT & CO , 623 and 625 Clay St. 

Commission Merchants, 


All Kinds of Country Produce. 
404 & 406 Davis Street, San Francisco. 
1^ Consignments Solicited "St 

C. & F. NAUMAN & CO. 
Wholesale Commission Merchants, 


Farm and Dairy Produce Sold on Commls- 
Bion. Butter, Egffs, Poultry and 
Game a Specialty. 
(Between Front and Davis.) 
Chas. Nauuan. Frakk Naumax. 


No 75 Warren Street, New York. 

Commission Merchants in Cal. Produce. 

Rkferekce.— Tradesmen's National Banic, N. Y. ; Ell 
wangrr i Barr)-, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reod; Sacra 
mcnto, Cal. ; A. Lusk & Co. , San Francisco, CaL 

AST person receiving this {>aper after giving an order to 
stop it, may know that such order has failed to reach us, 
or that the paper is continued inadvertently, and they are 
earnestly requested to send Wiitten notice direct to us. 
Wc aim to stop the paper promptly when it is ordered di»- 

July 20, 1878.1 


P0BCHA8ER8 OF Stock will find in this Directory the 
Names of some of the Most Reliable Breeders. 

Our Rates.— Six lines or less inserted in this Directory al 
50 cents a line per month, payable quarterly. 



thorousfhbred Jerseys. 

Downey City, Cal., breeders of 
Bulls and Bull calves for sale. 

A. MAILLIARD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal., 
breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 

PAGE BROTHERS, 302 Davis street, San Francisco, 
(or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.), Breed- 
ers of Short Honis and their Grades. 

R. G. SNEATH, San Bruno, Cal., breeder of Jersey 
cattle. Has Jersey bulls for sale— various ages — at $40 
to 8100. 


Li. U. SHIPPBE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Es- 
sex and Berkshire Swine. 

M. EYRE, Jr., Napa, Cal. Thoroughbred Southdown 
Sheep. Ranis and Ewes, 1 to 2 years old, $20 each; 
Lambs. $15 each. 

GEORGE Mccracken, San Jose, Cal. 
bluoded Cotswold Sheep for sale. 


WILLIAM NILBS, Los Angeles, Cal. Importers 
and Breeders of Thoroughbred Poultry. Eggs for 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS, San Jose, Cal. Premium 
Kowls, White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, 
Pekin Ducks, etc. 

C. P. STONE, San Francisco, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of High Clajs While Leghorn Fowls. 


ALFRED PARKER, Bellota, San Joaquin Co., Cal 
Importer, Breeder and Shipper of Pure Berkshire Swine 
Agent for Daiu's Cattle, Hog and Sheep Labels. 

A. J. TWOGOOD, Riverside. Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Pure Bred Poland-China Hogs. 

JOHM KIOBR, -acramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 


N. S. AMES, Napa City, Cal., Importer and Breeder 
of Italian yiiecn Bees. Queens Imported from Europe, 
810 ea ch. Tested Queens, $:}. 

J. D. ENAS, of Sunny side, Napa, Importer and 
Breeder of Italian Queen Bees from the best districts 
in Italy. Light or dark, tested homebred Queens, 
Nucleus, three frames if desired. Address as above. 



Cor. Sixteenth and Castro Streets, Oakland 

Constantly on hand and tor sale, choice specimens 
of the following varieties of Fowls; 

Dark snd Light Brahmas, BufI 
White and Partridge Co- 
chins, White & Brown 
Leghorns, Dork- 
ings, Polish Ham- 
burgs, Plymouth Rocks, 
Game and Sebright Ban- 
|tams. Bronze Turkeys, Pekin, 
Aylesbury and Rouen Ducks. 


No Inferior Fowls So!d at any Price. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed. 
^"For further information send stamp for Illustrated 
Circular, to 


P. O. Box, 659 San Francisco, Cal. 


116 Acres 
devoted to 



Unlimited Range. 

Healthy Stock. 

Largest Yards 
on the Coast. 

Brahmas, Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks, Bronze Tur- 
keys, Geese, Pekin Ducks, Guinea Pigs, Etc. 

SS'Sa/e arrival of Fowls and Eggs QuaranUed "Wk 

^"Pamphlet on the care of fowls- -hatching, feeding, 
diseases and their cure, etc., adapted kepeclally to tue 
Pacific Coast. Sent for 15 cents. 

Send stamp for price list. Address 

M. BYRE, Napa, Cal. 


that Mrs. C. H. Spraguc, at the California Poultry 
Yards, at Woodland, Yolo County, keeps the choicest lot 
and the greatest and best variety of Thoroughbred Fowls 
of any one west of the Missit-sippi river, and that one can 
get just what is wanted by sending orders to her. 

The Agents of this Paper and some of the 
Best and most careful Railroad men carry 


NONE ARE BETTER. Prices reasonable. Ask yonr 
Jeweler about them. Buy them of Geo. W. Finck, N. W. 
corner of Kearny and Geary Sts., S. F. 


Any printer having an Eighth or Quarter Medium 
Job Press for sale, will please address J. P., care of Dewe 
& Oo. , S. F. Stat« ooadition and lowest price. 

Good Land and Sure Crops. 

There has been steady and tolerably rapid advancement made 
in the growth of a majority of the towns in Colusa, Butte, Tehama 
and Shasta counties. Especially is this so in the agricultural dis- 
tricts where the land produces at least fair crops in all seasons — wet 
or dry — as does the land on the Reading Ranch. Those looking 
for homes in California where diversified farming will pay every 
year; where wood and water are plenty and easy to be obtained, 
and other desirable advantages are to be had, should address the 
proprietor of the Reading Ranch. 

Some 14,000 out of 26,000 acres of the grant remain for sale 
at comparatively low rates, in quantities to suit purchasers, on 
easy terms. Prices range from $5 to $30 per acre. The tract is 
between two and three miles wide, with the Northern Division of 
the C. P. R. R. passing centrally through its entire length. Send 
postage stamp for an illustrated paper containing information about 
Shasta County and these lands, to the proprietor of Reading 

Anderson, Shasta County, Cal. 


Incorporated Feb. 10th, 1875. Capital Stock, $1,000,000. 


DANIEL INMAN, (President). 
A. D. LOGAN, (VicK Presidbnt). 
AMOS ADAMS, (Secretary). 

W. W. GRAY. 

JOHN LEWELLING, (Treasurer). 



Grangers' Bmlding, - - - - 106 Davia Street, S. P. 

Con8ig:nraents of Grain, Wool, Dairy Products, Fruit, Vegetables, and other Produce solicited, and 
Advances made on the same. Orders for Grain and Wool Sacks, Produce, Merchandise, 
Farm Implements, Wagons, etc., solicited and promptly attended to. 

We do a Strictly Commission Business, and place our rates of Commission upon a fair legitimate basis the will 
enable the countrj' at large to transact business through us to their entire satisfaction. 

Consignments to be marked "Grangers' Business Association, San Francisco." Stencils for marking will be 
furnished free on application. 



Have located in Grass Valley, Wasco County, on the line of the Dalles Jlilitary Road, '20 miles from the Columbia 
River, between the Deschutes and John Daj' Rivers; 31 miles from the Dalles. 


Is located on a small stream, fed by numerous springs, in the center of a beautiful rolling prairie, 50 miles long by 
30 miles wide, of the very richest soil, heavily covered with fine bunch grass. 

A Plenty of Government Land for All. 

The climate is (unlike Western Oregon) dry and delightful, all kinds of Grain, Fruit and Vegetables, etc., grow 
perfection. Average wheat crop — 46 bushels per acre. 

640 Acres Secured for a Town-site and Called Lockville. 


Hotels, Stores and a large number of Houses already in course of construction. Immigrants will do well to look 
at this location before going further north. 

A Stage will soon leave the Dalles, (from the Pioneer Hotel,) daily for Lockville. 

DR. C. R. ROLLINS, Pres. J. B. DOW, Treas. G. M. LOCKE, Sec'y. 



Coffee and Spices Have no Superior. 

Twenty-Five Years Experience 


Ask Your Grocer for Marden's Coffee and Spices. 

Stock Notices. 


Guaranteed of pure blood and free from scab. Purchas. 
ers are invited to examine. About 10 minutes* walk from 
the Railroad, adjoining State University. 

Berkeley, Alameda County, Cal. 


Breeder and Impoiicr ui ilie "(Jrown Prince," 
"Sambo," and ''Bob Lee" families of Berkshires. 
Also, pure Suffolk hogs and pigs. Short Horn and 
Jersey, or Alderney cattle. Merino and Cotswold 
sheep. Prices always reasonable. All animals sold are 
guaranteed as represciucd and pedigreed. 
PETER SAXE, Rusa House, San Francisco, 
and Los Angeles City, Cal. 


CUCRV n&Y Is warranted usii g JILZ 
DRILLS. Took the first premium at the Great Exposi- 
tion. They bore any diameter and depth; 100 feet a day, 
through earth, sand or rnck. Pictorial auger book free. 
Address Col. PETER SAXE, Los Angeles, tal.. Agent for 
Pacific States. 

''Latimer Farm" Bei ksliires. 

ALFRED, PARKER, Pellota, Cal. 


Choice pigs of all ages and of the best quality and 
breeding constantly on hand. Have sold a great many 
pigs, (10 within a few days, including a trio to the State 
Insane Asylum at Stockton), and have yet to receive 
one word of dissatiafactioii. Correspondence solicited 
and cheerfully answered. Address 


San Joaquin County, Cal. 


200 Extra Rams 

For sale. Yearlings and two-year- 
olds. In size, quality and condition 
unsurpassed. Also, 100 ewes at 
prices to suit the limes. The nu- 
cleus of this flock was from a pur- 
chase made from Severance & 
Peet in 1873. My ranch is at Hay«aids, Alameda county, 
and may be reached by rail from San Francisco, seven 
times daily. Parties desiring choice sheep should see 
thid flock before purchasing elsewhere. 



I have a few fine Lancastershire pigs for sale, now 
about four weeks' old. Bred from choicCj imported 
stock. Addre 

Eighth Street, near Broadway, Oakland 


At Gray's No. X05 Kearny Street, 

On receipt of the amount in postage stamps, any of the 
following pieces will be mailed, post-paid: 

BABY MINE, (Song) Smith, 35 ctS' 

BABY MINE, (Schottische) Stuckenholz, 35 eta. 

EMMETT'S LULLABY, (Piano Solo). . . .Far West, 36 cts. 

LITTLE TORMENT, (Schottische) Far West, 35 cts. 

THE SNOW LIES WHITE, (Song) Harriott, 35 cts. 

ALCANTARA, (Galop) Chauncey, 75 cts. 

GOLDEN OPUIR, (Galop) Yanke, 50 cts 

Send for complete Catalogue of Music and Descriptive 
list of the 

IS" State where you saw this advertisement 




[July 20, 1578. 

The Resources and History of Shasta 
County.— No. 5. 

One Million Acres of Government Land 

We have been accustomed to believe tliat all 
the available government land was gobbled up 
by speculators. Hut at a moderate estimate the 
available and arable government lands of Shasta 
county embrace more than a million acres. 
Most of this will have to be cleared, but abun- 
dant fuel is a valuable item. 

One of the advantages which the small farmer 
in Shasta has over his fellow-farmers elsewhere, 
is in the fact that he has the monopoly of a very 
Lucrative Home Market. 

The mines and lumber mills are constant con 
Burners of all he can produce in the way of 
grain, hay, beef, or pork. In the fall, .^gents 
pass through the mountains to buy up all the 
available hogs at al>out six to seven cents live 
weight. The surplus fruit is sent to the mines; 
the grapes are dried and go to the Modoc region; 
vegetables are sold at the door. A better bal- 
anced, more self-productive community does not 
exist upon the face of the earth. 

A Healthy Population. 

The 7,000 people in .Shasta county are 
healthy, happy and in the midst of abundance, 
with plenty of room for more settlers, and all 
this because their industries are diversified, and 
so the nimble dollar is kept moving, and each 
one gets a chance to feel it. Your correspond- 
ent has spent upwards of a year in .Shasta 
county, and has yet to hear of any case of des- 
titution, or any time when an honest man could 
not find work. This is partly because there are 
very few Chinamen in the county, some of the 
miners refusing to allow them to enter, and 
most of the people preferring to hire white men. 
The population is mainly American, sinewy 
and honest, good neighbors and warm friends. 

As a summer resort few parts of the .State 
can surpass Shasta in the month of .June. The 
high .Sierras deserve a month's camping in; a 
journey north and a climb of Mt. Sliasta; a visit 
to the mines or sulphur springs — all these are 
worth doing. The botanist will find nuich that 
is new, and all his older favorites, Afistohrliia.f, 
Dicriiti-dn, A(iiiilfi/ias, Lil/iuym, in great variety, 
the noblest of conifers. The geologist will find 
lava mounds and volcanic rocks, beds of old 
lakes, ravines hewn by ice-chisels, fossils, pet- 
rifactions, agates, carnelians, crystals of every 
description — possibly new ledges of mineral. 
The artist can paint the bluest of rivers, the 
knottiest of trees, the fairest of blooming slopes, 
the purest battlements of snow. 

To condense, in brief statements. 

The Present Condition 
Of .Shasta county: The placer mines still pay 
something in several localities. Hydraulic min- 
ing is increasing. Quartz ledges are being 
found almost daily and capital is taking ludd. 
Other minerals abound, alth<iugh little atten- 
tion has been given them. Stone of fine (juality 
is abundant. 

The farmers, as a class, live easily. Most of 
the farming is done in an easy sort of a way. 
The soil is rich and the rainfall is so great that 
crops have never yet failed. The home market 
is good, and prices are high. Fruit trees and 
nut trees succeed everywhere. Oranges are 
now growing in the Reading grant, and have set 
fruit. Farming interests are looking up all 
over the county. 

The climate is all that could be desired, and 
differs but 1° in mean temperature from that of 
liivermore, Alameda county. A little snow 
falls in the valley during exceptional years, but 
the fruit crop is rarely injured. 


New roads are being cut through the moun- 
tains in every direction. The Oregon travel 
this year has been greater than ever before. A 
goodly number of settlers remain in Shasta, and 
a general feeling of prosperity pervades affairs. 
There is room for more small farmers, for more 
cattle, sheep and hog raisers, for more lumber 
men, and for more miners with capital. There 
is room for any man with two strong hands and 
a few dollars to live on whilst he looks around. 
There is no call for Chinamen, gamblers, bum- 
mers, or political carpet-baggers. 

SiKRRA Flume and Lumbek Company. — We 
regret to announce that this large lumbering 
association has been compelled to suspend oper- 
ations and assign its property. A dispatch 
from Chico says: The Company publish a card 
this afternoon in the Jlfcoril, announcing that 
all the workingmen engaged by them wlio have 
preferred cl.iims to the amount of .§100 for ser- 
vices, will be paid promptly by the as- 
signees. Many of the hands have sold their 
claims already for GO or 70 cents on the dollar. 
The general opinion is gaining ground that tlie 
mills will not be started up ag.ain this season, 
but there are several million feet of lumber al- 
ready cut wliich will be liumed down to the 
dumps at Chico and Red Bluff before the close 
of the lumber season. 

Portable BoARDiNG-HorsES. — A correspond- 
ent writing from Modesto to the .Stockton Jti- 
tlfffmlent says: Some threshing men have in- 
augurated a plan of providing meals for the 
hands, which is greatly in favor of the fcarmers, 
especially of the farmers' wives. It consists of 
a boarding tent, or portable restaurant, fur- 
nished by the proprietor of the machine. The 
cost of threshing the grain, including the board 
of the men, is eight cents per bushel. 

Sudden Death of Mr. Friedlander. 

Isaac Friedlander, whose name is famous 
through his grain dealings, died suddenly from 
heart disease at his home in this city on Thurs- 
day morning, July 11th. The Alia gives the 
following sketch of his life: Mr. Friedlander 
was born of Jewish parents, in Oldenburg, 
( iermany, in April, 1S25, which would make 
him only 54 years at the time of his death. He 
came to this country when but a boy of 12 years 
of age, lauding at New York, where he spent 
several years, and received the first lesst)ns in 
his mercantile education. From New York he 
went South, and while living in Charleston, .S. 
C, he was married to a Miss Valentine, of 
that city. He took passage for San Francisco 
in the iSoiith Carolina, arriving here in July, 
1849. He went at once to the gold fields, 
where he remained, however, only a few 
months, returning to .San Francisco in the win- 
ter of the same year. He at once engaged in 
mercantile i)ursuits. The first tiling that called 
attention to his powers of combination in busi 
ness matters was the celebrated corner in Hour, 
in which he was the prime mover, and which 
netted a large sura to those engaged in the 
oper.ation. With his share of the profits, Mr. 
Friedlander engaged in the importation of grain 
from Oregon, and became one of the owners of 
the Eureka Flour Mill, the largest establish- 
ment of the kind on this coast. His career was 
one of uninterrupted piosperity until 18.">(>, 
when a comljination of Hour de;ilers forced him 
to the wall, and he was obliged to suspend 
After a thorough examination of his afl'airs, his 
creditors gave him a discharge from his indebt 
edness, and he at once resumed business. In 
the meantime the country had been opened up, 
and it was necessary to find an outlet for the 
immense crops of grain. Mr. Friedlander saw 
an opportunity to open up a direct trade with 
Fngland, and in 18i)8 the first vessel was loaded 
and despatched. He soon established such 
business connections abroad that it seemed 
almost hopeless for anyone to attempt to com 
pete with him, and gradually he absorbed 
almost the entire export business in grain. His 
name became as familiar on the exchanges of 
Europe and the Eastern .States as it was in this 
own city, until he became known as "The Grain 
King." • 

Mr. Friedlander's unbounded f.aith in the ag- 
ricultural resources of the .State and the wealth 
to be derived from the soil led him to invest 
largely in lands in the San .lo.aquin valley 
Large sums of money were spent in fencing 
irrigating and improving these lands, but just 
when they were expected to bring in a return, 
the dry season of 187(5-77 came on, and Mr. 
Friedlander was obliged to elt'ect a compromise 
with his creditors. Everything he had was 
given up for their benefit, and he resumed busi- 
ness in a few weeks after his suspension, but 
bought from that time principally on orders 
from English correspondents. 

Fatal Heat in the Western States. 

This (Wednesday) morning's dispatches bring 
accounts of fatal heat throughout the prairie 
.States, the greatest destruction of human life 
being in St. Louis. The following are notes 
concerning the severe visitation. The total 
number of deaths in St. Louis on Wednesday 
from heat were 54. Even children are falling 
victims, and the mortality among infants is 
greater than ever known, except in time of 

Twenty-four bodies which had been at the 
Morgue Monday without being claimed were 
buried in ])otter's field late last night. They 
were terribly swollen and discolored, and pre- 
sented a most horrible sight. The whole num- 
ber of burial permits issued Tuesday was 4'J, 
of which 28 were persons whoso death was 
caused by heat. This is but a trifle over one- 
half of the death rate of Monday. The heat 
Tuesday afternoon was more moderate, and at 
night there was a fine breeze which cooled the 
atmosphere considerably. 

At Chicago on Tuesday the thermometer 
reai:hed 97 and there were some 25 cases, more 
or leas severe, of sunstroke. Six proved fatal. 
Among the deaths are Rev. E. W. Clark, for- 
merly a Congregational missionary to the Sand- 
wich islands, who was prostrated by the heat 
on Sunday, but lived until Tuesday. He was 
"9 years old, and one of the best known mis- 
sionaries in the country. 

Reports from points throughout the north- 
west give accounts of terrible eftects of the 
heat. In DeWitt, Iowa, Charles Heicker and 
H. Rollti', Germans, died from the effects of 
the heat. At G.alesburg, Illinois, several deaths 
and many cases of sunstroke are reported. At 
Des Moines, Capt. Jos. May, of Rock Island, 
well known in political circles there and at 
Washington, lies in a critical condition from 
the effects of sunstroke. At Rloomington, 
Michael O'Neil, MoUie Hogan, Jesse Passwater 
and an unknown laborer, were struck by the 
sun and died soon after. .Some 20 other cases, 
none fatal, are re[)orted, and horses sufi'ered 
terribly. Tliese are but isolated cases, taken 
at random, for nearly every town in the north- 
west has one or more cases to report. The 
thermometer has ranged generally from 90° to 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the Patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Prrss American and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are worthy 
of mention: 

AuT<)M.\Tic Wkiohino Devicb and Register. 
— J. C. Hunt, Sheridan, Placer county, Cal. 
The improvements are in devices for auto- 
matically weighing and registering grain and 
other substances. They consist in a rotating, 
self-discharging weighing scale, having a verti- 
cal movement, by which its position is changed 
when full or empty, and this alternate change of 
position is made the means of operating a gate 
or valve, to shut ofl' and admit the material to 
the scale and also operate the registering de- 
vice. The operation of continued weighing, 
discharging and recording will continue as long 
as material is supplied to the machine. 

Sidkwalk H.whway.— Peter H. Jackson, 
.S. F. This invention relates to certain im- 
provements in that class of doors which are 
employed to close openings in sidewalks and 
other places where it is desired to have a door 
which shall be perfectly water-tight when 
closed and also level and flush, without any 
external projection, and it consists in a novel 
construction of hinges and also in the employ- 
ment, in combination with the doors and frame, 
of a series of grooves or gutters, so placed as to 
catch any water which may enter through the 
joints around the outside or meeting edges and 
convey it off without allowing it to fall into the 
area or space below. It also consists in com- 
bining with the doors and their meeting edges 
of a combined bearing bar and gutter, said gut- 
ter being connected with those at the sides, so 
as to convey off all the water which may come 
in from any direction. 

The Fair Season. 

The following is a partial list of the coming 
fairs. We shall be pleased to add to it if read- 
ers will send us the dates and locations of their 
respective exhibitions: 

San Franciacri .Mechanics'^ Institute, San Francisco, 
AUj^ust l.'itti to Septuniher 14th. 

California State Agricultural Society, September 16th 
to 2l8t, inclusive. 

Orejfon State fair, at Salem, October 8tli to 18th, in- 

Nevada State Agricultural, Mining: and Mechanical 
fair, at Reno, October 7th to 12th, inclusive. 

Montana Ajfricultural, Mincnil and Mechanical fair, 
at IlcleJia, September 2:!d to 29th, inclusive. 

Sonoma anil Marin district fair, at I'etaluma, September 
23d to 28tb, inclusive. 

San ,)oaquin valley district fair, at Stockton, September 
24th to 28th, jnclusi\ e. 

Northern district fair, at Marysville, September 23d to 
2sth, inclusive. 

Colden (late district fair, at Oakland, September 0th to 
IGth, inclusive. 

Napa and Solano district fair, at Vallejo, September 3(1. 

Monterey county district fair, at Salinas City, October 
Ifith to lllth inclusive. 

Siskiyou county fair, at Yrcka, October 2d to 5th, in- 

Kl Dorado county fair, at Placerville, September 13th 
to l.Sth, inclusive. 

Santa Clara valley fair, at San tJose, September 30th to 
October ;>ih, inclusive. 

Stanislnns County Stock Growers Fair, at Modesto, 
October yth to lull inclusive. 

Southern California Horticultural Fair, at Los Angeles, 
October 14tli to October 19th, inclusive. 

.Southern California Agriculrural Society's Fair, at Los 
Anijeles, October 14th to October lOth, inclusive. 

TiioROUGHBRKD SiiKKl". — Those desiring to 
improve their Hocks will do well to examine 
the .Spanish Merinos advertised in the Pres.s, 
by Mr. E. W. Woolsey, of Berkeley. We lately 
examined the flock, and found the animals 
clean, healthy and showing their good blood at 
all points. 

Our Position. — The Pacific Rckal Press 
has commenced its sixteenth volume. It is the 
leading agricultural journal of the Pacific coast. 
No farmer can well afford to be without such a 
journal, and this one is always full of interest- 
ing matter to farmers. — ftio Vista Enlerprite. 

Note. —Our trade review and quotations are prepared 
on Wednesday of each week (our publication day), and are 
not intended to represent the state of the market on Sat- 
urday, the date which the paper bears. 

■Woodward's Gardens were never more attract- 
ive thaii at present. iScsides three lions already men- 
tioned, six monster living allitrators, several iguanas and 
a boa-constrictor have just been added. New stars are 
constantly enffaj^ed for the Pavilion exercises. Rates of 
a<lmission as usual. 

Popi'LAR Music. — Make your homes merry and popular 
with choice music from Gray's Music Store, S. F. We 
can reconuncnd this larjre, first-class, standard and i>oi)U 
lar establishment. Examine his advertisement, appear- 
Uiji from time to time in this paper. Mr. Gray deals in 
nstruments |K)sse8sing the very hiirhest and most penna- 
nent reputation. Call at 10.5 Kearny Street. The Ri ral 
Press can offer to introduce you there. 

Settlers and others wishing jjood farming lands for sure 
crops, are referred to Mr. Edward Frisbie, of Anderson, 
Shasta County, Cal., who has some 16,000 acres for sale in 
the I'ppcr Sacramento Valley. His advertisement ap- 
pears from time to time in this paper. 

A Great Comi'Limext.- A Grand Piano from Steinway 
& Sons, New York, which we paw and heard in Dr. Franz 
Liszfs Music Room, we must acknowledge as the grandest 
creation that modern science, in Piano building, has j>ro- 
duced. t'ruiii the Sen Leipxig Miimk Zeitung. 

Ayer .S: Son's Ma.M'al contains more information of 
value to advertisers than any other publication. Sent 
free. Address N. W. Ayer £: Son, Advertising Agents, 
Ttmcn building, Philadelphia. 

Mr. W. J. WooDLEy, who took out a Canadian Patent 
some four years ago, ia requested to call at the 
and Scientific Pbbss Patent Aoimct Office. Uusiness 
of importance. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, July 17th, 1878. 

The chief note of the week is found in the 
Wheat trade. Just after the Press was printed 
last week there was an advance both here and 
abroad, and considerable excitement was rife in 
all Wheat markets. Although there has been 
some little reaction from this advance, the feel- 
ing among holders is very strong and prices are 
now quotable at a little advance upon this day 
last week. The reduced yield in this State 
through the rust in some parts and the 
shrtinken grain which is ccmiing in, go to raise 
the price on all good shipping lots. It is re- 
ported also that harvest prospects in some other 
producing counties are not as good as they were 
a few weeks ago. 

Range of Cable Prices of Wheat. 

The course of the Liverpool quotation for 
Wheat to the Produce Exchange during the 
days of last week has been as recorded in the 
following table: 

Cal. Averaos. 


Thursday 9s lld@103 2d lOg SdtglOs 8d 

Friday 9s lldelOs 4d lOs 4dC*10« 8d 

Saturday lOs —(ulOe 4d 10s 4d(al08 8d 

Monday 10s — falOs 4d 10s 4d@109 9d 

Tuesday lOg — (jilOs 8d lOs 8d@108 8d 

Wediies <lay lOs -mO» 8d lOs 8d@108 8d 

To-day's cable quotations to the Produce 

Exchange compare with same date in former 
years as follows: 

Avera^fe. Club. 

1876 98 9d@108 Id lOs —0108 6d 

1877 12s 2d@12s M 12s Sd@138 — 

1878 lUs — @108 3d 108 3d@10s 8d 

The Foreljm Review. 
London, July 16th. — The Mark Lane Ex- 
pre/is, says: \Vheat now looks strong and 
healthy. Wheat ears in certain districts are 
complained of as puny, compared with the lux- 
urious growth of the rest of the plant, and not 
well filled with grain. Although the dry at- 
mosphere and sunshine have done wonders in 
improving the prospects of the crops, it should 
not cause surprise if the yield on threshing re- 
veals a deficiency, as the excessive moisture 
from which the plant suffered will probably 
form some disease behind it. In .Scotland the 
weather has been seasonable. The Cereal crop 
is maturing satisfactorily. Barley does not 
seem to have sustained so much injury as in 
England. Oats are sadly thinned by the grub. 
.Similar advices have been received from Ireland, 
but it is disheartening to find that disease has 
broken out in Potatoes, to which the earlier 
sorts have already succumbed. Should the 
weather prove wet, there is little doubt that 
the main bulk of tubers will be irretrievably 

There are unmistakable signs of improvement 
in Wheat, and although the continuance of 
heavy arrivals into London and Liverpool pre- 
vented prices from advancing to any quotable 
extent, a healthy tone and great steadiness were 
maintained by the freedom with which millers 
have operated, and higher offers and diminished 
shipments from the United States to Russia. 
With moderate arrivals at ports of call, the 
floating cargo trade for Wheat was very firm for 
forward shipment. There was an active de- 
mand for United Kingdom and Continent di- 

Freierhts and Charters. 

The freight market continues inactive. The 
nominal rate for Wheat to Liverpool is £2 58 to 
£2 7s, the outside for iron ships. The bark 
Lesmona, 1,100 tons, was taken for Wheat to 
Cork prior to arrival at £3; the ship Ranee, 
1,204 tons, and the Abbey Town, are also 
under home charters for Grain. There are now 
in port 4!(,787 tons shipping engaged for Wheat, 
9,977 for Oeneral Merchandise, and 50,9.33 tons 
disengaged. The list of vessels known to be 
on the way amounts to 237, .374 tons. 
Unfavorable Turn In the Western Crops. 

MiLWAVKEE, July 16th. — A special to the 
Winfonsin, from La Crosse, Wisconsin, says: 
Dispatches received here to-day and yesterday 
from various points along the line of the 
.Southern Minnesota railroad show that the 
severe rain and wind storms, with the intense 
heat of the past week, have reduced the pros- 
pects of Wheat and Oat crops about one-third 
by rust, lodging and shrinkage. licports from 
Heuston, Filmore, Mower, Faribault, Freeborn 
and Blue Earth counties are unfavorable. If 
the showers and heat continue, much of the 
Wheat will be of inferior ((uality. The points 
heard from cover a distance of 200 miles west 
of the Mississippi. 

Condition of Crops in Oregon. 

Portland, July 11th. — During the month of 
June the weather was unusually warm and dry. 
There was really no rain worth mention, thotgh 
the average for that month usually exceeds two 
and one-half inches. In consequence of the 
heat and drouth, late-sown grain in many local- 
ities was checked in its growth, and looked very 
unpromising. .So far in July the days have 
mostly been cloudy and cool. In many places 
considerable rain has fallen. Weeks ago this 
weather would have been more seasonable. It 
would have done the growing crops far more 

July 20, 1878.] 




good then than it can possibly do now. In- 
formation has been received from several places 
that a great improvement in crop prospect is 
noticeable during the past ten days. The cool 
weather gives grain a chance to recover, and 
there will be a fair yield where a total failure 
was feared. In Umpqua valley the rain on the 
third and fourth was more general than in 
Willamette, and the prospects are good for a 
full average yield. Some of the great wheat- 
growing counties of Willamette valley will not 
have the usual \crop this year, and portions of 
Marion and Polk fare similarly. In almost 
every county of the valley tliere are localities 
where the yield will be cut down. From Walla 
Walla and the wheat region of the Upper Col- 
umbia there probably will be as large a surplus 
for shipment as last year, notwithstanding the 
fact that in some places there is a partial or 
total failure. 

Eastern Grain Markets. 
New Yokk, July 13th. — The rise in bread- 
stufiFs last week has not been sustained, the 
unexampled magnitude of the wheat harvest 
militating against all artificial effects to sustain 
prices above the level of foreign markets. 
Western speculators, having a good thing out 
of June contracts, are now disposed to let the 
market take its course. In the grain market 
the prices of Wheat have fluctuated materially, 
the demand for export having been very limited. 
The closing rate was $1.10(oi$l.ll for No. 1 
Milwaukee Spring; $1.07 for No. 2 do, and 
f 1.05i@!$1.06 for No. 2 Chicago. 

Chicaoo, July 1.3th. — During the past week 
the grain markets have been fairly active, with 
occasional excitement, and prices have been 
higher. Wheat opened weak and lower, but 
steadily advanced in price until to-day, when 
rates dropped again under unexpected heavy 
receipts. Sales for Au£;ust were at SOi'fffiSS^c. 
Corn was higher throughout, but as a rule fol- 
lowed the fluctuations of Wheat. Sales of 
August at 37i(«j39ic. Oats were exceptionally 
strong, and did not give way to the ordinary 
pressure to sell. During the fall in prices to day 
Oats went up, instead of declining in sympathy 
with Wheat and Corn. Sales of August at 
224@22|c. Rye took a turn upward, cash sell- 
ing from 48c to 50c. Barley was also Hrm at 
48@48Jc. Provisions were unsettled, but on 
the whole much stronger than for the preceding 
week. The best of prices were paid in the 
middle of the week. Sales of August, Pork at 
$9. 15fef9.57i and Lard, .|6.80^;|7.21. Closing 
cash prices are: Wheat, 85c ; Corn, 37^(5)37§c ; 
Oats, 26c ; Rye, 49fe50c ; Barley, 48c Pork, 
19.20; Lard, $6.82^. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 
New York, July ISth.^The Wool market 
has exhibited a greater degree of animation, 
but taken as a whole no positive improvement 
in condition can be noted. The supply of Cali- 
fornia Spring and Texas is quite large, and for 
the former sales have reached quite a respect- 
able figure, due by increased inquiry from blan- 
ket, flannel and felt goods manufacturers. Cali- 
fornia Spring is still held with considerable 
confidence, the firm and slightly higher rates 
for fleeces exerting a favorable influence. 
Fleeces are arriving (^uite freely, but dealers are 
less anxious than sellers, owing to the uncer- 
tain condition of affairs in the country. Here 
new X and above Ohio has realized 36(g'38c, 
and Pennsylvania 35c; and the opinion gains 
ground that but little variation from these rates 
need be looked for during the remainder of the 
season. In the country there is now little or 
no excitement; but the stock is being taken 
with considerable freedom at about the rates 
current this day week. The sales of the week 
embrace 55,000 lbs Spring California, 22(o 30c; 
140,000 lbs Western Texas, 15(S;24c; 24,000 Itis 
Spring do, 20@26c; 108,000 lbs new X and 
above Ohio, 3(>@38c; 30 bags tub-washed, 38c. 

Boston, July 13th. — The Wool improvement 
noticed last week continues, the demand being 
active for nearly all grades of domestic, with 
large transactions, amounting to upwards of 
2,500,000 lbs for the week and a very firm 
market. The new clip from the West has been 
arriving quite freely. Prices compared with 
current rates in the interior are low, and it is 
not surprising that manufacturers have been 
disposed to purchase more freely than for some 
time past, especially as a lower range of prices 
can scarcely be looked for at present. All the 
new Wool houses here are free sellers at current 
rates. Sales include Ohio and Pennsylvania 
Fleeces No. 1, X, XX and above, at 3(;i(S>38ic; 
Michigan Fleeces, No. 1 and X, .35(S36c; Wis- 
consin and Indiana, 35@3Gc; washed, combing 
and delaine Fleeces, 38@43c; unwashed comb- 
ing, 28(S 30c; Territory, 20@26c; Texas, IdCm 
27c; super and X pulled, .S0@39c; scoured, 56 
@70c; California is in demand; X pulled steady 
and firm. Sales 258,000 lbs Spring at 20(5!30c; 
the only sale of Fall was 5,200 tl>a at 13i'c. 

The following table shows the S. F. receipts 
of Domestic Produce for the week ending at 
noon to-day, as compared with the receipts of 
previous weeks: 


Flour, quarter sacks . . 

Wheat, centals 

Barley, centals 

Beans, sacks 

Corn, centals 

Oats, centals 

Potatoes, sacks 

Onions, sacks 

Wool, bales 

Hops, bales 

Hay, bales 





.June '2(i. 

July 2. 

July 10 

.July 17. 

37, !)■!") 









































BAGS — Prices are unchanged. The ring are 

reported to be selling at full prices, one sale of 
250,000 Grain Bags being mentioned to us. 

BARLEY — The outlook for Barley prices 
seems better than was anticipated. Receipts 
are now small and it is thought a strictly choice 
article might touch $1. The export trade 
has begun with a cargo for Peru. If the East 
will take a good hold of our Barley this year, it 
will prove remunerative to growers after all. 
We note sales: 5 car-loads new Feed at 95c; 
400,350 and 100 sks new sold at 92;Jc |f ctl; 800 
ctls bright heavy new at 95c, and 200 do at the 
same, and 1,200 old Brewing at $1.12^ iff 

BEANS — Supplies are much reduced and 
prices firm. 

CORN — Business is small owing to a scarcity 
of material, either native or imported. 100 sks 
Omaha Corn sold at $1.90 |f ctl; 200 sks small 
Yellow California sold at .$2.05 ^ ctl, which 
about exhausts the supply. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— There is no change in 
the butter market either in condition or price, 
Dealers report the market more discouraging 
than they ever knew it before. Many outlets 
in the country seem cut off, and there is no op- 
portunity to reduce supplies. Cheese is a little 
lower, and some of low grade is sold at a sacri- 

EGGS — Eggs are doing about Ic better on 
the dozen. 

FEED — Bran has advanced $1 per ton; and 
Cornmeal now reaches $42 per ton for the best. 
The Hay receipts are bringing in some Wheat 
Hay of choice quality, and this raises the range 
of price a little. We note sales of about 2,000 
bales Wheat Hay at $13(0)14 per ton. Low 
grade Hay is abundant. Sales are made as low 
as $C.50 for poor stock. 

FRESH MEAT— Fresh Meats are selling at 
the advance gained last week. Supplies are 
abundant and most of the offering is of good 

FRUIT — Early White Grapes are coming in 
more freely. Nectarines have made an appear- 
ance. Bartlett Pears are selling well and the 
Eastern shipment has begun. Prices of differ- 
ent fruits may be found in our tables. 

HOPS — There is nothing new locally. Em- 
met Wells reports the New York market, for 
the week ending July Gth, as follows: "Trade 
lias been quiet this week, the scorching weather 
keeping Isuyers indoors. Receipts show a 
heavy increase; and as the exports have been 
small, stocks have accumulated. Prices remain 
unchanged, the late advance still keeping up; 
but holders are quite ready sellers when they 
get the chance, which is pretty good proof that 
they do not take much stock in bad crop re- 
ports. Our reports from most of the Hop dis- 
tricts "are conflicting except that the greater por- 
tion of them point to a smaller yield than last 
year, but we consider it to early too make an 
estimate on the number of bales that will be 
produced. Lice are pretty general and may do 
much mischief later on; but our experience has 
been that an early visitation of vermin on the 
vine has most always been followed by clean 
vards in August. " 

LIVE STOCK— We hear of sales of 200 
Sheep at 12.15 each; .345 do at $2. .55 each; 117 
Cattle at 4Ac tii' lb, alive; 09 Calves at $10 each; 
GOO Lambs'at $1.85 each; all gold. Also 1,000 
Hogs at 5@'5^c Vf lb, silver. 

OATS — Oats are firmly held and the late ad- 
vance is retained. We note sales of 200 sks 
good Feed at $1.50; 220 sks fair, $1.40; 250 do, 
$1.45 ^ ctl. A lot of 230 sks good Oregon Feed 
sold at $1.42i Iff ctl. 

ONIONS — Onions are a shade lower for all 

POTATOES — Potatoes have undergone a 
marked decline. Receipts are large and abun- 
dance of fruit, etc., seems to lessen the demand. 
Prices are given in our table. 

PROVISIONS— The demand for Provisions 
is strong and prices well maintained at quota- 
tions. Oregon Meats are being received in 
small invoices by, each steamer. 

VEGETABLES — Asparagus is scarce and 
higher. Carrots, Cucumbers, Summer 
and Turnips are reduced. Old Marrowfat 
Squash is advanced to $35 per ton. There is 
some new Marrowfat just in, but price not yet 
fixed. New Garlic is to-day in request and it 
is likely 3c could be had for it. 

WHEAT — Sales have been at the advance 
described above. We note sales during the 
week as follows: 1,000 ctls choice old Milling, 
delivered at Oakland, at $1.77.',; 3,000 do at 
$1,721; 1,000 do at $1.70; 200 do new Milling 
at $1.70; 800 do fair new Milling at $1.67^; 
2,500 do new Shipping at $1.G5; 2,500 do fair 
do at $1.63.^'; 10,000 do choice new Milling at 
$1.05; and 3,600 do good Shipping at$1.62.i; 
1,600 ctls new for export, $1.68-/; 400 do, $1.65; 
500 fair Milling, $1.67i; 500 inferior do, $1.57.'.; 
5,200 good new Shipping, $1.62A; 6,000 good 
new milling, $1.65; and 10,000 choice old Mill- 
ing, $1.70; 3,000 ctls new Shipping at $1.70; 
2,000 ctls Sliipping sold, delivered at Oakland 
wharf, at $1.65; and 3,700 ctls good Milling, at 
Vallejo, at $1.65; 2,300 choice old Milling at 
$1.75; 500 do at $1.77.', ; 3,000 good new Ship- 
ping at $1.G7A; 1,100, 2,000, 4,000, 2,000 and 
5,000 do ''at $1.65; and 6,000 at $1.62.', per 

WOOL — Quotations are unchanged. The 
great bulk of the Wool is cleaned off and there 
is little of the better qualities now on hand. 
We note sales: 25,000 ITis Northern selected 
hurry and seedy, 19c; 8,000 lbs slightly burry 
Northern, 18c; 160,000 lbs San Joaquin, Nevada 
and Oregon, 15@24c. 



Wednesday m.. July 17, 1878. 


Bayo, ctl 5 76 00 

Butter 4 25 @4 50 

I'ea — (si 75 

Red — @ — 

Pink 6 25 (86 50 

Sml Wliite — 'a;4 75 

Lima 4 25 (ai 60 

Field Peas 1 10 r* — 


Old 3i(a 7 

New 4i@ 8 


California 4 @ ii 

German 6.^^ 7 



Cal. Fresh EoU. lb 19 @ 22 

Fancy Brands 24 (g 25 

PicklB Roll, new. . 24 

Firklu.old 12 (a 16 

Western Reserve.. 12i(* 14 

New York — @ — 


Cheese, Cal., lb.... 8 @ 11 

Eastern 10 (a 12 

N. Y. SUte — @ — 

Gilroy Factory. ... 11 @ 13 


Cal. fresh, doz.... 271® 29 

Ducks' 23 @ 24 

Oregon 24 @ 25 

Eastern 18 (H 22 

do Pickled — — 


Bran, ton — (*lfi 00 

Corn Meal 41 00 k442 00 

Hay 7 00 @14 00 

Middlings 21 00 (£?22 50 

Oil Cake Meal... 34 00 (* 

Straw, bale 25 (g 60 


Extra, bbl 5 00 05 50 

Superfine 4 25 aii 37i 

Graham, lb 31@ 3i 

Beef, 1st qual'y, lb SJiS 7 

Second 4j@ 6 

Third Si® 4 J 

Mutton 4 @ 5 

•Spring Lamb 6 @ 6^ 

Pork undressed... 5J(^ H 

Dressed 7J(n; 7i 

Veal e (ft 8 

Milk Calves 6 irt 75 

Barley, feed, ctl... 80 (a 95 

Brewing 1 10 (al 15 

Chevalier 1 50 'a) — 

Buckwheat 1 30 (» — 

Corn, White 2 10 ((f2 25 

Yellow 1 95 (A2 00 

Small Round.. ..2 00 («2 10 

Oats 1 25 -ail 50 

Milling 1 55 <M 65 

Rye 1 12)/*1 15 

Wheat, Shipping. .1 60 ifcl 65 

Milling 1 70 @1 80 


Hides, dry 14 @ 15 

Wet salted 8;@ 9J 

■IO.\EV, ET< . 

Beeswax, lb 30@ 31 

Honey in comb 12 @ 125 

do. No 2 8 (a 10 

Dark 8 @ 9 

Strained 6J@ 7 


Oregon 4 (* 5 

California 4 7 

Wasli Ter 4 (rti 6 


Walnuts, Cal 8 (<* 9 

do Chile 7 <<* S 

Almonds, hd shl lb 7 (ct 8 

Soft ah'l 14 ca 16 

Brazil 14 & 16 

Pecans 13 @ 14 

Peanuts 5@ 6 

Filberts 15 @ 16 


Alviso — @ — 

Union City, ctl — ^ - 

San Leandro 95 (al 00 

Stockton 62!i@ 75 

Sacramento River. — (S 

San Pedro 50 @ — 

Oregon - @ — 


Petaluma, ctl — @ — 

Humboldt — ^ — 

Cuffey Cove — @ — 

Early Rose, 1 50 ^1 75 

Half Moon Bay. . .1 00 @1 60 

Kidney — @ ~ 

Sweet — @ — 

.Salt Lake ~ (a) — 


Hens, doz 8 00 (g) 9 00 

Roosters 6 00 (a) 8 00 

Broilers 3 00 (o) 4 50 

Ducks, tame 4 00 @ 6 00 

do, Mallard — @— — 

Geese, pair 1 25 @ 1 75 

Wild Gray. doz.. — 

White do — ^ 

Turkeys 20 @ 23 

do, Dressed — @— — 

Snipe, Eng @ 

do. Common ^— — 

Rabbits 1 50 @ 

Hare 3 00 (8 4 00 

Cal. Bacon, HVytti 11 (g llj 

Medium llJ(a 12{ 

Light 12j(a 13 

Lard 11 C* 13 

Cal. Smoked Beef 10 (3 11 

Eastern ~ @ — 

Shoulders, Cover'd 7^(3 SI 

Hams, Cal lli(8 12i 

Dupee's 15 (S 16 

Boyd's 14 @ 15 

Davis Bros' — C3 - 

None Such 15 (» 15{ 

Ames 155(3 16 

WhittaKer 14 @ 14i 


Alfalfa, 5 @ 12 

Canary 6 (* 8 

Clover, Red 15 @ 16 

White 50 @ 55 

Cotton 6 (8 10 

Flaxseed 3i@ — 

Hemp 6 @ 

Italian Rye Grass 35 (a) — 

Perennial 35 @ — 

Millet 10 (* 12 

Miistard, White... 4 (a — 

Brown 2 J(a 3 

llape 3 (<* 4 

Ky Blue Grass 20 (M — 

2d quality 18 (g — 

Sweet V Grass 1 00 @ — 

Orchard 25 @ 30 

Red Top 18 (g 20 

Hungarian 8 (g 10 

Lawn 50 @ — 

Mesquit — (d) 25 

Timothy 9 @ — 


Crude, lb 7J# 8 

Refined W.ia 10 



S Joa(i'n,12mofree 17 @ 19 

do 6 & 7 mo do 15 (f 18 

Burry, 12 mo 13 @ 16 

do 6 mo.. 14 (ffl 16 

Scabby 12J(n) 15 

.South'n Coast, free 16 (<e 19 

do do burry 14 & 16 

Northern, free.... 23(a) 25 

do, seedy & blurry 20 (a 22 

Nevada ".. 18 (fC 22 

Oregon Valley.... 22 (a) 24 

do, Eastern... 17 (* 20 



Wednesday m., July 17. 1878. 


Apples, b.^sket..- 30 (g!- 60 
do, box.«. . . 40 (rti 1 25 
Apricots, hx.... 1 00 (L* 1 25 
Bananas, bnch.. 2 50 (» 3 00 
Brkberries, ch'st 3 50 m 4 00 
Cocoanuts. 100.. 5 00 «* 6 00 

Figs. tl. ^ 5 (ft- 6 

(Joosel)erries. lb. 6 (f» 8 

Grapes, II — 6 (a^ 10 

Limes. Mex 10 00 (312 00 

do, Cal, per M (» 

Lemons. Cal M.15 00 (0:25 00 

Sicily, bx 9 00 (ff lO 00 

Mangoes, f'lOO. . 3 00 (g 4 00 
Oranges, Mex, 

M 22 CO @25 00 

Tahiti 10 00 @20 00 

Cal (» 

Peaches, box....— 40 (fc 1 00 
do, basket.— 30 (fi' 1 00 

Pears, box — 75 (tf 1 75 

do, Bartlett.. 1 50 ((t 

Pineapples, doz. 4 00 (e* 6 00 
Plums, basket,...- 35 (S— 75 
Prunes, basket. . 1 25 'd 1 50 
Rasjiberries. tti. . — 6 (ft— 7 
St'wberries. ch'st 2 50 (f* 4 00 

Apples, lb 5i@ 7i 

Apricots 10 (g 125 

Citron 23 @ 24* 

Dates 9 @ 10 

Figs, Black. i @ 7 

I White 6 (a 

! Peaches 8 @ 

Pears 4 @ 

j Plums 3 (a 

I Pitted 12i(g 

.Prunes 14 (3 

Raisins, Cal bx 1 00 @ 1 
do, Halves... 1 50 @ 2 
do, Quarters. 1 50 (3 2 

Blowers' 2 75 (cc— 

Malaga 2 75 (» 3 

Zante Currants.. 8 (3 
Asparagus, box.. 1 50 @— 

Beets, ctl — 625(8— 

Beans, String. . . 1(3 
Cabbage, 100 lbs 50 (3— 
Canteloupes.doz 2 50 (o6 3 

Carrots, ctl 50 (3- 

Cauliflower, doz 50 (g 
Cucumbers, Itx. . 
Garlic, New. lb. . 

Green Peas . „ 

Lettuce, doz 10 @ — 

Parsnips, lb 2 @ — 

Horseradish 7 @ — 

Rhubarb 1 (g— 

Squash, Marrow 

fat, tn 35 00 (3— 

Summer do, bx.. 20 (3 
Tomato.30 ll.s bx- 25 @— 
do. 60 Ihs bx- 75 C?- 

Tumips, ctl — 75 (g— 

White m ®— 

25 (3- 
2 @ 



Wkdnwday m.. July 17, 1878. 


American Pig, ton 28 00 (330 00 

Scotch Pig, ton 28 00 (330 00 

Wliite Pig. ton 28 00 (3 

Oregon Pig, ton @ 

Refined Bar 2J@ 3 

Horse Shoes, keg 5 00 (g 

Nail Rod —(& 7 

Norway. Oval — @ 7 

Copper. — 

Sheathing, lb 34 @ 35 

Sheathing, Yellow 21 (g 

Sheathing, Old Yellow 12 (3 

Composition Nails 24 ^ — 

Composition Bolts 24^— 


English Cast, lb 13 (3 14 

Anderson & Woods, ordinary sizes 15 @ 

Drill 15 C* 

Flat Bar 14 @ 19 

Plow steel 85(g 125 

Tin Plates. — 

10x14 I C Charcoal 7 50 @ 8 50 

BancaTiii 23 (3— 24 

Australian 17 (g 175 


By the Cask 9(3 

Zinc, Sheet 7x3 ft. 7 to 10, lb 9^<3— 10 

7x3 ft, U to 14 10 (3 

8x4 ft, 8 to 10 11 @ 

8x4 ft, U to 10 11 @ 


Assorted sizes 3 15 @3 25 


By the lb 43(^45 



^ Wednesday m.. July 17, 1878. 

Sole Leather, heavy, lb 22 (3 29 

, Light 20 @ 24 

Jodot, 8 Kil doz 48 00 @50 60 

!L° }q & ^5 00 @76 00 

14 to 19 Kd. 80 00 @90 00 

Second Choice. 11 to 16 Kil 55 00 (g70 00 

Cornellian, 12 to 16 Kil 57 00 (367 00 

Females, 12 to 13 Kil 63 00 (367 00 

14 to 16 Kil 71 00 @76 00 

Simon UUmo, Females, 12 to 13 Kil 58 00 #62 50 

14 to 15 Kil 66 00 (370 00 

16 to 17 Kil . 72 00 (374 00 

61 00 @63 00 

20 Ki 65 00 @67 OC 

24 Kil 72 (X) @74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 OO (340 00 

Kips, French, lb 1 00 (g 1 35 

Cal. doz 40 00 @60 00 

French Sheep, all colors 8 00 (315 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs, lb 1 00 (& 1 25 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, doz 9 00 @13 00 

^, Tor Linings 5 50 mo 5 

Cat. Russet Sheep Linings 1 75 (3 4 50 

Boot Legs, French Calf, pair 4 00 @ 

Good French Calf 4 00 (g 4 75 

Best Jodot Calf 5 oo (g 5 25 

Leather, Harness, lb 35 (3 38 

Fair Bridle, doz 48 00 (g72 00 

Skirting, lb 33 (a 37 

Welt, doz 30 00 (350 00 

guff, ft- 18® 20 

Wax Side 17 @ ig 


, Jnly 

Butter, California 

Choice, lb 25 

Cheese 18 

Eastern 25 

Lard, Cal 18 

Eastern 20 

Flour, ex. fam, bbI8 00 

Com Meal, lb 2 

Sugar, wh. crshd 12; 

Light Brown 8 

Coffee. Green 23 

Tea, Fine Black... 50 

Finest Japan. ... 55 
Candles, Admt'e 

Soap. Cal 7 

@ 35 

(3 25 

(3 30 

@ - 

(3 25 

(39 00 

i(g 3 

1(3 135 

(g 9i 

(3 35 

(m 00 

(31 00 

(g 25 

(3 10 

Wednesday, m 


Yeast Pwdr. doz..l 
Can'd Oysters doz2 
Syrup, S F Gold'n 
Dried Apples, lb. . 

Ger. Prunes 

Figs, Cal 


Oils, Kerosene 

Wines, Old Port. . 3 

French Claret 1 

Cal, doz bot 3 

Wlusky, O K, gal. .3 
French Brandy 4 

17, 1878. 

8 @ 12 
50 (32 00 
00 @3 50 
75 (31 02 

10 @ 14 
12i(g 10 

9 @ 15 

11 @ 10 
50 (g 60 
50 (3)5 00 
00 (a2 50 
00 (34 50 
50 @5 00 
00 @8 00 

Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Sotro & Co.] 

San Francisco. July 10, 3 p. m 
Legal Tenders in S. F., 11 a.m., 99S(g'99J. Silver, 2i@2 
Gold in New York, lOOj. 

Gold Bars, 890(3910. Silver Bars, 8(315 ^ cent, dis- 

Exchange on New York, 5%; on London bankers. 49(g 
49|. Commercial, 50; Paris, nve francs ^ dollar; Mexican 
dollars, 94i«'J5. 

London Consols 95^; Bonds, 108^. 

Quicksilver in S. ( .. by the fiask. ?8 lb, 41(".)2c 

Signal Service Meteorological Report. 

Week Enalng July 16, 1878. 


July 10 

July U 

July 12 

July 13 

July 14 

July 15 

July 16 





29 . 87 





62 1 73 1 (i().5 1 63 1 62 
53.5 1 54 1 57 1 54 1 54 

1 62 
1 52 






72 1 76 

1 71 

1 82 

W 1 


W 1 SW 



1 SW 

1 w 





213 1 328 


1 395 




Clear. 1 Clear. | Clear. | Clear. 

1 Fair. 


Total rain durin» the season, from July 1, 1877. 

Vertical Feed Victorious. 


Sewing Machine! 

The result of an immense outlay of nif>ney and years of 
labor and experiments by the best mechanics to be found. 
Composed of but twelve working' parts 
(o hers reiiuire from thirty to forty parts), each part of 
diiect action, redu';inif friction to a minimum. Si.mplicity, 
Strength, Dukabilitv, Ease ok Operation, Great Range 
OK WORK Co.MBiNED, constitutiiii,' the only Pekkect, Com- 
plete and FAULTLESS StWING MACHINE on the face 
of the earth. The New 


Lock-Stitcn Sewing Machine. 

Lightest runninjj Shuttle Machine in the world. 


(AVhich is as far in advance of tbe old feed used on all 
other machines as steam is ahead of horse-power, and 
is the exclusive property of this company), is the 
In all De2>art incuts nf Sfirhiff, that we make the 
following offer: 


Will be given to any person (sewing machine experts 
included) who will, with any other sewing machine, fol- 
low the "DAVIS VERTICAL FEED" through its vast 
range of practical work. 

All lovers of progressive science and mechanical perfec- 
tion should see it, and every lady in the land should ex- 
amine and try the "DAVIS VERTICAL FEED" before 
deciding to purchase an inferior machine, or a gingle- 
thrciid |)laything without a tension. 

t^lt is impossible to make a strong, elastic, or lock- 
stitch with any but a shuttle machine. 

We are selling- WHEELER & WILSON, GRO- 
Machines for. $10 Each. 

For descrii)tive circulars, price lists, samjiles of work 
and terms, apply at the oliice of the 


130 Post Street, San Francisco, Cal 


aarUnderfeed Machines taken in exchange as part pay- 
ment. Our prices are very low for cash. Branch Office, 
200 Broadway, Oakland, Cal. 



[July 20, 1878. 

Agricultural Articles. 

To Threshers. 

Hold Your Bags 





Shake Them Down- 


Simple, Cheip, 

Ai^ustable to any 
Size. Bag. 




Or Narrow. 

Completest Device Ever Invented 
and Lasts a Lifetime. 

i^Discount to the trade, tiuneral .\geiicy for the 
Pacific Coast, 


No. 306 Davis Street, San PYancisco. 


San Francisco and Sacramenta 


WarranteJ to Clean 
60 to 200 bushels per hour, perfectly. 

PRICES $40, $50 and $75 
The Nash « Cutts' .Machine is tlie only machine that 
has taken the First Premium at California State Pairs in 
1870, 1S71, lhT2, lS7:i, ls74. 1875, 1876, 1S77. 

Nash «i Cut;s' Machine will thor.iujthiy separate Mus- 
tard Seed, Cheat, Barley, Oata, Crockeil Wheat, etc., from, in a rapid and satisfactory manner. 

No zinc sieves used in the Nash & Cutts' Grain Separa- 
tor and Fan Mill; therefore wo can 
Clean Paster, Better, and with Less Work 
and Trouble, 
Than any other machine now in use. 
The Nash & Cutts' .Machine is the only one that will 
clean Alfalfa Seed. All we ask of any one in want of a 
Grain Separator is to give the Nish s Cults' a trial. 
The Nash & Cutts* .Machine is for sale by all Agricultu- 
ral Implement Dealers in California. 
For further particulars address 


No. 201 K Street, Sacramento, Cil. 
Only manufacturers of the Nash 4; Cutts' Grain Separa- 
tor for the Pacific Coast. 

The Famous " Enterprise 


Self Regnlating 


Pumps & Fixtures 

These Mills and Pumps are 
reliable and always (rive sat- 
isfaction, tiimple, strung and 
durable in all parts. Solid 
wrouifht iron crank shaft with 
douhU heariiiijn forthecrank 
to work in, all turned and 
run in babbitted buxes.. 

Potiitivclif self rctjulating, 
with no coil sprin^oi' springs 
of any kind. No little rods, 
joint-s, levers or balls to i;et 
out of oruer, as such things 
do. Mills in us-^ six to nine yearo ... ^j^- 
have never cost one cent for repair.-i. 

All sizes of Pu!n]>ing and Power Mills. Thousands In 
use. All warranted. Address for circulars and infor- 



ALAMEDA CO., CAL. Also, Best Feed Mills for sale. 
Saj Francisco Agency, LINFORTH, RICE 
& CO., 401 Market Street. 

, that 

Adjustable Grain Lifter for Headers. 

All farmers who wish to save jfrain without waste in 
cutting, should examine these. They can be run at any 
inclination to the (fround, as seen :it D in cut. Are light, 
strong and durable, and can be adjusted in minutes, or 
removed in Hve when not required, by drawing bolt in 
malleable shank B Set of 8 for lO foot header, (in pnt- 
linif on which bore with J-ineh hit for lag screws) are the 
cheai>est and give the be^t satisfaction of any in use. 
Parties can sa^■e additional the cost of a set in one day's 
cutting,', where grain is lodged or trinkles down. Price, 
$M) Also, Grain Belts, Header Sticks, etc. Manufactured 

San Francisco aud Sacramento, Sole Agsnts, Pacific Coast. 

Blowers' Patent Fruit Drier 


Took the Premium over all at the great plowing Match 
in Stockton, in 1S70 

Tliis Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is retjuired 
n the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly adjusted. 
Sutficient play is given so that the tongue will pass over 
cradle knolls without changing the working position of the 
shares. It is so constructecl that the wheels themselves 
go\ em the action .>f . he Plow correctly. It has various 
points of superiority, and can be relied upon as the best 
and most desirable Gang Plow in the world. Send for 
circular to 


Any Piiotoorapukr having a large Camera Box for 
sale will please notify "N. S.," at thisoflice. 


The Ertel Economy Qnt -horse Hay, Straw, 
and Moss Press, 

The World's Favorite, is tlie most durable, the handsomest 
working, the easiest in draft, the lightest in weight, 
and lowest in price: 10 tons of its Hay will load in any 
railroa4l box car. These presses are daily sold, REGARD 
LESS OF ,)EA LOUSY shown by Eastern monopolies. The 
Title of this Press is guaranteed to all. 
Above is warranted or no sale. -Address, 

Patentee and Manufacturer, t^uincy, IH. 



Centennial & Eagle Hay Presses, 



Are the best made, combining Strength, Durability, 
and Compactness. Send for Circular. Post 
Otiice Box, 11'22. Also, for sale bv 

David N. Hawley, 201 & 203 Market St., 

Cor. of Main, San Francisco. 

Peerless Com Sheller. 

It is so cheap (cost- 
ing only $6), that al- 
most any one can af- 
ford to buy one. It is 
so rapid, it will shell 
almost as fast as a $10 
machine, and seven or 
eight bushels per hour 
is not above its capac- 
ity. It weighs only 13 
pounds and is simple 
and ilurable. For par- 
ticulars, iuldress 

17 New Miintgom- 
ery St. , S. F. 




A-ivnings, Tents, Twines. 

119, 121, 123 Clay Street, S. P. 

QC Fashioxable VisiTixo Cards— no two alike, with 
name, 10a Najwiu Oard Co., Nassau, N. Y. 

Prospective View, Showing Draft Chimney, Furnace 
and Drying Rooms. 

Transverse Section Showing Heating and Drying Cham- 
bers and Currents of Heated Air. 
The Only Successful Fruit Drier in the World 

Professor D. M. Mefford, inventor of the celebrated 
Mefford i>r"ces3 of drying fruit and vegetables without 
loss of color or flavor, says of the Blowers' Drier: "Your 
Drier is really il.e only Fruit Drier in the world, and com- 
pared with which e'ery drier I have seen (and I have 
seen them all.) is really worthless for Bucce»sful factor}- 
work. If frait driers wish to make a success of their 
work they must use vour house."— D. M. Mefford, To- 
ledo, Ohio, March 2d." 1.S78. 

For descri|itive circulars, address 

R. B. BLOWERS, Woodland, Cal. 


Those who desire a cheap and practical 
device for pitting Plums, Peaches, etc., 
will do well to examine the Hatch ma- 
chine, recently invented and success- 
fully applied. It is simple in construction 
and operation, and not liable to get out of 

The fruit is l iid on a table and the 
pit cr taken in the hand; by dimply strik- 
ing the knife on the fruit the pit is re- 
moved without waste of fruit. 

A single motion of the hand will remove 
the pit. 

Tlie machines are cheap and effective 
and will be found useful to every orchardist and every 
family. Address for circulars, 

Grangers' Business Association, 

lOi; Davis Street, San Francisco. 

They may be obtained of Baker & Hamil- 
ton. Price. $1 50. 


Awarded the 



U. S. Centennial Grand M»dal & Dip'oma. 



And the only one that proves a success in 
and the Choicest Fruit at the 
least expense. 

Driers of all sizes jmt up and no pay asked until tested. 

GEO. A DEITZ, Manager, 
Sacraubkto, Cal. 


Let all 

San Francisco 

and all 

t^ilLl'si Palace Restaurant, 

and Ss't't 


price. (Jnind dinners from 
4., for FIKI'V CENTS. 

At the most roasonabi 
FIVE to EIGHT o clock !• 

Don't forget the number, g3'218'K]t Sansome street, 
south of California St.,S. F. 

Agents Wanted. 

Able aud reliable canvassing agents, who wish steady 
employment and good wages for good serricea, are iuTited 
to address this ofiica and sand refarentM. 




Sweet Cora. 

Crosby's Extra Early , 
Marblehead Mammoth I 
Stowell's Evergrreen i" 
Mexican Sweet, New ) 

E^DutSnl Yellow FHnt Cora. 

Long Red Mangel Wtirtzen 

Yellow Globe I ^gCt SOOd. 

White Sugar j .^v^v^u wwwva. 



No. 317 Washington Street. San Francisco 




Growers, Importers, Wholesale and Retail 
Deaiers In 

Comprising the Most Complct« Stock 
Prices Unusually Low. 
'"Guide to the Vegetable ^nd Flower Garden 
will be sent frkk to all CuHToiiKRg. It contains in- 
structions on the culture of Fruit, Nut, and Ornamental 
Tree Seeds, Alfalfa, etc. 

410 and 421 Sansome Street. 8. F. 



Continually arriving, NEW and FRESH KENTUCKY 
VERNAL, MEZtiUITE and other Grasses. 
Also, a Complete Assortment of HOLLAND FLOW- 
SEuD; together with all kinds > FRUIT, 
and everything in the Seed line, 
at the Old Stand. 


Ini)xjrter and Dealer iu Seeds, 
425 Washington Street. - San Franclsoo. 


Importers, Growers and Dealers in Garden, Field and 
Flower Seeds, Dutch Bulbous Roots, Summer Flowering 
Bulbs and Garden Requisites of every description. Catii- 
logues mailed tit all applicants. Address 

B. K. BLISS ti SONS. 34 Barclay Street, N. Y 




W'f iiiviU; attt'iitiou to our lar^'t- Kt^jck of 

Fruit Trees and Ornamentals, 

Of the most approved varieties. Also, CotTee, Cork Oak, 
Olives, Gilavas. English and Black WaUmts, Magnolias. 
Loquats, Butternuts. Hioall FruitP. Evergreens, Etc. We 
hav« a choice stftck of the Diospyros Kaki t japanene PerHni- 
iHunj of our own growing, ai»i also, grafted stock imported 
direct from several .Tapaii Nurseries. Address for catalogue 
and terms, 

DR. J. W. CLARK, No 41S California St., San Francisco, 
Or JAMES SHINN, Niles, Alameda Co., CaL 

Chance in the Nursery Business. 

Tliere is a good chance in Tehama County for a skilled 
man who will go to work and start a nursery. The loca- 
tion IS one mile from Vina station, in Tehama County, in 
a good growing region of country; the land is first-class 
and water abundant. A man is wanted, with good refer, 
ences, who will start a first-class nursery in partnership 
with the owner of the land. Address, 

Vina Station, Tehama County, Cal 


Being unable to find trusty, reliable help, I w ill sell an 
nterest in my Poultry business to a live man. Only those 
meaning business need apply to WM. NILES, 

Importer and Breeder of Thoroughbred Poultry, Lo« 
Angeles, CaL 

July 20, 1878.] 




One Man Can Easily Lift 
1,000 Pounds. 

Load Always Suspended; it 
can never "Run Down" 

Lowering Effected by Pulling' 
the Slack Chain. 

One Man With This Tackle 
is Better than Pour or 
Five with the Ordina- 
ry Double Block. 



Ihe general utility of this Pulley and the many 
different ways in which it can be applied, render 
it especially serviceable for agricultural purposes 
It can be used successfully as a Stump Puller and Remover of Heavy Stones. To Farmers and Woodsmen this 
Pulley is invaluable, as it economizes both time and labor. In half the time it enables one man to accom 
plish work which formerly taxed several to perfoim. For sale by 


Bluiit's XJniversal 

Surface and Deep- Well Pumps. Send for Circulars. 

'FI^A.1^CIS SIS/dllTH: &0 00., 










z ^ 

TO m 


The Strongest Barrow Made. These ii.urows arc made by Superior Workmen, and of tlie liest material. 
All sizes kept constantly on hand. 

Lap-We:ded Pipe, ail Sizes, from Three to Six Inches. Artesian Well Pi^e. Also, Gal- 
vanized Iron Boi ers, from Twenty five to One Hundred Ga lons. 

Iron Cut. Punched, and Formed for making pipe on trround, where required. All kinds of tool-) supplied for 
making pipe. Estimates given when required. Are prepared for coating all size of pipes with a composition of 
Coal Tar and Asphaltuni. 

Ofllce and Manufactory, 130 BEALE STREET, San Francisco, Cal. 

In consequence of spurious imitations of 


wliich are calculated to deceive the Public, Lea and Perrins 
have adopted A NEW LABEL, bearing their Stgnattire, 



which is placed on every bottle of WORCESTERSHIRE 
SA UCE, and without 7ohich none is ge^iuvie. 

Ask for LEA PERRINS' Sauce, and see Name on Wrapper, Label, Bottle avd Stopper. 
Wholesale and for Export hy the Proprietors, Worcester ; Crosse and Blackwell, London, 
(s-'C ; and by Grocers and Oilmen throuyhout the World. 

To be obtained of CROSS & CO., San B rancisco. 


The bestTrapin the World for catching 

One bait will catch 
Twenty Fish- 

No. I, for ordinary 6shinff,sman^me, &c. jgc 
No. 3, for large fish, mink, musk-rats, &c 75c 
^SentbynuU. J. BRIDE CO., 

Mfrs., 297 Broadway, New-York. 

0«lld for Catelogne of twoful norelUes ftna m«&Uon thi« pap«r. 



Awir.'Ii-l hhjhMt prize nt Ocnte-miiid Exi.omIio.i for 
lint chfrinq qnalitien m<\ exi'rllenc^ and lusdng char- 
acter nf sTieetf. rinri and flavoriif). Tba beit tobacco 
ever mafic. A's onr hliii! strip frnde-mrirk is closely 
imitated 01 inferior pnods. see tliat J'lrhnnn's Jl^yf is 
on cverr pln^. Sold hy nil dealers. Seo'l for Fample, 
tree, to 'C. A. Jackson & Co., Mfrs., Petersburg, Va. 

& E. WERTHHEIMER, Ag'ts, San Francisco 

Winchester Repeating Rifle, 

MODEL 1873. 

The Strength of All its Parts, 

The Simplicity of its Construction, 
The Rapidity of its Fire, 

The Power and Accuracy of its Discharge, . . , , , . 

^ ' String measuring from center of tar- 
get to center of each shot. 32 

The impossibility of Accident in Loading, '^ttshlTf-loolnXs."' 

Commend it to the attention of all who use a Rifle, either for Hunting, 

Defense, or Target Shooting. 
The San Francisco Agency is now fully supplied with all the various kinds and styles 
of Arms manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, to wit : 
Round barrels, plain and set, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, plain, 24 inch— blued. Octagon barrel set 
24, 26, 28, 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24 , 26, 28 , 30 inch— blued. Octagon barrel, set, 24 
26, 28, 30— extra finished, case hardened and check stocks. Octagon barrel, set extra heavy, 24, 26, 28, 30 inch- 
extra I'miehed— C. H. & C. S. Octagon barrel, set, 24, 26, 28, ZO inch— beautifully finished— C. H. & C. S., 
known as "One of One Thousand." Octagon barrel, set, gold, silver and nickel plated and engraved. Carbines 
blued, also gold, silver and nickel plated. Military rifle muskets, model 1873. Rifles, muskets and carbines 

A heavy stock of Cartridges Manufactured by the W. R. A. Co., for all kinds of Rifles 
and Pistols, constantly on hand and warranted the best in the market. 

Sole Agent for Dupont's Mining, Blasting, Cannon, and Celebrated Brands 

of Sporting Powder, 

JOHN SKINKER, No. 115 Pine Street, San Francisco, 



Wind IVIill, 


Water Without Waste and Without Atten i i , 


Improvements of Mr. Bachelder, 

As nwo Manufactured ty the 

Bachelder Manufacturing Co., 


The Newest Music Book^. 
!! ONWARD !! 

Onward is the name of L. O. EMERSON'S 
book for SIN(;ING CLASSES for the season of 1S7S 79. 
A new and fresh collection of the best Secular and S.Tcred 
Music, with a full Instructive Course. Teachers will 
]>lease examine. ^'2 Glees, 56 Sacred Tuties, and 15 An- 
thems are i)rovided. Price $7.50 per dozen. 


Compiled by J. P. COBB, and designed for Musical 
Conventions, Societies, Festivals, etc, A selection of a 
number of the bet Choruses, Sacred and Secular, 144 
large pages. ;S12 per dozen). 


B.v L. O. EMERSON. As this fine book contains a Hun- 
dred Anthems, Motets, etc., all of the best quality, it is a 
fine book for any choir, and will be extensively used as an 
Anthem Book. Us first desi^i, however, is for the use 
of Ej/iKcnpal Clioirx, and it hai the j?reatest variety ever 
l>rou<,'ht toffether of Anthems, Venites, Canlatates, 
.Jubilates, Glorias, and of all other pieces used in the ser- 
vice. Should be used. (§12 per dozen). 


C. H. Ditson & Co , 843 Broadway, New York 


l)K.\[,EBS IS 


No. 433 Montgomery Street, S. F. 

Fine Jewelry Miidu to Order. Complicated Watches 


to send for onr 
Catalogue. It 
contains prices 
and description 
of most every 
article in eeu- 
eral use, anil is 


valiiai>l4> (o AXV l»*:itfiUN coiiteiiiiilat- 
Siiy: t Im' varrliase of any article f or I*cr- 
Tioiial. Family or A e^ri cultural unc. We 
iiave <lon<* a larff«» trailo the paNt Hrafton 
fm tlio rciiiofc partH of the Territorf en, 
;cu<l liave. M i(h *V\\- oxrepJions. exoc^rt- 
rfl tlio cxpcrtatloiiN of tlie purrlia^rr, 
iiianv oinliniii:!: to liave inailo a savlii;{ 
ot -lO to t;o iM'r 4-<*iit. AVe mail 
< ATA l.<U;i KM TO AHY A1>I>KI<:ms, 
J'KS:!-;. Ui'OIV AI»i'I>lC'ATIOX. We sell 
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YOUR NAME PRINTED on Forty Mixed Cards for 
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[July 20, 1878. 


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Campo, Sax Diego Co., Cau, July lid, 1874. 
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so successfully worked through the patent office for me, 
ff>r which pleiise accept in>- best wishes. The chances are 
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A M i:ass 

Contents of Pamphlet on Publi:: Lands of 
California, U. S Land Laws, Map of 
California and Nevada, Etc. 

Map of California and Nevada ; The Public 
Lands; The Lund bislricts; Table of Rainfall in Califor- 
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Instructions of the D. S. . Land Commis- 
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TUESDAY, AUGUST 13tli. 1878. 

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Volume XVI.] 


Number 4. 

The Flat Peach of China. 

We were shown the other day some speci- 
mens of the "Peen-to, " or flat peach of China, 
which had been sent to Mr. R. J. Trumbull 
by Mrs. Longstreet, of Los Angeles. The late 
Mr. Longstreet secured some trees from Aus- 
tralia some time ago, and when they came into 
bearing, was so much pleased with the fruit 
that he at once budded the Peen-to largely 
upon native seedlings. Mrs. Longstreet finds 
that the fruit has ripened much later than 
usual this year, in keeping with the generally 
backward season. In ordinary seasons, she 
thinks the fruit may be counted on in May in 
Los Angeles. The fruit is a peculiar one in 
shape. In fact we think its shape is much 
against it. It is very flat and irregular. Ob- 
viously, so far as the fruit departs from the 
full, spherical form common to the peach of 
Persian origin, it loses flesh and gains skin. 
This is, of course, not a valuable exchange. 

glands reniform; maturity. May 24th to end of 
June, in Florida. 

The original tree originated by P. J. Berck- 
mans, Augusta, Ga. , from pits received from 
Australia in 1869; but from its hfibit of bloom- 
ing in January, is unsuited to open air culture 
in the middle section of the State. Trees sent 
to Florida have fruited abundantly and prove 
to be adapted to the sub-tropical zone, where 
varieties of the Persian or common strain, as 
cultivated throughout the United States, are 
worthless. In Gainesville, Florida, this va- 
riety ripened May 24th, 1877, the growing sea- 
son being ^0 days later than ever known before. 
The supposition is that its maturity -there 
would, in ordinary seasons, be about May 1st. 
In Pensacola, a three-year-old tree produced 
1,200 specimens. 

A Pare Specimen of Fossil Ivory. — In the 
cabinet of Messrs. Smith & Patterson, of Sutter 
cfeek, is to be seen a specimen of ivory, that so 
far has proved to be a paleontological puzzle. 
It was found in the town of Sutter creek by 
parties sinking a shaft for water, at -the depth 

Ostrich Farming. 

Editors Press: — My time is engaged in nial^infj a 
desert farm. One edge is on the river and I have a semi- 
circle of 50 miles, desert. Where can I get ostrich egffs 
that will hatch under a (jiinxe .' Can you tell us some 
about the means and methods employed in ostrich farm- 
ing, etc.?— Charles U. Pokton, Florence, Arizona. 

Ostrich farming has come into prominence of 
late, through the successful practice in South 
Africa. It was agitated as an industry fitted 
for our coast about two years ago, but we never 
heard that the suggestion was acted upon. If 
it has, and any one has the birds, we should 
like to know it. 

In order to answer the queries of our corre- 
spondent and to give our readers generally in- 
formation concerning what is certainly a unique 
and interesting industry, we shall present some 
engravings showing the mode ^f ostrich grow- 
ing in South Africa. The engravings are from 
plates which recently appeared in one of the 
English illustrated papers, being made in the 
first place from photographs taken on the spot. 

young and old, were worth about $150 apiece. 
Each bird fit for plucking gives two crops of 
feathers a year, and produces on the average 
feathers to the value of |75 per annum. The 
creatures feed themselves, unless when sick or 
young, and live upon the various bushes and 
grasses of the land. The farm is divided out 
into paddocks, and, with those which are 
breeding, one cock with two hens occupies each 
paddock. The young birds — for they do not 
breed till they are three years old — or those 
which are not paired, run in flocks of 30 to 40 

"Ostrich farming without the use of an incu- 
bator can never produce great results. The 
birds injure their feathers by sitting, and at 
every hatching lose two months. There is, too, 
great uncertainty as to the number of young 
birds which will be produced, and much danger 
as to the fate of the young bird when hatched. 

"The incubator shown in the engraving on this 
page is a low, ugly piece of deal furniture, 
standing on four legs, perhaps eight or nine feet 
long. At each end there are two drawers, in 
which the eggs are laid with a certain appara- 


Its unhandsome appearance, too, is not a good 
mark. If, on the other hand, this fruit can 
show qualities in flavor, in earliness of ripening 
or in adaptation to some of the heated parts of 
the State, where the common peaches do not 
reach perfection, then it may prove a very de- 
sirable addition to our fruit list. These things 
remain to be proved, and we hope the trees 
started by Mr. Longstreet may be scattered 
here and there, so the qualities of the tree and 
the fruit may be brought out. 

We notice that the Peen-to was brought be- 
fore the last meeting of the American Pomolog- 
ical Society, through some specimens grown in 
Florida. The fruit was carried to Florida from 
the same points whence it came to California, 
viz., from Australia. The following description 
and notes concerning the growth of the fruit in 
the Southern States are taken from the last re- 
port of the Society: 

Peen to, or Flat Peach of China. — Size, two 
inches in diameter. Shape, irregularly round, 
very much flattened; one inch and a half 
through ou one side, and one inch on the other; 
suture or furrow very deep, e.Ktending from 
the stem around thinnest side to the calyx; 
calcynal cavity narrow and deep; skin, green- 
ish yellow, washed and delicately penciled car- 
mine, peels readily at maturity; flesh very fine 
grained, juicy .and dissolving, with a delicate 
almond aroma; quality best; cling-stone; stone 
yOry flat, five-eighths inch thick; flowers large, 

of about .30 feet from the surface, embedded in 
a strata of blue mud, which here rests on a 
bedrock of talcose schist. The specimen is 
about four inches in length, three-fourths of an 
inch in width at the socket-end or base, taper- 
ing gradually to a point at the other extremity. 
The shaft is prismatic or thickest in the center, 
like a double-edged bowie knife and slightly 
curved, the edges serrated, the teeth about the 
depth of a joiner's tenon-saw. The inclination 
of the teeth on one edge is towards the point, 
on the others the reverse. The joint appears 
to be of the kind known as ginglymoid, the 
articulation of the diarthrodial kind, which only 
admits of motion in two directions like a hinge — 
as the knee-joint or elbow-joint. It is evidently 
a powerful natural weapon, ott'ensive and defen- 
sive, or both belonging to some of the extinct 
fauna of this coast, which lived and had its 
day away back in the mazy, far-off periods of 
the pliocene or post-tertiary, geologic epochs 
more easily written than comprehended. Will 
some modern Agassiz or comparative anatomist 
or paleontologist tell us what it is ? 

Cotton in Merc:ed CIocntv. — Horace Buck- 
ley informs us that the cotton prospect in Mer- 
ced county is good this year. There are about 3.50 
acres^in cotton. We hope he will inform us 
fully about it when the crop is gathered. The 
hop prospect is also good; 36 acres will yield 
about the same as last year, 200 bales, 

The first man to go into ostrich culture on a 
large scale was Mr. A. Douglass, of Grahams- 
town, South Africa. Ten years ago Mr. Doug- 
lass obtained three wild birds, and afterwards 
eight more. As soon as he found they would 
lay in confinement, he began his experiments 
in artificial hatching. This attempt met with 
but little success for three years, till he invented 
the patent incubator, the success of which has 
become renowned. By its means he has in- 
creased the 11 birds to 900, and these and 
others, becoming dispersed throughout the col- 
ony, have made ostrich farming, next to wool 
and diamonds, the most important industry of 
South Africa. 

Mr. Anthony Trollope's recently published 
book on "South Africa" contains the following 
description: "Mr. Douglass is, among the os- 
trich farmers of the colony, about the most suc- 
cessful, and the first who did the work on a 
large scale. He is the patentee for an egg- 
hatching machine or incubator, which is now in 
use among many of the feather growers of the 
district. Mr. L)ouglass occupies about 1,200 
acres of rough ground, formerly devoted to 
sheep farming. The country around was all 
used not long since as sheep walks, but seems 
to have so much deterio.ated by changes in the 
grasses as to be no longer profitable for that 
purpose. But it will feed ostriches. 

"At this establishment I found about 300 of 
those birds, which, taking them all round, 

tus of flannel; and these drawers, by means of 
screws beneath them, are raised and lowered to 
the extent of two or three inches. The drawer 
is lowered when it is pulled out, and is capable 
of receiving 15 eggs. Over the drawers and 
along the top of the whole machine there is a 
tank filled with hot water, and the drawer, 
when closed, is screwed up so as to bring the 
side of the egg in contact with the bottom 
of the tank. Hence comes the necessary 
warmth. Below the machine and in the center 
of it a lamp or lamps are placed, which main- 
tain the heat that is required. The eggs lie in 
the drawer for six weeks, and then the bird is 
brought out. 

"All this is simple enough, and yet the work 
of hatching is most complicated, and requires 
not only care, but a capacity of tracing results 
which is not given to all men. The ostrich 
turns her egg frequently, so that each side of it 
may receive due attention. The ostrich farmer 
must therefore turn his eggs. This he does 
about three times a day. A certain amount of 
moisture is required, as in nature moisture ex- 
udes from the sitting bird. The heat must be 
moderated according to circumstances, or the 
yolk becomes glue and the young bird is choked. 
Nature has to be followed most minutely, and 
must be observed and understood before it can 
be followed. And when the time for birth 

Continued on nafire 57. 



[July 27, 1878. 


We admit, unendorsed, opinions of correspondents. — Eds 

Amador County.— No. 1. 

Editors Press: — This county lies easterly 
from San Francisco about 140 miles, and is 
bounded by the counties of Kl Dorado, Sacra- 
mento, San Joaquin, Calaveras and Alpine, and 
the State of Nevada. The greater portion of 
the county is what is known as foothill land, 
lying along the western slope of the Sierras. 
There is but little valley land, proper; and the 
mountain land is but a narrow strip, or pan 
handle, extending between the headwaters of 
the Cosumues river on the north and the Mo- 
kelumue river on the south, to the summit of 
the Sierras, or to the w«stcrn line of the State 
of Nevada. The county was settled in 1849, at 
Jackson, the present county seat, one of the 
first settlers being the present popular landlord 
of the principal hotel at that place -Mr. K. 

The placer mines were fabulously rich, the 
yield in and about the town of .Tacksun being 
equal to any other locality in California. The 
mineral wealth, and its comparatively easy ac- 
quisition, soon concentrated the miners in great 
numbers at this point, so that the village of 
Jackson, now numbering about 1,200 souls, 
contained during the years of '49 to 'Ho a popu- 
lation counted by as many thousands. But, 
after the rich placers, easily found and worked, 
were exhausted, the great mass of the people 
emigrated in search of other gold fields, leaving 
this county with its great quartz lodes and its 
deep gravel beds, its copper mines, its coal 
measures and its large beds of almost pure sili- 
con or kaoline, equal to that used in France for 
manufacturing the celebrated French porcelain 
ware; its beds of argyll or potters clay, equal in 
quality to any in use in the world; its inex- 
haustible marble (juarries, and last, though 
most important to the farmer, stock raiser and 
fruit grower, its fine alluvium — undeveloped or 
not even prospected or suppose<l to exist, and 
up to this time but partially developed. 

The county is well watered. There are a 
number of respectable si7.ed streams passing 
through it, of which the most important are the 
Cosumnes with its several branches on the 
north. Dry creek. Slate creek, Sutter creek, 
Amador creek, Kancharie, Jackson creek 
(three branches), and the Mokelumne river on 
the south. There are also a number of canals 
or ditches conveying water along the summits 
of the ridges, which is utilized for mining and 
agricultural purposes, and to propel the ma- 
chinery of the numerous quartz mills and saw 
mills now running. This water could also be 
utilized for all kinds of manufacturing pur- 
poses. Of the most important of these ditches 
might l>e mentioned the Amador canal, about 
fiO miles in length, taking its main supply of 
water from the North fork of the Mokelumne 
and carrying about 2,000 inches; also 1.30 miles 
of ditches in the vicinity of Volcano and Pine 
Grove, owned by Charles McLaughlin, of San 
Francisco--supplying the miners and mills in 
that part of the county, and irrigating a large 
area of agricultural land. There is also tlie 
Parrington ditch, which takes water from the 
Middle fork of the Cosumnes and supplies it to 
the miners and farmers in the neighborhood of 
Fiddletown— now called Oleta. Another large 
canal is taken from the South fork of the 
Cosumnes, and supplies the power to run the 
Phenix quartz mill— 80 stamps— at Plymouth, 
also furnishes water to the farmers and fruit 
growers along its entire length. 

This county, considering its many resources, 
is very sparsely populated, which may, l>e 
accounted for to some extent from the fact that 
it is not upon the line of any of the great rail- 
roads passing through the State, and has only 
within the last year been intersected by rail- 
road by the construction of a 2()-niile branch 
from the Central Pacific, starting at the village 
of Gait, in Sacramento county, and terminating 
in lone valley, Amador county, at the village 
of lone City. 

lone Valley. 

This valley, watered by Sutter and Dry 
creeks, and Jackson valley watered by Jackson 
creek, a few miles to the east of the first men- 
tioned, contains the best agricultural districts 
in the county, and not surpassed by any part of 
the State in the raising of wheat, corn, barley 
or fruit. The crops this year are exceptionally 
good, especially the wheat, which did not sutter 
as in many other counties of the State by either 
rust, smut or cheat. 

Among the many farms and farmers visited 
by your correspondent, and without intending 
to make invidious distinction, but for the want 
of space, the names of a few only can be men- 
tioned. In lone valley the ranch, owned 
by Dr. O. N. Morse, is perhaps the model farm 
of the county. It contains several hundred 
acres of rich bottom land, lying on both sid^s 
of Dry creek, all well fenced. It has good 
buildings, surrounded by immense ornamental, 
shade and fruit trees, and embowered and fes- 
tooned by climbing roses, Australian bell flow- 
ers. Passion vines. The site is i^rfuraed by 

fragrant acacias, heilotropes and the magnifi- 
cent magnolia grandiHora, not to mention the 
multitude of exotics and fioral productions in 
garden and conservatory, filling the atmosphere 
with their fragrance and the eye of the beholder 
with delight. The Doctor has 28 acres of or- 
chard, containing|all the fruits peculiar to our 
climate, in full bearing. He will make about 
30 tons of dried fruit this year, beside what will 
be marketed green. Wheat, corn, barley, oats, 
hops and alfalfa are also grown to perfection. 

In the same neighborhood are the farms of C. 
Dosh, .1. Famsworth, W. W. Carlisle, J. W. 
\'iolet and many others, all models of neatness 
and good order, showing tlie handiwork of the 
industrious and educated husbandman, in their 
well-filled grain fields, fruit-ladened orchards, 
and pastures of sleek cattle and fat horses. 

In .Jackson valley, among the many farms 
that evidence superior cultivation miglit be 
mentioned, without prejudice, those owned by 
W. H. Prouty, K. S. Swift, J. ( '. Hamrick, I. 
B. (Iregory, Stephen Kidd and C. S. I'.lack. 
The yield of the cereals this year is in excess of 
any former year within the memory of |that tra- 
ditional oldest inhabitant. The hay crop is 
equally large. Alfalfa yields as high as 13 tons 
per acre at four cuttings. 

The Mokelumne river, a few miles south of 
the last mentioned valley, passes through a very 
rich fiord valley. The terraces or different 
water lines on which are found coprolites from 
the seal, are well marked, and can be traced for 
miles on both sides of the valley many feet 
above the present channel of the river. The 
valley is not wiile, but the soil is very rich, con- 
taining a large percentage of probably shell 
marl, and although the ground is high, large 
fields of the largest and finest watermelons are 
raised for the San Francisco market, without 

The village of lone City, at the terminus of 
the Amador railroad, is a thriving little t»wn. 
They claim a population of al)out 700, of which 
l.")0 are children. There is a good schoolhouse, 
three churches, two hotels, a printing office, in 
which is published a neat little weekly called 
the loHK Viilleij Tivw; a uumlier of general 
stores, two drug stores, the usual variety of 
mechanics, also a flouring mill owned by Mr. 
F. C. Hall. This is the only Houriug mill in 
the county. It turns out 200 barrels of flour 
per day, besides giteding from l.") to 25 tons of 
feed in the same time. Mr. Hall buys and works 
up in his mill about ?200,000 worth of grain 
every year. \V. G. A. 

lone" City, June 20th, 187S. 

Irrigating Canals of Tulare County. 

Principles Taught by Experience. 

Editor.* Press: — The fact that, by the efforts 
of the farmers of this Mussel Slough and Cross 
Creek country northeast of Tulare lake, some 
3t'),(XX) acres are more or less irrigated this year, 
makes this one of the most interesting and use- 
ful parts of the State to study the means and 
results of irrigation. Out of about 200,000 
acres adapted to irrigation between Tulare lake 
and the Central Pacific railroatl, and King's 
river and Cross creek — the lower part of Kaw- 
eah river — it is estimated that at least lfiO,000 
can be supplied eventually with enough water 
from the 

Seven Main Ditches Already Made, 
And to be extended. A project is now being 
discussed for furnishing the remaining 40,000 
acres by a canal to be taken out much higher 
up King's river than any yet constructed from 
its south bank. 

The seven ditches already completed, in 
whole or part, comprise 

Nearly 200 Miles 
Of made canals or natural channels, varying in 
width from about 20 to 100 feet, at a total cost 
of about §300,000, or an average of some §1,500 
per mile. Two of these —the "Settlers" and 
"Lakeside" — are taken from the north side of 
Cross creek; the former at a point two miles 
east of the crossing of main railroad line of 
Central Pacific, about 20 miles long, cost some 
.'?30,0(X); the latter, eight miles lower down, 
length some .30 miles, cost about .?,iO,000. 
The remaining five are from south bank of 
King's river, as follows: 1. People's ditch, two 
miles below railroad crossing, length 45 miles, 
cost about §100,000; 2. Mussel Slough ditch, 
rive miles lower down and about seven miles 
above Kingston, length — including natural 
channels utilized — 60 miles, actual cost in cash, 
and labor paid in stock, .§2.5,000; .3. Last 
Chance, fiv^ miles farther down the river and 
about two miles above Kingston, 20 miles long, 
cost - about §()0,000; 4. Lower King's Itiver 
ditch, three miles below Kingston, length 13 
miles, cost .§28,000; .5. The Rhodes ditch, five 
miles lower down, length 10 miles, cost §10,- 
000. The latter, named from Mr. Daniel 
Rhodes, one of the early settlers here, is the 
oldest, having been in use some 10 or 12 years, 
all the others dating back only from two to 
four years. The usual water rate of these 
ditches, when water is charged for, is §1.50 an 
acre per year. 

The Bravery, Energy, and Perseverance 
With which the people of this district have 
grappled with the problem of irrigation and 
have in a few j-ears accomplished so much 
work, with scarcely any means but their teams, 
their labor, and prospective value of their lands, 
are beyond all praise, and deserve the sympathy 

and encouragement of every one in this State. 

That these lands are not worth now but .§5 
per acre, or less for grazing lands alone, is due 
almost entirely to their own efforts, and it 
would he hard and unjust, indeed, if a fostering 
Government, to which they and their children 
have a right to look for protection, should, 
under any pretext, allow them to be forced to 
pay over again for their toil and their ditches; 
as would be the case, were they obKged at any 
time to pay much more than the regular Gov- 
ernment price for their lands. 

We trust, that for the good name of Ameri- 
can liberty and law, they will be dealt with 
fairly and liberally in the final settlement of 
their conflicting claims with the railroad. 

For the facts and figures here given about 
these valuable ditches, which have already 
made a sure and attractive farming country out 
of one, which a few years ago was like all of 
.San Joaquin valley — without irrigation — a very 
uncertain one, 1 am indebted to .Tohn S. L'rton, 
Daniel Spaiigler, Maj. T. J. McC^uiddy, C. W. 
Robinson, (ieorge Cotton, E. A. .Manning, and 
others, who, with the co-operation of their 
neighbors, ha\ e done so much to aid in accom- 
plishing these results, which every visitor to 
this favored region now recognizes. 

Many Valuable Lessons 
Have been taught by their varied ex|)erience, 
and those about to begin like works can greatly 
profit by these lessons, if they will. 

But without any prejudice, with due respect to 
differences of opinion, wishing to do no injus- 
tice and with reference only to results, I must 
confess that cerlain original principles carried 
out successfully, at very small expense, and 
contrary in general to previously taught theo- 
ries about ditching to irrigate, teach some of the 
most practical and valuable lessons 1 have been 
able to find in any part of California. I allude 
to the plan and management of the Mussel 
•Slough ditch, by its .Superintendent, K. A. 
Manning. Without space here to discuss these 
principles at any length, 1 will merely give a 
summary of them. Under his peculiar man- 
agement, they have by common acknowledge- 
ment greatly reduced the exjiense of getting 
water upon land, where the surroundings are 
favorable. His main ditch of about (iO miles, 
even when an additional cut increasing the 
depth of canal near the head-gate about three 
feet is made, will have cost in actual expendi- ' 
ture, altogether — money and stock — about §500 
a mile on an average. 

These Original Principles 
Are as follows : 

1. No dam across the river, grade of canal at 
head-gate being sunk a foot oelow the river 

2. L'se of nature's water-ways. 

3. L'se of water itself as an excavator in 
places. (This is an application on a small scale 
of Captain Eads' plan for improving the channel 
of the Mississippi). 

4. Taking all dirt for levees out of ditch — 
never, if possible, from outside. 

.5. Running ditches in straight lines as much 
as possible, changing direction by angles rather 
than curves. .Small ditches for sections, quar- 
ters, SO's and 40's run almost exclusively on 
north, south, east and west lines. 

6. Fall of at least two or three feet to the 
mile in all the largest ditches. 

7. Entirely new, strong, simple, and effective 
plan for head-gates and regulators, costing on 
an average from .§700 to §1,000 each. Smaller 
ones for side ditches §5 to §15 each. The large 
ones answer for bridges and form fine water- 

8. Peculiar form and mode of making bottoms 
and levees of main canals. Middle scooped out 
like inverted arch, broad apron on each side 
within levees. Levees with very broail bases, 
and gradual slope to sides. This, and u^ing 
natural water-ways almost obviates breaks and 

9. Paying lii)eral wages to farmers for work 
of selves and teams in stock, and agreeing to 
take the stock, dollar for dollar, afterwards in 
payment of water-rates. No assessment as yet 
on tlie stock and none likely, though the com- 
pany was incorporated three years ago this 
month, and work was begun two years ago last 
November, 60 miles of main ditch being now 
under control, to say nothing of many side 

10. No charge whatever as yet for use of 
water, though the ditch is irrigating some 10,- 
000 acres, more or less. Charge, whenever 
made, to be only §100 per 160 acres per year, or 
at the rate of 62A cents an acre, no matter how 
much water may be used. .Such are the funda- 
mental principles, in brief, by which 

Great Economy and Eflaciency 

Have been secured, in spite of many discourage- 
pieiits while bringing this important experi- 
ment in ditching to its present state of comple- 
tion. So new in several respects are many of 
these features, that some still iloubt the fin.T.1 
success of the undertaking. The writer of this 
sketch does not wonder at all at the doubts 
thus entertained, because of the really original 
character of some of this work, but having ex- 
amined it carefully in all its details and learned 
the principles and experience on which the en- 
tire system, here first tried, is based, he is sat- 
isfied it will all eventually be made to work 
thoroughly welL And, more than this, from 
my acquaintance with other parts of .San .Joa- 
quin valley, its sti earns and numerous dry 
channels, I am entirely satisfied that exactly 
The Same Principles can be Applied, 
With entire success and great saving of expense, 

by combined action among the farmers of 
Fresno, Merced and .Stanislaus counties, to 
bring the much needed water from Tulare lake, 
the .loaquin, Merced, Tuolumne and Stanislaus 
rivers, if they will only unite and work cor- 
dially together, and not be like a "rope of sand." 
From the earnest hope that these principles of 
economy and success in irrigating may be more 
fully developed and understood, and may soon 
be applied elsewhere to aid in redeeming the 
farms of many with whom I, for one, have suf- 
fered more than tongue can tell, for the want of 
water to irrigate our parched lands, 1 have l)een 
especially careful to try to understand and re- 
cord accurately the lessons here taught. To 
me they can no longer be of any benefit, except 
as I may hope to secure the good of others in 
future by making them known, through your 
columns and elsewhere. By the real knowl- 
edge being acquired of the art of irrigation here 
and in other parts of California, may the thou- 
sands of farmers and their families who will re- 
main in its fertile, charming valleys, "live and 
learn, " and prosper, as a return for their trials, 
hardships and disappointments in the past. For 
California, water is indeed its wealth. 

.Since the above was written, I learn by con- 
versation with Mr. Manning, that he Ijelieves 
water can l>e brought out of the Tuolumne or 
Stanislaus as far as Modesto, for an actual out- 
lay of §10,000 in money and .§40,000 in laljor, 
that is, .§50,000 in all, by applying the above 
principles. His estim.ite for preliminary surveys 
is §200. He is so confident of this from his ex- 
perience here and acquaintance with that coun- 
try, that he would be willing to guarantee the 
same under his own management. He also ad- 
vocates the tapping of both the Tuolumne and 
Stanislaus, and uniting their waters, to insure a 
more unfailing supply. It may be well to heed 
this. It is at least good evidence, that the 
§500,(KX) promised for the Modesto district and 
the §2,000,000 for the West Side, will be ample 
for their purposes, with good management. 

J. W. A. Wrioht. 

Lemore, .July 12th. 

Wheat and Chess. 

f^ui roRs Press; — Allow me to further formu- 
late the process to determine whether or not 
wheat will turn to chess. I find no fault with 
Prof. Hilgard's formula; as far as it goes, it is 
perfectly fair and correct, and shows that earn- 
est desire for irnfh that characterizes the true 
scientist; and all I wish to add to it is minute 
instructions as to how to produce the seed 
wheat to be planted in the testing boxes. l.*t 
this seed wheat be obtained as follows: 

Next spring when your wheat is just begin- 
ning to hea<l out, select a bunch out by itself, 
or better, sow by itself a few grains of wheat 
with a handful of cheat or darnel seed; then 
when this little lot, so isolated from other 
wheat, begins to head out (it should be of some 
loose chafi variety, say the Sherman), take a 
pair of fine tweezers and needle and care- 
fully opening the chaff remove every parti- 
cle of pollen from each and every keniel 
of every head in the whole lot; do it care- 
fully, so as to injure the grain as little as pos- 
sible. By pollen, I mean the blossom or "dust 
of the wheat" that blows from each head W'hen 
the wheat is in bloom, the "father dust," as one 
author beautifully calls it. Then take your 
heads of cheat from which the pollen is begin- 
ning to fly, and place these in contact with 
the |wheat heads whose pollen has been re- 
moved. Keep an abundant supply of cheat 
pollen in contact with these wheat heads for a 
week at least, all the time jirotecting them by 
netting or gauze from receiving the pollen of 
any wheat that otherwise might be borne to 
them by winds or insects. The wheat produced 
from these heads will look like any other wheat, 
though it would be really hybrid. Plant this 
seed as directed by Prof. Hilgard, and if you 
find that by excess of cold and wet, favorable 
conditicms for cheat but unfavorable for wheat, 
it produces cheat, you will have established, 
simply, that wheat and cheat, away back in the 
past eternity, had a common parentage; and 
that cheat, being the more vigorous, and near 
in all respects to the parent tyix;, will repro- 
duce itself in form and character in its hybrids. 
The so-called change from wheat to cheat being 
no violation of nature's law of everything pro- 
ducing "after its kind," but only producing a 
progeny resembling the more vigorous parent 
of two of the same kind, though of widely dif- 
ferent appearances. 

But somebody asks: "Are these hybrid grains 
going to produce wheat under favorable condi- 
tions for wheat growth, and cheat, if other- 
wise?" I answer, I do not think so. Nature 
unassisted may hybridize one wheat kernel in a 
thousand, and that kernel so hybridized will 
always produce cheat, but if the conditions be 
favorable for the perfect growth of the nine hun- 
dred and ninety-nine of wheat-proilucing ker- 
nels, the single chess-producing kernel will make 
a very small show in the crop; but if, on the con- 
trary, the cold and wet rot all but the one par- 
taking of the nature of chess and conduce to 
the bountiful growth and yield of that one, the 
farmer concludes that what of his wheat has 
not rotted has turned to cheat, and hs's right 
about it. 

The above is only a matter of belief with me. 
I have never experimented with cereals in any 
manner, except to try to obtain and raise the 
best varieties — but in my experiments with fruit 

July 27, 1878.J 


seeds, I have had a parallel experience. This 
letter is long enough, however, and words, 
opinions and arguments are not needed, but 
careful, honest experiments are now in order. 

W. A. Sanders. 

Kingsburg, t'al. 

Another Suggestion. 

Editors Press: — As I am a constant reader 
of your valuable paper, I have been very much 
interested in the arguments, -pro and con, in 
regard to wheat being transformed into chess. 
I do not wish to lock horns with Prof. Hilgard 
in argument in regard to this matter or anything 
pertaining to science. I agree with the Professor 
that it is quite unnecessary to argue about 
opinions ; any one can test the matter for him- 
self ; but I do ntjt think Prof. Hilgard has hit 
upon the most feasible way to test the matter. 
My theory in regard to plants producing after 
their kind depends in a great measure upon a 
sufficient nourishment from its parent, and will 
degenerate in proportion to the lack of nourish- 
ment in that respect. Hence, if wheat is ever 
transformed into cheat or anything else, it is 
done by robbing the plant, while quite young 
of its parent seed. Hence anyone can test this 
vexed question by planting a certain number of 
kernels in any good soil for wheat, tlien rob the 
plant as young as possible and not killing the 
stock ; then transjjlant, water and nurse well 
and you will have a nice, dark green stalk, and 
if it does not prove to be chess, it will not be 
wheat. As you transplant, you will of 
know whether it is your wheat or some other 
person's cheat. Anderson Benson. 

Kelseyville, Cal. 

Honey Fruit, Poor Raisins. 

Editors Press: — The beemen were jubilan^^ 
in the early spring at the prospect of immense 
crops, but the cold foggy weather of April and 
May rather dampened their ardor. The yield 
will be a fair one, but not nearly up to expec- 
tation. In 8an Diego county, I am informed, 
that they will ptobably realize 400,001), against 
2,.500,000 pounds in 187(i. A gentleman from 
there reports that where in previous years he 
took out 100 cases up to a certain date, he had 
not taken out 30 this season. In Los Angeles, 
Ventura, Santa Barbara and San Bernardino 
counties "extracted honey" is almost exclusively 
made, so that "comb honey" will be in limited 
supply this year, and will no doubt bring bet- 
ter prices after a time. 

Wheat and barley crops has been a failure in 
this section. The former an entire loss; the lat- 
ter about half a crop. Small fruits are abun- 
dant. At present we revel in blackberries. 
Peaches are ripening and we shall have an av- 
erage crop. The lady bugs seem to have mo- 
nopolized the apricots. 

The grape vines are loaded down, and in due 
time we shall gather clusters equal to those of 
"Eschol," and manufacture raisins as good as 
Malaga can boast of. Just here I wish to say, 
that a few weeks ago, in the city of Cincinnati, 
I called upon a large house which deals in Cal- 
ifornia canned goods, raisins, etc. They showed 
me their raisins, and they were enough to ruin 
the reputation of our State as a raisin producer. 
They were notliing more than dried grapes of a 
very inferior variety and packed in a very in- 
different manner. I would not be willing to 
pay over three cents a pound for them, and the 
dealers assured me that they were a fair sam- 
ple of the California raisin shipped to them. 
They had great difficulty in gettmg ten cents a 
pound for them there, and they agreed with me 
that it was much more than they were worth. 
Why can't our producers try to do things right? 
Get the best kind of grape, cure it properly, 
pack with care and establish a reputation for 
a number one article. This being the case the 
Eastern merchants will not send to Malaga or 
other Mediterranean ports, but will prefer the 
home article. D. W. McLeod. 

Riverside, July 12th, 1878. 

Early Wilson Blackberries. 

Editors Press: — I send you a specimen of 
the Early Wilson blackberry, grown in the red 
and of our plains, showing what can be pei" 
fected by thorough cultivation and irrigation. 
These were grown on land that has been said 
was not worth the cultivating. The fruit is 
from last year's root set out in the fall, grown 
by turning the tip branch down, so in planting 
the root tip the eyes are reversed, branch" down- 
ward, trailing on the ground. From one of these 
branches this stem is clipped. The nature of 
the vine is low and should be kept nipped off 
when two feet high, so as to allow the branches 
of the side shoots to grow low. These again 
after 15 inches growth should be topped off by 
the fingers, keeping the main stem upright with 
the side hanging low near the surface. The re- 
sult of high trimmings is small berries, as the 
sap is not sufficiently strong to reacu the tips. 
Especially in our warm climate it dies out be- 
fore reaching its length, and lessens the strength 
of the stem. Therefore low trimming is abso- 
lutely necessary to gather good fruit. Also as 
it develops the growth, the branches become 
thickly shaded and l)eing near the surface 

where the moisture rises, it keeps a more even 
temperature. It is the same as with a grace, 
the lower it lays near the surface the larger it 
will develop and expand. 

The stems also retain a fuller flow of sap, 
causing a larger amount to flow through all por- 
tions of the vine and thus developing the fruit 
on the vine. 

Vines in a warm climate should be set out 
closer for this very reason; and in rows, say 
three feet between the plants, and leaving a 
space of five feet between the rows to cultivate. 

The Early Wilson berry has another advan- 
tage over the old variety, the Lawton, that is 
the core is smaller and more pulpy. It is also 
sweeter, taking less sugar. The only advan- 
tage the Lawton has is it yields heavier, but the 
Early Wilson gains in price, where it loses in 
bulk, as it ripens early has every advantage 
over all competitors, and is gone when the 
Lawton just comes in. Also it ripens mostly 
at one time; not lasting over three weeks. 

In sending these notes I have no ax to grind. 
I am not in the nursery business, therefore 
have no plants to sell. I write merely to let 
the public know what can be raised and to give 
information gained from my experience. 

Geo. Ek'h. 

Sacramento, Cal. 

[The berries received were exceedingly fine, 
being IJfff l f inches long and a plump inch 
in diameter. They were very small cored, as 
our correspondent notes and deliciously sweet. 
We are glad to see such success with the ' 'small 
fruits." — Editors Press.] 

Blackberries at Petaluma. 
The Petaluma Anjun has the following re- 
view of the blackberry interest in that vicinity: 
Petaluma is noted far and wide for the excel- 
lent quality and large (piantity of blackberries 
it produces. On Wednesday two An/us men 
accepted an invitation from O. F. Westover to 
visit his blackberry grounds, situated two miles 
southwest of town. We have not often passed 
a more pleasant hour among our fruit-growers, 
and on their grounds, than on this occasion. 
Mr. Westover has about JO acres planted with 
blackberries on gently sloping hillsides, and 
separated in about e(]ual divisions by a ravine. 
A stroll through the grouds is certainly a very 
interesting pastime. The bushes are loaded 
with fruit ranging in size from the dimensions 
of a pea to the large and mature berry. The 
soil is a light, sandy loam, and the bushes stand 
eight feet apart one way and ten the other. 
They are planted in March or April, and the 
next year they produce about half a crop. The 
third year the stalks die, new ones having 
sprouted from the roots, which in turn live two 
years, and so on. The time for pruning and 
clearing away the dead stalks is late in the 
winter. The date of commencement of the 
ripening of berries in this vicinity is usually 
about the 25th of June, but this year it was 
sonic two weeks later. The last of the crop 
ripeus in the last days of August. An active 
')i)y, or Chinaman, will pick, on an average, 
00 pounds of berries a day, at a cost to the 
)roJucer of about one cent per pound. The 
:iist of transportation to San Francisco, whence 
I. large portion of the berries produced here- 
abouts are sent, together with commissions to 
middle men, is also about one cent per pound. 
Tlie present price of the fruit in the metropolis 
is four and a half to five cents per pound, leav- 
ing a margin of two and a half to three cents 
for expenses of cultivation, interest on outlay, 
etc. The berries raised here are grown without 
irrigation, to which fact their superior flavor is 
attributed. The principal varieties cultivated 
about Petaluma are the Lawton and Dorchester. 

He.\j,thfiilness of Frdit.— Dr. B. F. Dunk- 
ley has made public some interesting facts 
derived from his own experience in regard to 
the healthfulness of fruit. When he first went 
to Dunksburg, Mo., 30 years ago, no orchards 
were there, and few vegetables were raised. 
The diet of the people consisted of corn bread, 
bacon and a little black cofl'ee, without sugar or 
cream. InHammatory disorders, especially 
such as relate to the lungs, brain, bowels and 
heart, prevailed in the winter, and were often 
attended with fatal results. Malignant dysen- 
tery, the pest of armies shut off from fruit, 
afHicted many of the inhabitants in the summer 
and fall, and in the spring it was not uncom- 
mon for whole families to be sick with scurvy, 
the disease so fatal to sailors on long voyasjes 
before canning fruit was discovered. Dr. 
Dunkley told his scurvy-stricken patients, to 
their great surprise, that their blood needed no 
medicine other than vegetable acids, and he 
ordered them to eat oranges, lemons and sheep 
sorrels. Now fruit and garden vegetables are 
abundant in that locality, and the diseases are 
not of so malignant a type, and yield much 
more readily to treatment. When the orchards 
first began to bear. Dr. Dunkley noticed that 
those children whose fathers had planted apple 
tree eat plentifully of the fruit, both green and 
ripe, and enjoyed most excellent health, while 
Qhildren living where no apple trees grew, were 
dying of flux. 

Native Grasses of Australia 

and New 

A GvpsuM Find.— A gypsum deposit has 
been discovered, says a Los Angeles paper, 
ten miles from here, and Mr. Bryd brought in 
a wagon load a day or two since, and it will be 
tested on some of our alkali lands. Dr. Wolfe 
has a mill for grinding the gypsum. Mr. Ses- 
ler, of this place, imijorted a quantity of gyp. 
sum froni San Francisco, a short time since^ for 
use on his lands, and we understand the exper- 
ment has been highly satisfactory. 

Editors Press: — In the Pacific Eural 
Press for April 6th, 1878, you express a desire 
that I should inform your readers as to the 
habits and growth, the soils on which they 
flourish, and the degree of moisture required, 
of the Great Quagga, Kangaroo, and other 
grasses. Before doing this I should wish to 
point out that these grasses are not indigenous 
grasses of New Zealand, but grasses that I ob- 
tained from Australia (of which place they are 
natives) and distributed them in New Zealand. 

For the last 20 years I have been obtaining 
grass seeds and roots from all persons and parts 
of the world that I could get them from, and 
during this time I have grown and experimented 
with many hundreds of genera and species, 
with a view of introducing to the pastures and 
fields of this new country all such as would in 
crease the winter and summer feed of the live 
stock pastured thereon. 

Among the grasses I have grown, tried 
tested, analyzed, and fed stock upon, are those 
you named. I will, therefore, briefly give you 
the results of my experience of them, as well as 
what is said of them in their own country by 
those competent to judge of their merits. To 
avoid mistakes I will put the botanical name as 
well as the one they are commonly called. 

The (^,uagga grass {A lulropoi/oii. vionta/ius) is a 
strong, coarse grass of a dry quality which 
grows on dry lands where better grasses will 
not thrive, but there is a smaller variety of this 
species which is a much better grass, grows on 
alluvial lands, and stock eat this more readily 
and thrive upon it better than upon the larger 
kind, but neither of these are so good as some I 
shall hereafter name. This grass is a native of 
Northeastern Australia. 

The Kangaroo grass (Antlilstiria AmfraUs) is 
found in all parts of Australia; grows about 
three feet high, is a perennial, flowers in the 
middle of summer, often does not .perfect its 
seed, and the few perfect ones do not germinate 
readily, which is a pity, as it is the best and 
most useful of the grasses that grow in the 
temperate parts of Australia. It is a most ex 
cellent grass if cut for hay, and the animals 
relish and thrive upon the hay made from it. 
It commences to grow in the earliest spring, 
keeps growing all the summer, will rapidly fat- 
ten all kinds of stock. Horses work well when 
fed on this alone without corn, and horned cat- 
tle grow and make beef quickly when grazing 
upon it, and it grows mutton and wool well, 
but it will not bear grazing down all the year 
through, or it will die out; but if it gets fair 
treatment, it is a very superior grass. It has 
proved all these qualities with me in New Zea- 
land, and it would do well in California, as it 
grows in Africa, Asia, and .Japan. 

The Blue grass (^»r/)-o^joj/o/i annulatus) is a 
very excellent pasture grass, productive and 
fattening in moist, warm situations; does not 
grow so well in places affected by drouth, but 
in the Queensland colony of Australia, where it 
is a native, it has a wide range, and is there a 
very good pastoral grass. It grows and per- 
fects its seed in the autumn in New Zealand, 
beginning to grow vigorously in the late spring 
and early summer. I think this is a very good 
grass and would suit the California climate in 
warm, moist situations. 

The Ratstail or Mousetail grass (Polypoijon 
monnpielknsis) grows in several parts of Aus- 
tralia; has delicate leaves, seed stems from nine 
to 18 inches high, is eaten and relished by stock, 
but its growth is too slow to be of much value. 
It is suitable for a mixture with other grasses. 

The Blue Kangaroo grass (Aiidropogon rc- 
/racti(s) grows in the hotter and tropical parts 
of Australia and is as good there as the Antliis- 
tiria Australia is in the cooler parts of Aus- 
tralia. It produces a heavy crop in the sum- 
mer, but grows better during the winter. It is 
good for hay and summer pasture. 

Polly grass (Arundinella nepalenuls) is also a 
native of Australia. In the hotter parts of 
that country, where it grows upon high, dry 
land, it is then a dry, coarse grass, but if grow- 
ing on alluvial soil it is an abundant, rapid-grow- 
ing grass, and can be cut three times during the 
year for hay. 

There are many kinds of grasses known 
locally as star grasses. They are natives of New 
South Wales and Queensland colonies in Aus- 
tralia. There is one, Chlorls harliata, which is 
a very valuable species; grows freely both sum- 
mer and winter, in both wet and dry situations. 
It is a native of Queensland, but grows well in 
New Zealand; gives an abundance of herbage, 
will do to make hay, for grazing of horses, cat- 
tle or sheep, grows and fattens them quickly, 
and is a useful grass for mixed pasture. It 
flowers in the middle of summer. Once estab- 
lished it spreads rapidly. It is perennial. 

There is another star grass taller than the 
j)receding, Chtork permillo. It grows in tufts 
'with a fine leafy bottom; likes a warm, some- 
what damp situation. 

Another Blue grass, by some people called 
and known locally as Blue Polly (Andropogon 
erlaiiihokk>i). It is a native of Queensland and 
its neighborhood, in Australia. This is one of the 
very best grasses for a warm country, as it not 

only grows very fast and makes abundance of 
feed for live stock, but it grows and fattens 
them quickly, being very nutritious. Better 
than most grasses, it will bear heavily stocking 
and eating off close to the ground, and will then 
rapidly grow up into a heavy crop of rich suc- 
culent herbage. I think it would do well in 
California; it spreads freely from the roots, and 
seeds freely. 

Another so-called " blue grass," growing in 
some localities, is And>-opo</o?i laniger. It does 
not grow as tall so the last, but is a rapid 
grower, and is nutritious and fattening. It 
would suit your California climate. 

The Andropogon faleadis would also be a 
useful introduction to grow upon high, dry, 
stony ridges, as it will thereon make a close, 
fine turf, which sheep will thrive on in the 
summer season. Also the Andropogon gryllus 
will grow as a pasture grass in the dry, hot 
summer months, when it will give a quantity of 
feed when other grasses would fail. 

Then for your hot plains, where it could be 
occasionally irrigated, the A ndrojjogon /lalepensis 
would be far better than the Hungarian grass, 
as it contains nearly double the flesh-forming 
and more than double the fat-forming elements 
of that plant. It grows so quick, strong, and 
succulent, that it is more like a sorghum. And 
this reminds me that your climate would do 
admirably for the sorghums, and the farmers 
and grazers, who grow them one year and feed 
their bullocks, cows and hogs upon them, would 
grow them every year after. 

There is the Sorglium mccharatiim, with its 
sweet, juicy stems and tender leaves, and enor- 
mous weight of herbage to cut all the summer 
through for fodder for production of milk from 
cows, for fattening beef and pork, and being 
also nutritious food for other animals. Also try 
Holcus saccharatus, another fodder plant for a 
warm climate. These will grow all the summer. 
Vetches, rape or cape barley would grow for a 
like purpose in the winter months. 

For the sides of your rivers, swamps and 
damp lands, the Andropogon mutkus would do 
well, as it would give a good growth of herbage 
and its underground stems would cause it to 
spread, and as it stands feeding down closely, 
it would not soon be killed by the animals feed- 
ing upon it. 

Andropogon procerus is a fine succulent grass, 
which will grow along the sides of rivers and 
creeks. It grows rapidly, produces a heavy 
crop of hay, or fodder, or grass to feed off. 
These two latter grasses are natives of north- 
eastern Australia. 

Then Andropogon refractns is a fine summer 
grass, producing a heavy crop, but in the winter 
season almost ceases to grow. 

There is also the splendid Danthonki ehjmokles, 
called in northern Australia " the true Mitchell 
grass," one of the best pasture grasses for a hot 
climate. It will stand two years drouth. Much 
of northern Australia would be valueless with- 
out this admirable grass. There are other 
Danthonias or Mitchell grasses in Australia, 
but this is the best. It grows very rapidly 
after the least wetting, and all stockmen are 
very fond of it. 

Ffstuca B'dlardkri is an excellent Australian 
grass, good at all seasons and all stock owners 
value it highly. It grows well with me, both 
summer and winter, in New Zealand, and where 
stock cannot get to it I find some of the plants 
in seed for eight months of the year. 

Holopus annulatus, another Australian grass, 
is good for both summer and winter feeding. 
The pastoralists speak very highly of it, and 
during my experiments with it, it has kept 
seeding for four months of the summer and 

But I must cease writing or you will have no 
space for these remarks. When I look into 
my notes and see the hundreds of species of 
grasses that I have tried, and so many of which 
possess peculiar merits, either for summer or 
winter, some for wet and others for dry lands. 
I am tempted to write on, but for the present 
will finish this by stating I have selected a few 
of the grasses that are inhabitants of a climate 
like that of California, and would therefore be 
very suitable for introduction there. I will 
send seed of these to my correspondents in 
California, who will grow and test them, and 
the grasses will then be within the reach of 
those wishing for them. 

I send with this one of the series of papers 
I wrote for our scientific society, and that they 
published for our colonists. 

If you think your readers would feel inter- 
ested in the subject, you are quite at liberty to 
print it in the P>ural Press. Should you wish 
for others, I will forward them to you, as any- 
thing I could do to assist in carrying out the 
objects you are so ably accomplishing by your 
admirable paper will afford me much pleasure. 

T. M. Curl, M. D. 
Manika Bush Station, Central Rangitikci, 
Wellington, New Zealand. 

[We are under sincere obligation to our cor- 
respondent for his interesting and valuable 
communication. The pamphlet which he sends 
we shall make use of hereafter. We should 
also be much pleased to have hira continue his 
notes on a subject which he has studied so long 
and carefully. We have no doubt at all, that 
we can secure valuable forage plants by trying 
those which are found of value under similar 
conditions in Australia and New Zealand. We 
hope those who receive seeds from Dr. Curl will 
give them fair trial, and report results to us as 
soon as the experiments warrant. — Eds. Press.] 



[July 27, 1878. 

CorreHpondence cortUally in^ted from all Tatrons for thia 

Worthy State Lecturer's Appointments. 

Name of Graii;;e. County. 

Surprise Valley Modoc 

Eaglevillu Modoc 

Ceilarville Modoc 

Northeast Modoc 

Modoc Modoc 

Davis Creek Modoc 

Crescent City Del Norte. 

Rivelluttah Humboldt. 

Sable BluflF Humboldt.. 

Ferndale Humboldt. . 

Mattole Humboldt . 

Cab to Mendocino . 

Potter Valley Mendocino . 

Lakcport Lake 

Cloverdalc Sonoma . . 

HealdsburK Sonoma. . 


Tuesday, .lulv .iOth 

. . .Thursday, Au-^ust 1st 

Saturday, Aujusl ltd 

. . . .Monday, Aujtust 5tb 
.Wednesday, Auj^'ust "tb 
...Saturday August lOtli 
.Wednesday August Utii 
..Saturday, August ITtli 
. ..Monday, Auirust l!ttb 
Wednesday, Au^'ust iist 
. ...Friday, Au!,'\ist 2M 
. . .Tuesday', August 27lb 
. ..Thursday August 2".)tli 
..Saturday, August ;Ust 
..Monday, September 'id 
.Tuesday, September 3d 

Grange Warning Against Adulterations. 

Mr. George T. Angell of the Massachusetts 
State Grange, has prepared the following circu- 
lar, which has the sanction ami approval of the 
grange, and has been sent Ity it to the local 
granges of Massachusetts and tlie State granges 
of the United States: — 

BROTitER.s: — We think it our duty to cau- 
tion granges against the increasing sale of poi- 
^ Bonous articles "in our markets. 

Ar.'n'nic is now sold at wliolesale at about 
five cents a pound. There has been imported 
into this country in a single year 2,327,742 
pounds. A single pound contains a fatal dose 
for about 2,800 adult persons. What become.-^ 
of it '! We answer, a considerable portion 
goes into our wall papers, figured and plain, 
glazed and unglazed; the cheapest as well as 
the more e.xpensive. It is found in white, 
blue, red, yellow, green and other colors. 
The pale colors frequently contain more than 
the most brilliant. The editor of a leading 
Boston paper has recently stated that about Sf) 
per cent, of all wall paper now manufactured 
contain arsenic, and advises his readers to aV)an- 
don their use and paint their walls. The Bos- 
ton Journal of Chemiitnj states that the manu- 
facture of these Jiapcrs is increasing. Arsenic 
is also used in tickets, paper curtains, covers of 
boxes, papers containing confectionery, and 
other papers. Arsenic and other poisons are 
now used in the coloring matter of ladies' 
dresses, gentlemen's under-clothing, socks, hat- 
linings, linings of boots and shoes. They are 
found in woollens, silks, cottons and leather. 
Professor Nichols, of the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, found eight grains of arsenic in 
each square foot of a dress. Another of our 
chemists found 10 grains of arsenic in a single 
artiKcial flower. A child recently died in Troy, 
N. v., by taking arsenic from a veil thrown 
over its crib to keep off flies. The Boston Jour- 
nal of Chcmitlrji states that they are now put- 
ting arsenic into toilet powders used in nurse- 
ries and by ladies, it being cheaper than starch, 
of which they were formerly made. 

It would be well also for farmers to be care- 
ful in buying new kinds of cooking utensils. 
It was discovered last year that "niarbleized 
iron ware " which had come into extensive use, 
was, in the w-ords of the Harvard University 
chemist, who analyzed it, "alive with poison;" 
the enamel being largely composed of oxide of 
lead in soluble form. We are assured that oth- 
er poisonous ware is still sold. Let grangers 
refuse to buy new ware unless guaranteed 

Many flavoring oils and syrups contain poi 
8(m3. It is well to avoid them so far as possi 

Tea, coffee, cocoa and chocolate are all liable 
to be adulterated, and to some extent with dan 
gcrous articles. It is well to buy only of the 
Lest and most experienced dealers. 

Sewing-silk and threa<ls are made heavy with 
lead, and poison those who use them. 

Thousands of barrels of "terra alba" or wliite 
earth, are every year mixed in various forms 
with our sugars and other white substances. 
Its use tends to produce stone, kidney com- 
plaints, and various diseases of the stomach. 
A large part of our cream-of-tartar used in cook- 
ing contains 50 per cent, or more of "terra alba. " 
It is also used extensively in confectionery and 
various poisons are used in coloring confection- 
ery. Mills in various parts of the countrj' are 
now grinding white stone into a fine powder. 
It is stated that they grind at some of these 
mills three grades — soda grade, sugar grade and 
flour grade. We think it would be a paying 
investment for the grangers of each State to 
employ a competent chemist to detect and pub- 
lish adulterations, and then withdraw all pa- 
tronage from those who manufacture or sell 
such articles. We think there is f|uite as 
much need of organizations in all our States to 
enforce laws forthe protection of public health, 
as there is for organizations to catch and pun- 
ish horse thieves. 

In conclusion we can congratulate the 
granges that the farmers are exempted from 
some of the dangers to which other classes are 
subject. We make our own vinegar. It is 
stated in the Sc'n'nlijic Amerkan that probably 
half the vinegar now sold in our cities is "rank 
poison." We make our own pickles. A Mass- 
achusetts chemist who analyzed 12' packages 
of pickles, put up by 12 different wholesale deal- 
ers, found copper in 10 of them. We have pure 
milk and genuine cream, and not the manufact- j 

ured material which so largely supplies onr cit- 
ies and populous towns. It was estimated by a 
medical commission of the Boston Board of Health 
in 1874, that nearly ??."iOO,000 was paid in that 
city in that year for what Jiurported to be but 
was not milk. In a similar period of time 
there were 487 deaths of "cholera infantum" 
in Suffolk county, while in the same population 
outside the city there were less than 100. 

And lastly, we are not compelled to cat ole- 
omargarine cheese, or any part t>i the 90,000,- 
000 pounds of oleomargarine butter, which it is 
estimated will be made in this country this 
year, in which, as we are told by the f 'hioago 
Ai'iy Stock Journal, Professor Church has found 
horse fat, fat from bones, and fat such as is 
principally used for the making of candles, and 
in the preparation of which, as has been recent- 
ly widely published, upon what seems to be 
reliable authority, not sufticicnt heat is used to 
kill the parasites, which enter anil breed in hu- 
man bodies. Ben.iamix P. Wakk, 

Master of the State Grange of .Massachusetts. 

Grangers' Bank of California. 

The semi-annual statement of the Gr.mgers' 
Hank n>ay be found in our advertising columns. 
It is of interest to note the tender which the 
Bank makes of money on stored grain. The 
following circular has been issueil to the stock- 
holders of the Bank and for public information: 
Dfcir Sir: I beg leave to ijiform that 
arrangements have just been <;ompleted by 
which the Grangers' Bank will l>c able to loan 
money on wheat stored in approved warehouse* 
throughout the State, at the lowest market rate 
of interest, after the usual way such business is 
transacted. The credit is due largely to the 
oflicers of this Bank that the prejudice against 
loaning money upon securities in the country 
is gradually disappearing; and we hope our suc- 
cess will l>e both appreciated and advantageous 
to you if you choose to store your grain at home, 
and that you will patronize Grange institutions, 
of which j'ou are a member, acting in common 
interest together. — Albert Monipei.i.iek, 
Cashier and Manager, San Francisco, July 18. 

The Proposed Agricultural College in 

The Legislature of Mississippi has at last 
adopted measures to establish an agricultural 
college in that State with the money donated 
by Congress for the purpose. Tlie farmers of 
Mississippi will now soon realize the benefits of 
a first-class college designed specially to pro- 
mote the interests of agriculture. After the 
selection of a location, the most important step 
will be the formation of the Faculty. Tlie 
President should not only be an able and expe- 
rienced instructor, but he should be in thor- 
ough accord with the sentiments of the farmers, 
and fully identified with their interests. The 
name of one distinguished gentleman has been 
mentioned in connection with the Presidency, 
whose selection, we doubt not, would he cor- 
dially approved by the farmers of the State. 
We allude to Major .1. W. A. Wright, of Cali- 
fornia. His splendid ability, his education 
and large experience as an instructor, in which 
position he displayed administrative capacity of 
the highest order, all fit him in an eminent de- 
gree for this important position. To the Pa- 
trons of Husl>andry in Mississippi he would be 
especially acceptable, for no (i range leader has 
rendered more valuable services to their Order 
and to the cause of co-operation than the dis- 
tinguished author of the firange "declaration 
of Purposes." The Subordinate (iranges, by ex- 
pressing their preference for him by resolutions, 
could secure his appointment. His assistance 
would be valuable to the Board of Trustees in 
their preliminary work, and they would do 
well to secure his ser\ ices on his return to the 
South. — Patrou oj U nxhanilrij. 

It would please Major Wright's friends in 
this State to have him secure this position, for 
which he is so well (jualified. 

In Memoriam. 

Sacra.mento Gi-.ANiiE, .luly 1,3th. 
WiiEUEAS, It has been the will of our Divine 
-Master to remove by death from our number, 
Bro. .lohn Conner, a member of this ( Jrange, 
thereby be it. 

Re.iolreil, That in the death of our much la- 
mented brother the Grange has lost a noble and 
true patron, of whom it may be truly said, he 
was a true patron of husbandry, and a son of 

Heaotred, That the (irange e:^tend its sympa- 
thies and condolence to the wife and chililn^n of 
our much esteemed brother, assure them that 
we will hold sacred his memory, and trust that 
the Divine Master above has called him to that 
heavenly home, where there is no more toil and 
labor, no more trouble and sorrow, where the 
financial struggle of life shall no more tax his 
honest heart and brain, but where he shall rest 
in peace. 

Rfmlrnl, That the Grange regrets that the 
isolated residents of our membership make it im- 
possible to attend his funeral in a body, but 
that the members wear the usual badge of 

Hesob-fJ, That a copy of these resolutions be 
sent to the wife of our late brother, and be 
copied in the minutes of the Grange, and pub- 
lished in Palron and Rural Pkes.«. Commit- 
tee: Wm. N. Haynie, Geo, Cone, Sister D. Hull. 



FiUK IN Gr.Vin Fields. — .S'm/i, July 20: 
There haVe been twice as many fires in the 
grain fields tliis year as we have ever had 
in any one year in this State. It seems 
that there is occasionally a fire epidemic. Cit- 
ies, grain fielils and woods seem, at time, to 
burn with wonderful viciousness. There must 
be, at times, a state of the atmosphere more 
favorable to fire« than at other times. The 
losses to grain fields in this State, in the last 
six Weeks, foot up something like S'iOO.OOO. 
This is entirely unprecedented, and has brought 
out the suggestion of some legislation to com- 
pel men to reap, at the beginning of harvest, a 
strip around a certain number of acres, and 
plow the same. It is certainly very dangerous 
to have an unbroken grain field for miles and 
miles, as we sometimes have in this country. 
Before we commenced to raise grain we have 
seen the fire sweep almost the entire length of 
the county in a few hours. In 18.'34 we had a 
crop in on the Van Winkle place, near the foot- 
hills, about six miles west of Williams. We 
had a strip burned around the field. There 
wan a strong south-east wind blowing, when we 
saw a fire start about 10 miles to windward. 
We saddled up a horse to ride tound the field. 
It did not seem to Us half an hour until the 
fire swept past, dividing at the field. We fol- 
lowed the fire as fast as the horse couhl go to 
our neighbor's — Daniel Blair— about two miles 
ofl", but when we got there he had not a stalk 
left standing. He had depended on the creek 
to protect him on one side, but it went across 
the same as if tlierc had been no creek there. 
The early farmers on the plains always plowed 
two strips around their fields and burned be- 
twoon. Would it not be well to take some 
such precaution now ? 


KiuToRs pRKss: — Our fruit crop is very 
abundant, lie<l Astrachan and Early Harvest 
apples were very fine. Apricots are not grown 
in any quantity here, but what few trees there 
are in tlie neighborhood were loaded. Peaches 
are just coming in. Plums 1 notice are turning. 
Blackberries are just in their prime. Our sec- 
ond crop of strawberries are ripening, they are 
larger and finer than the first, the result of ir- 
rigation. We have ten of the best varieties in 
our grounds. The army worms have done con- 
siderable damage in neighboring grounds, but 
have not as yet invaded ours. — W. C. L. Drew. 
El Dorado, Cal., .tuly 'i'2d, 


Ciior.s. — Ferndale En/erprisr, July 12; We 
are told that the crops on the soMth tide of the 
south fork of Kel river are good. Potatoes 
will be abundant. Wheat is turning out excel- 
lent and will be a heavy yield to the acre. We 
arc also told tliat this is about the first year 
that potatoes ever grew in the Gaiberville 
neighborhood. Corn is growing in luxuriant 
style and will be a good crop. Hogs are easily 
raised. Deer and all kinds of game abound. 

Sei GNU Crop ToBAr( o.—£(!f, July 18: Mr. 
A. H. I'oe has left in the Bee office a sample of 
tobacco, raised this year from stalks that bore 
a crop last year. This shows one of the won- 
ders of our climate. 


Early GKArE.s.—A'.i:/))-..M, July 20: Mr. J. 
Burnap, who has a ranch on w hat is usually 
called "the de.sort," near Walters station, and 
of which we made mention a few days ago, ex 
hibited in the Supervisors' room this afternoon 
a box of Mission grapes, raised on an Indian 
rancheria near his place. Practically the grapes 
were ripe, being uniformly nweet and pleasant 
to the taste, although half of them liad not yet 
turned to the a<w;opted Mission color. The 
fruit was inferiv>r in size, but this fault was ex 
plained by the statement that the vines had 
received no pruning or cultivation of any kind, 
the roots being surrounded with a heavy growth 
of grass and the branches running wild. They 
have never received any irrigation, and do not 
re(|uire it, as water stands within six feet of the 
surface all through that section. The fact that 
the grapes have ripened by the middle of July, 
fully two mouths in advance of the grapes of 
this valley, is the strong point in their favor, 
With the planting of fine varieties of vines, 
supplemented by scientific pruning and fair 
cultivation, the most astonishing results might 
be attained, and with such advantages it ought 
to prove a paying enterprise. 

NiNhyrv-DAV Corn.— Mr. John Johnson, who 
is farming at (iarden Grove, has produced this 
season a very successful crop of rye, and says 
that the grain is as large as that of the heaviest 
wheat. He says that a new variety of corn was 
introduced this year from Iowa. It is called 
ninety-day corn, and matures niucii earlier 
than the King Pliilip. The ninety-day variety, 
planted at the same time as the other, now has 
roasting ears on its stalks, while the King 
Philip is only beginning to put oiit its silk. In 
Iowa this corn yields 100 liushels to the acre, 
and it is believed it will surpass that yield here. 
It has one advantage over nearly all other varie- 
ties of corn, and thut is, it does not throw out 
any suckers. This advantage will make it very 
popular, if it comes up in yield to the expecta- 
tions of the farmers. 

PETKOLEyM-SuLPni R for Sqiirrels. — ffer- 

aid, July 20: The following is Mr. Cottle's 
recipe for the extirpation of squirrels: Saturate 
a piece of old cotton cloth, say about a foot 
square, with coal oil; then sprinkle powdered 
sulphur over it. The cloth thus prepared must 
be placed in the hole, and after setting fire to 
it, shove some distance into the squirrel hole. 
Tlie mouth of the hole must then be covered 
with clods or loose clay, so as to allow the burn- 
ing rags to smoulder, after which cover up 
closely to prevent the smoke from escaping. 
Mr. Cottle assures us that he is meeting with 
the most gratifying success in extirpating these 
pests by the abo>'e modsi 

Kkw Land nm PoTA-toa^.— Journal, July IS: 
As tine a patch of potatoes as we ever saw, and 
a great deal the best We have seen this year, is 
a field at Tomales. It is a piece of land that 
has never been broken l)efore, but has been en- 
riched by the seepage of a corral for many 
years. AVhen the potatoes were planted, the 
ground was so dry that the owner had no idea 
they would sjirout before being moistened by 
the spring rains. But not a drop of rain fell 
after that, and they showed the finest growth 
that potatoes have ever made on the ranch. 
The plants are over two feet high, very strong 
and bushy, and of a rich lusty green. It will 
be very strange if any disease overtakes them, 
and if not, the owner will hereafter always se- 
lect new lantl for potatoes, when he can. We 
know of other instances where the same thing 
has been demonstrated. 

TnRE!<inr»o IK Uriah VAt.i.Er.— /'nw, July 
20: On Thursday of last week P. llowell started 
his thresher, commencing with his own crop of 
wheat, which turned outOOO bushels. On Monday 
noon he finished B. F. McClure's. His machine 
will now be kept constantly employed until the 
tlireshing season is over. He roughly estimates 
the yield of this valley at (K),000 bushels. This 
is not CO bad considering the great amount of 
hay that has been harvested, the unusual quail' 
tity of cheat which found its way into the wheat 
fields, the wet winter, etc. 

Cuop.s. An/us, July 20: The harvest is 
progressing, but grain is coming in for storage 
and shipment somewhat slowly, owing to the 
fact that all available men and teams are en- 
gaged in heading and threshing the immense 
crop. The yield is fully up to the expectations 
of the farmers, many of whom will sack from 
25 to .15 bushels to the acre, making the general 
average larger than for many years. The sea- 
son has been as propitious as could be expected 
and farmer? are enjoying the good times so 
long hoped for. 

Giving Grain the Start ok Uvst.— Demo- 
crrtl: Cttrr Abbott says there is a preventive of 
rust. He claims it to be a fact, that 
in the case of nine acres of laud irfigatfid 
from his canal last fall, before the rains set in, 
and then sowed in wlieat, the crop proves to 
have escaped rust entirely, the yiehl being lar^e 
and the berries plump and bright. The gram 
was, he conc('ives, coo far advanced to be hurt 
when the plague attacked the crops. 

Notes. — Kuitors 'the iieiv crf)jj ft/ 
grain is making its way to market. Business 
center? are becoming brisk. Millers com- 
plain of too much c)ienl in the grain, and 
prices are ruling at a lower figure than they 
would otherwise. The increase of new resi- 
dences has stimulated trade. Wholesale and 
retail houses are well employed. Shipment* 
of fruit pass off weekly, (icncral business of 
all kiuds has an upward tendency. Property 
holders on the tiver hate taken a great part of 
their year's iucoilia to repair and make good th« 
loss by riood. The outlook for corn crops on 
the Cosumnes is good. Lands are being bene- 
fited by the sediment during last year's over- 
flow. Egyptian corn on the plains is looking 
fine. Vegetables to some extent are troubled 
by bugs and insects. Small fruits are on the 
increase. Fine apples are in demand, (i rapes 
will be ready for market this week. Fruit 
drying has commenced. Preparations will 
soon be made for a general leveeing of the dis- 
trict. Crops are doing well on late sown 
ground that was flooded. Hay is jjenty and 
cheap.— Geo. Km h, Sacramento. 

PiiOOEEss AT Riverside. — ErnToKs Pres.s ; 
It is several months since I have seen anything 
in the Rtral Pres.s from this section. I de- 
sire to say that here there is no such thing as 
standstill. Progress is the order of the day. 
"Advance" is the watchword. Since January 
1st over 300 acres of land have been sold by the 
Riverside Land and Irrigating Company to 
actual settlers in farms of 10, 20 and 40 acre« 
each. These are all being planted with orange 
and other fruit trees. It is estimated that ov^^. 
()0,0OO orange trees have been planted this, 
spring. A number of transfers ha\e been made, 
of real estate by pri\ ate parties, and capital and 
enterprise are being directed thither. This_ 
year we shall have our owu "Xavel" and 
"Mediterranean-sweet" oranges, and if they 
jirove eijual to our seedlings of last year the 
future of Riverside is beyond a j>eradventure. 
The water supply is abundant. A break in one 
of the flumes hindered work for a few days, but 
all is now right again. New Yorkers are turn- 
ing their attention to tlie merits of Riverside. 
-Nlrs. LeGrande Lockwood and family, Mr. 
Benedict and several others have already 
bought and are making improvements. Mr. 

July 27, 1878.] 


firinnell is here looking for a location. Land 
bought in Magnolia avenue about two and a 
half years ago, for an average of .f35 per acre, 
was sold last week at $100. The company 
spares neither money nor pains to make Itiver- 
side a success, and the people reap the benefits. 
Our climate is simply delightful — the paradise 
of asthmatics, and as favorable for bronchial 
and lung troubles as any spot upon the coast. — 
D. W. McLeod, Riverside, Cal. 

A Claimed Discovery in Wheat. — Union: 
We had the pleasure yesterday of an interview 
■with Mr. L. G. Stanchfield, of Ventura county, 
who has been making a tour of the counties of 
Southern California, as well as tlie neighboring 
Mexican territory of Lower California, collect- 
ing samples of the different kinds of wheat 
grown. This gentleman has introduced in ( 'al- 
ifornia the new cereal, which is attracting 
very general attention among tlie farmers. It 
is a variety of wheat not hitherto known out of 
Mexico. Its special qualities are: (1) fi-eedom 
from rust; (2) very large, plump grains, covered 
by a long hull of coarse fiber, much resembling 
the husk of corn; ('.i) extraordinary yield. Mr. 
Stanchfield gives the following account of the 
manner in which he became acquainted with the 
merits of this grain: While in Lower California 
a short time since he saw some of this wheat at 
a ranch about 12 miles from Santo Tomas, and 
brought away samples of it. The ranchero told 
him that about two years ago a whale ship came 
to Santo Tomas, on board of which was a man 
having somewhat less than a pound of seed 
wheat, which he offered to the ranchero for a 
dollar. Tlie latter thought the price large for 
so small a quantity, but noting the large size of 
the grains, finally bought it for 75 cents- This 
year the ranchero will gather 200 pounds, al- 
though the stock has l)een in the field and de- 
stroyed much of the growing grain. A Mexican 
has informed Mr. S. that this kind of wheat is 
grown in the country back of Acapulco, where 
it was brought from a colder region; but he does 
not know the original home of the grain. Spec- 
imens can be seen at the warehouse of W. W. 
Stewart & Co. 

New Honev Boxes. — Letters received here 
last winter advised our Bee Keepers' Associa- 
tion to pack their honey in "small, neat, at- 
tractive cases," in order to compete with those 
used in the Kast, and recommended the use of 
the "Prize Case." The President of tlie Asso- 
ciation sent to him by mail a sample "prize 
case." This was found to be unsuited to our 
requirements, as it needed glass, and the cost 
and risk of breakage would be too great. Set- 
ting his wits to work, the President, Mr. Chas. 
J. Fox, invented a sliding lid, placed in each 
side of the box, the use of which enabled the 
dealer to exhibit honey without taking oft' the 
lids of the boxes, even when they are piled up 
several tiers high. These boxes are now being 
made very neatly by Wetherbee &, Co., of San 
Francisco, and sold here by K. Ct. Balcom, 
and seem to meet the wishes of producers 
and dealers, judging by the large num- 
ber being used. We saw this evening a sample 
box to be sent by mail to Chicago, to show the 
dealers there in what a neat and attractive 
shape our producers can put up their honey, 

Warehouses on the West Side. — Stockton 
fmiepenrlmt, July 18: The pros|)ect of not be- 
ing able to get a large portion of their grain to 
market this season on account of the rapid fall 
of the river of late has caused the farmers of the 
West Side to look about pretty actively for 
storage accommodations for the fall and winter. 
The warehouses along the river are all being en- 
larged and we hear of one new warehouse being 
built at Crows Lauding. Seventy-five thousand 
feet of lumber for the warehouse are being ship 
ped up by Capt. Hamilton's steamers. The 
warehousemen have been expecting this con- 
dition of aff'airs and have not been in a hurry to 
fix the rates of storage until it was in demand. 
The rate will probably be about $2 to .$2.50 per 
ton. The river is a very capricious stream in 
the length of time in whicli it is navigable 
Last year navigation closed June 1st; two years 
ago the stream was navigable till September 1 st, 
while this year it will probably close about 
August 1st. There was not as much snow in 
the mountains this year as had been expected. 

Squirrel Poison. — Mr. Kdward Moore, of 
the firm of Owens, Moore & Co. , has for years 
been experimenting on a new preparation for 
dealing death and destruction to pestiferous 
8(iuirrels, and has at last brought it to such 
deadly perfection that with a small quantity of 
the compound he recently killed 225 of the 
rodents in a few hours on a three-acre patch 
near French Camp. The tails of the animals 
are exhibited at the store. The poison is said 
to act 80 instantaneously that the squirrels are 
dead before they fairly swallow it. The com 
pound is prepared in liquid form and is mixed 
with wheat for use. It is to be called "Moore's 
Prepared Strychnine." It is harmless to chick 
ens, turkeys, and other fowls that have a craw, 
but deadly to ducks and geese. It promises 
good results. 

Explosion of a Steam Cultivator. — M. S 
Roberts, of Roberts' Landing, came up on the 
steamer yesterday morning with the informa 
tion that on Tuesday last the mammoth culti 
vating machine upon which he has been experi 
menting for a year and which cost .$10,000, was 
totally destroyed by the explosion of tlic boiler, 
in a manner wholly unaccountable. Sex eral 
Stockton parties were interested in the machine 
to the extent of about $3,000 invested, and the 
news of the explosion will be very unwelcome 

to them. Mr. Roberts, his son Martin Roberts, 
and his son-in-law, J. W. Perkins, had invested 
everything they had in the world in the ma- 
chine, and had just perfected it so that it was 
a complete success, pulverizing the raw tules as 
fine as a flower garden. By the explosion they 
are completely ruined. 

Cattle Stealing. — Mercury, July 20: For 
some time past our cattle men have suffered 
severely from the depredations of thieves, and 
the officers have been on their mettle trying to 
discover and bring these depredators to justice. 
On the 26th of June Calvin Martin lost four 
steers from his ranch, on the Monterey road. 
Deputy Constable Edson, who has been work- 
ing the matter up, arrested a few days since J. 
G. Sepulveda, Nicolas Sepulveda and P. Mon- 
toya for this last larceny, and last evening, in 
conjunction with Chief Haskell, he arrested 
Martin J/amaison, a liutcher, on suspicion of 
being concerned in the transaction. In a pool, 
in the creek back of Lamaison's house, Edson 
found a hide, which had been placed there re- 
cently. It is red and white-spotted, and has 
a swallow fork in the right ear. An owner for 
the same is wanted at the City Hall. It is 
alleged that Lamaison bought the stolen cattle 
knowing them to be stolen, and afterwards con- 
cealed the hides. He stoutly asseverates his 
innocence, and claims that some one is conspir- 
ng to ruin him. 
New Warehouse. — A large brick warehouse, 
00 feet long, 70 feet wide, with walls 20 feet 
high, will soon be erected by the Southern Pa- 
cific Railroad Company on the grounds at the 
southeast end of the present depot on the Ala- 
meda 3,t San Jose. It will be used for the stor- 
age of grain and produce. President Davis was 
n town yesterday making the preliminary 
irrangeinents. The narrow-gauge railroad has 
l)een liberally patronized by the farming com- 
munity and a rushing business is anticipated 
after harvest. 

A<:REEAHi,y DisAi'i'OiNTED. — Cilrov Advo- 
fdfe, .July 20: Mr. Doan anticipated a yield of 
:i00 sacks of barley, but realized 450. The 
crops of other farmers in this vicinity have 
brought surprises equally pleasant. 


The Wheat Yield. — V'allejo C/n-onic/c, 
Inly 18: The total area planted in wheat in So- 
lano county this year Mr. Carrington estimates 
at 113,000 acres, against 98,000 acres last year. 
While there is an increase of 15,000 acres in the 
land sown, he thinks the average yield per acre 
will be one-seventh less than last year. He 
puts it at seven and one-half bushels to the 
acre, which would make the total product of 
the county 847,500 bushels. The area in bar- 
ley is estimated at 50,000 acres, with an aver- 
age yield of 13 bushels, which would give a to- 
tal product of 6.50,000 bushels. The average 
yield per acre he estimates at five per cent, less 
than it was last year. 

Grain at Dixon. — Tribune, July 20: Dur- 
ing the past week grain has been coming in at 
tliis point at the rate of nearly 200 tons a day. 
Since last Thursday, over LOOO tons have been 
received at the warehouses and yards. About 
1,800 tons in all had been weighed at the ware 
house office up to PViday morning. Mr. Kelley 
states that the quality is slightly better than 
tliat of the first received. It is estimated that 
8,000 tons of grain will be stored at Dixon this 
season. Grain has been coming into Maine 
Prairie for storage quite lively the last 10 days. 
Few or none of the farmers in that vicinity 
suffered from rust. Messrs. Agee, Burns, Hans 
Timm, Kiiicaid, and all the parties in the vicini 
ty of the late fire were more than ordinarily 
damaged by the rust. It reduced the yield in 
some places two-thirds or more, and in large 
spots the grain was hardly worth cutting. 


Fine Wheat. — Biinner, July 20: During the 
last seeding time, Mr. Joseph Hardy, of this 
county, planted some wheat received by him 
from the Agricultural Department at Washing 
ton, the sample being known as Toozell wheat. 
There were six ounces of it when sown, and the 
increase amounted to 222 pounds. The grain 
is very large and fine, is not withered, and com- 
mends itself to everybody who looks at it. Mr. 
Hardy intends to give it a trial on a larger scale 
the coming season. The increase is immense. 
At the rate named above, a bushel of GO pounds 
would briag 35,200 pounds, or over a ton and a 
half of grain. 

Grain Crops. — Threshing liaving been in a 
great measure completed in our county, we are 
able to judge as to the quantity and quality of 
the grain raised. From the opinions of those 
best informed on the subject, the crop will 
reach about a two-third average, while in 
((uality it falls a little short of last year's croj 
in portions of the county it was entirely 
drowned out, and in a few spots the rust dam- 
aged it to some extent. Not near the damage 
anticipated, however, from this cause, has been 
experienced, the rust in many places secmin^ 
to attack the grain after it was too far advanced 
to be effected materially by it. I^arge quanti 
ties are being hauled to tlie warehouses in 
Yuba City, principally to the Farmers' Union 
where there is already in store about 1,600 to 
1,700 tons. As an earnest of the importance of 
Wxha. VAty as a commercial point, we may men 
tion that considerable grain is being brought 
from Yuba and Butte counties for storage 


Agricultural Society. — Press, July 13: The 
following gentlemen were elected officers for the 

ensuing year: I. T. Sax by, President; J. G. 
Hill, Vice-President; M. H. Gay, Treasurer; C. 
D. fjonestel. Secretary; I. T. Saxby, R. G. Sur- 
dain and J. G. Hill, Executive Committee. 

Yolo's Cereals. — Democrat, July 20 : The 
wheat crop of Yolo county is turning out better 
tlian was expected a month ago. The best judges 
estimate that the yield will be fully two-thirds of 
an average crop, which, after all that has been 
said, may be called pretty good. The barley crop 
is splendid. Yolo can tide over easily any year 
on half a crop, but of course two-thirds is better ; 
and when she has a full crop everything booms. 
We shall have a prosperous year in all depart- 
ments of business. 


TRAPPiN(i Jack ILvbbits. — Iihilioan: Mr. 
Thurman is still capturing the jack rabbits 
about his farm seven miles below Boise City. 
He has three miles of brush fence, along which 
are placed his traps at points made convenient 
for the pests to jump over, and when one alights 
t strikes on a board which turns on a pivot, 
and down it goes, a doomed rabbit, into the 
trap. The trap re-sets itself for the next vic- 
tim. There are seven men employed to do 
nothing else but run the traps, build new ones, 
etc. The number now caught averages 400 per 
day, or about a thousand pounds of meat, which 
goes to fatten 200 or 300 hogs. The hogs seem 
to thrive on the meat, the eating of which has 
no injurious effects uuon them, notwithstanding 
it was asserteil that the fur of the rabbits would 
clog their stomachs, producing imflamniation 
and death. Mr. Thurman also saves the ears 
of the rabbits, for which there is a bounty of 
two cents per pair. One man is constantly em- 
ployed in cutting off" the ears and putting them 
n a string. 

News in Brief. 

There were 97 deaths in this city last week. 
Secretary Thomp.son is inspecting the Bos- 
ton Navy Yard. 

Yellow fever has been very fatal at Vera 
Cruz and Y ucatan. 

(iOLd discoveries are reported in Paraguay 
and Patagonia. 

Three thousand catfish will soon be put 
into Clear lake. 

(Jeo. M. Kiell & Co., of London, have failed 
for .?!6,000,000. 

The run of salmon down the Columbia river 
continues very light. 

Work on the branch prison at Folsom will 
soon be commenced. 

The grain cro])s of Utah are the largest ever 
raised in that Territory. 

(iRAssHOPi'Eits are reported at the head of 
Deer Lodge valley, Montana. 

The Iiilntiil Empire says that the Chinese sell 
liquor to the Indians at the Dalles. 

Fifteen car-loads of Mormon emigrants ar- 
rived in Salt Lake city last week. 

The Santa Barbara oil well is in splendid 
indications, and yielding some oil. 

The Russians advertise great quantities of 
war material in Rouniania. 

There are 1,100 whites and 500 Chinese at 
work in the Cassiar mines. 

Ireland beat England and Scotland at the 
800, 900 and 1,000 yard ranges. 

The Catholic church at Santa Rita, Monterey 
county, has been burned; no insurance. 

The Fresno Republican estimates the grain 
crop of that county at 750,000 bushels. 

Some of the Italian journals violently oppose 
the acquisition of Cyprus by the P]nglish. 

Myers, the scout who was captured by the 
Indians at Camp Curry, was roasted alive. 

The Utah Bank of London, with a capital of 
.$800,000, has been opened at Salt I^ake City. 

James Gordon Bennei't's steam yacht Jean 
netle left New Y'ork for San Francisco July 

The honey yield of San Fernando valley, Los 
Angeles county, this year, is estimated at 200 

The estate of the late Isaac FViedlander is 
valued at .$440,000, of which ,$280,000 is cash 
in bank. 

The Ute and Apache Indians have all agreed 
to go on their reservations, and no further 
trouble is anticipated. 

Silver dollars in considerable quantities are 
being exchanged at the mint in this city at par 
with gold. 

.loHN p. Jones, Senator from Nevada, was 
honored by a public reception on his return 
home to Gold Hill. 

The Piutes who left Paradise valley during 
the excitement three weeks ago are returning 
and going to work again. 

Two ledges of cinnabar and two of silver 
have been discovered in Placer county, about 
25 miles from Sacramento. 

Fckther strikes have occurred among the 
workmen employed in silk and lace manufac 
tures at St. Ktinne, France. 

An Indian brawl occurred at Sitka in which 
four Indians were killed. The natives are fa- 
vorably disposed towards the whites. 

Many farmers in Polk county, Oregon, are 
cutting their wheat for hay. Not more than 
a half crop will be harvested. 

SxNTA Monica, Los Angeles county, which 
three years ago was grazing ground, now has a 
permanent population of 700. 

Dennis Jordan's bid of .$161,500 for buildfng 
the Branch State Prison at Folsom, has been 
accepted by the Commissioners. 

Grasshoppers have appeared in Hicks' val- 
ley, Marin county. They are small, and as yet 
have done no damage. 

A PARTY at Coos Bay has killed, skinned and 
boiled 100 sea lions. Some of these weighed as 
much as 2,500 pounds each. 

The orange crop of Los Angeles county has 
increased from about 5,000,000 in 1871-2 to 
nearly 8,000,000 in 1870-7. 

The shipping of ties and posts from Cuffey's 
Cove, Mendocino county, is lively. Six cargoes 
have been shipped so far this season. 

Accounts from Pha>nix, Tucson, and Yuma, 
Arizona, represent the heat as excessive, the 
thermometer ranging from 112' to 116°. 

Tfie weather is very hot in England and on 
the Continent. In some parts of the Exposi-' 
tion building the temperature is unbearable. 

Stokes, the murderer of Fisk, is reported to 
be in Cornucopia district, Nevada, looking after 
some mining claims in which he is interested. 

Ten 'j'housand nail makers in England have 
struck for an increase of 30% in their wages, 
and 10,000 more will join the strike this week. 

The native Californian who was hung by a mob 
last week at San Jacinto for the murder of 
Palmerston, turns out to have been an innocent 


Panamint is now entirely deserted by white 
men, a fine mill and numerous buildings remain- 
ing as nionuinents to its former high mining 

The Territorial Pioneers will celebrate the 
anniversary of the admission of (!alifornia into 
the Union at Pacific Hall on the 9th of Sep- 

Cue General Government has ordered a sur- 
vey of San Pablo and Suisun bays, and the 
schooner Yukon is coming down from the north 
to perform the work. 

A plan to take the Yoakum brothers from 
the jail at Bakerstield, Kern county, by a mob, 
for the purpose of lynching them, was frus- 
trated by the Sheriff. 

In this city, on the 18th inst., the wife of G. 
W. Scheuck gave birth to triplets, three boys, 
weighing in the aggregate 17g pounds, all of 
them living and likely to do well. 

The exact amount of awards to American 
claimants by the American and Mexican Com- 
mission is $4,025,622. The Mexican govern- 
ment has thus far paid in $570,000. 

Ac itve preparations are apparent for a favor- 
able change in commercial aff'airs in England. 
I'eports from various centers of the iron indus- 
try are decidedly more encouraging. 

It is stated that an immense majority of the 
Russian people, as well as the mercantile com- 
munity, and the wealthy as well as the lower 
masses, are heartily glad of a return of peace. 

A liOiLER in Davis' planing mill, at Barnes- 
ville, Ohio, exploded recently, destroying the 
entire building and killing three persons out- 
right. Three more were fatally, and several 
badly, injured. 

The gross earnings of the Central Pacific rail- 
road for the six months ending June 30th com- 
pare with last year's earnings as follows: 1878, 
$7,839,537.03; 1877, $7,463,138.64. Increase, 
for 1878, $373,398.89. 

The National Liberals of Germany admit 
that they expect to suffer some loss in the ap- 
proaching elections for members of the Reich- 
stag, but think they will retain a majority in 
that Ijody. 

The water in the Carson river is receding 
rapidly, and as the snow has nearly all melted 
from the mountains, it is feared the water mills 
will have to shut down before the 1st of Sep- 
tember — earlier than was anticipated. 

The salmon run in the Columbia is considered 
nearly over. The catch has been fair this year 
but not particularly encouraging. The can- 
neries as a rule have put up a slightly larger 
quantity this year than last, but the business as 
a whole has not been satisfactory. 

FoRi'Y-i'wo vessels, aggregating nearly 50,- 
000 tons, are now lying in this port under 
charter to carry wheat to the United Kingdom. 
Fourteen vessels are engaged for other pui'posea 
to different foreign ports, and forty-four vessels 
are on the disengaged list. 

A Chinaman recently made application to 
Judge Shoate, of the United States District 
Court, New York, to become a citizen. The 
.Judge denied the application under the decision 
of .fudge Sawyer, of the United .States District 
Court of California, in the case of Ah Youp. 

The American schooner Parallel, on her way 
from San Francisco to Portland, boarded a .Jap- 
anese vessel on which was found no living 
person, but only a number of dead bodies of 
Orientals who seemed to have been dead for 
some time. As there was no food on board 
they are supposed to have died from starvatou. 

The General Clip ok 1878. — A dispatch 
from the Department of Agriculture at Wash- 
ington, July 23, says: The wool clip of 1878 is 
about three per cent, greater than its imme- 
diate predecessor. New England fell off about 
five per cent. ; the three north Middle States, 
three per cent. ; Pacific States, nine per cent. 
All other States show an increase; the four 
south Middle States (Delaware, Maryland, 
Virginia and West Virginia) \ \ per cent.; the 
four south Atlantic cotton .States (North Car- 
olina to Florida), 2i per cent. ;,the six west cot- 
ton .States (Alabama to Tennessee, 14 per cent. 
The north Central States (Kentucky to Wis- 
consin), 1,' per cent. ; .States west of the Miss- 
issippi, four per cent. The heavy decline on 
the Pacific Coast is due to reduced production in 
California, and the great increase in the South- 
west was in Texas, 



[July 27, 1878. 

Maud's Answer. 

"Your be;iutiful Maud is fam,y-free; 

Just as she pulls a rose a])art. 

So doth she toy with a loving heart. 
Take care !" said iny sister, waniinj; me. 

I kissed my sister, for she is kind, 
And loves nie; hut as we reached the ^te, 

1 turned and told her I had a mind. 
Nevertheless, t<> try my fate. 

"Oh, brother, she's cruel as she is fair; 
And the rich man's son is wooing there." 
"Sister, 1 may he foolish and blind. 
Hut — woman knoweth not woman's mind." 

Cruel and fair! Take care, ah, take care! 

Inward echoes like birds kept sinffing; 
Across, throu;^b the shimmering sununer air, 

I could see Maud s hammock swinging. 

"I will tell her the truth, and take her word; 

I will not vex her by lover's sighing," 
I said to myself as 1 stood by Maud, 

Like a flower in her hammock lying. 

She looked at me gravely with lovely eyes; 

Then their falling lashes swept her check. 
Where a flickering hloftm began to rise; 

But she did not smile, and she did nut si>cak. 

"1 am poor, and I love thee!" The tone was bold. 
For my heart beat strong with the truth unsaid; 

But after, in face of my secret told, 
i had not courage to lift my head. 

She stayed the hammock with one white hand; 

I saw" her little feet touch the ground; 
I felt her come and close to me stand, 

And the earth and the sky wheeled round and round. 

From her lap the roses fell at my feet; 

I could feel the waft of her fragrant breath; 
The sense of her nearness was strange and sweet, 

As tha fullness of Life and the Trance of Death. 

Tlien, whether with hope or whether with dreail. 
My strength came hack with a leaping thrill; 

Though my lips were close to her golden head, 
I would not move till J knew her w'll. 

"The househ(>ld art is the only dower 

I can bring, .save myself, to him I wed; 
Canst thou find the roof, and earn the flour? 

Then I can make /I'/wt , and sweet white bread. 

"Thou art poor, art thou ? Yet thou lovest me I" 
Her i>ale face flushed with a burning red — 

"Well, Maud is poor, and she U)\eth thee; 
So now we are rich, are we uot ';" she said. 

And faltered, all trembling with love confessed; 

And I, with knowing 1 was so dear. 
Trembled, but gathered my rose to my breast; 

And Love was answered, and Life was clear. 

Our Front Room. 

"There!" said Bess, sitting down emphati- 
cally on the door-step and fanning herself with 
her wide straw hat. "There, that front room 
must and shall be furnished 1" 

"I wish it might be,'" observed Harrie du- 
biously; "but 1 don't feel much encouraged 
about it as yet," 

"If I were you, Bessie, I'd order the suit in 
reps, and a tapestry carpet,'' I remarked sar- 
castically. "I'm afraid we cannot quite afford 
Aubusson and satin brocade." 

"How much money have you, Harrie ?" ask- 
ed Bess, ignoring my irony. 

"Five dollars and forty-three cents," w.ts 
Harrie's reply, after an inspection of her pock- 

"And you Flo ?" 

"I have SIO,'' laughed I. "We shall not be 
able to rival the Bentons, I am afraid, Bessie 
dear. " 

The Bentons were our showy next-door 
neighbors, be it remarked, whose gorgeous par- 
lor was at once the admiration and the despair 
of half the housekeepers in Norwoodville. 

"The Bentons 1" exclained Bessie with su- 
purb scorn. "Do you suppose, Florabella, 
that I would sit down in our front-room if it 
bore the faintest resemblance to that upholstery 
shop of the Bentons? Do you imagine — " 

"Of course not 1" I cried, with uplifted hands 
warding of any more incKgnation. "I don't 
suppose anything at all. But what has sent 
you struggling with that impossible front-room 
again ?" 

"Tisn't impossible," retorted Bess. "I have 
li'20 all my own; that makes .'J3.5 between us. 
Now, if you girls will follow mj' directions, we 
can take that $.35 and furnish that room." 

"How? " I quered, helplessly; while Harrie 
evidently thought it of no use to say any more 
to a girl who talked such absurd nonsense as 
furnishing a parlor with $35. 

We were three orphan sisters, keeping house 
together on an income so ridiculously small 
that any outlay for new furniture was quite 
out of the question, and yet the one desire of 
our three hearts was to furnish our parlor, a 
pretty room but bare aa any barn. We liad a 
conveniently appointed kitchen; and a cool 
clean dining-room, where we sat in the after- 
noons with our sewing. Our bedrooms were 
comfortably furnishe<l: l)ut for the parlor we 
had not so much as a table. 

To-morrow our (juarterly income was due, but 
that we must live on for tiie next three months. 
So the .§.S5 left over from this quarter 
was all we could possibly count on, and that 
seemed too small a sum to think of in con- 
nection with the furnishing of our front room. 

Bess was our head and shoulders, our right 
hand, our mainstay; and her capabilities in the 

' BABY MINE." *— By Herbert Smith. 

3. Tin so glnJ, I cnn-nof 

sleep Ua-by nunc, bn • Ly mine, I'm so 

1. 1^0 o Ict-fer I'loni thy Biro. Ba- by mine, 'b.'i • by iiiilic, T. could 

2. Oh, I long <o eee his laco, JJa-by mine, bn • by niiun, lii iis 

3. hnp-py I could weep, Ba •" bymlnclfa is snil-inc: o'er tho sc.-<, Ho is 

1. rondnnd norer tire, Bn • hy minc^La -lymine.llo ii «ail-ing o'er tho sen, Ifo is 

2. old' nc- custom'd pincc Bn- !iy iiiine,l)a • Lymine,Likelhc flowcrsoC.'\n>yrn lilooni Liko a 

.3. coin • Tng liomt to mo Yes. lie's com • log liomo 'to mo- Bn - Ly 

1. com - ing- lioma to mo Ybs, hn's com-ing home to mc 
■2. stni 1)0 - hind \ha glooniTlJiko Ihe sunbliinu in iho roon 

, Bn-'V 

3. niinu, lin I)y /nilito, Ifo la coming homo Jo 

l!n • by iniiin . 

1. minOi bn • - liy niino, Uo !.< lommg homo to jno Bn • by niino. 

2. mine, 'bo ■■ by niino, Liko thoisunshiua iu tho room Bn-by_, jr.inn. 


Lul-ln "by 

LuMn "by Bn-liy OTcedy slumber, Angola nro guid-ing him over tlio sen 

Jlul-la Ly Ua- by weeily sturcber- . An^el? are guidingjiim ^^o ■ ver ilie aea. 

'Pholo Eiiiiiareil ami PuhVijihed hji iKrmUaion, from tht cnpi/ri^M tdition containing all parts, told by M. Oray 
Mimic Deal r, S. F. Ponlimhl, .15 coifs. 

way of getting something out of notliing were 
truly remarkable, as witnessed by the fact of 
her possessing more money at the end of the 
quarter than both her sisters; though we liad 
all the same allowance fortiur personal expenses, 
and Bessie's were the heaviest, on account of 
her being the largest and requiring the most 
dress material. Vet in spite of Bessie's genius, 
the furnishing of that front room seemed exceed- 
ingly problematical. 

' 'There is my contribution to the funds," re- 
marked Bess, placing her $20 on the top step. 
I deposited my $10 beside it, and Harrie follow- 
ed witli her .$5. 

Then we looked at Bess and awaited an ex- 

"I have been reading in the magazine, "said 
Bess, "about a woman who furnished her par- 
lor with $50, and had the prettiest room in 

"But we liave only .$.35," suggested I. 

"And 43 cents," supplemented Harrie. 

"Well, that woman bought some things 
which we need not buj'," replied Bess. "To 
be sure she had a set of lovely old chairs which 
belonged to her great-grandmother, and which 
have just come into fashion; and somebody 
gave her a pair of pictures, and somebody else 
presented her with a statuette; and — " 

"Do stop, Bess I" I cried, imploringlj'; while 
Harrie went of in a violent explosion of laugh- 

"I don't suppose anybody will give us a pic- 
ture, or beg the privilege of keeping a piano in 
our front room," said Bess candidly; "although 
that happened to the woman in the magazine. 
What I want is Ben Bradshaw's plane and saw; 
and Ben himself to operate them, and an old 
barrel or two." 

"1 suppose Ben and his tools are to be had 
for a thank you," remarked Harrie, "and tliere 
are barrels enough in tho woodshed. They are 
good enough, too. W^liat are you going to do 
with them, Bessie?" 

"You shall see," said Bessie, smiling v.'isely. 
"At present let us go to Merrion's and get 
some of that lovely straw matting for the floor. " 

"Straw matting will do very well for the 
present," said 1; "but when it comes cold 
weather — " 

"We must not begin to think of cold weather 
in May," interrupted Bessie. "Perhaps by No- 
vember some good luck will bring us a carpet. 
In summer, matting is a positive luxury." 

We went to put on our things, of course, 
prejjaratory to visiting the carpet store; for we 
always obeyed Bessie's order. 

When we returned from the expedriion we 
were accompanied l>y a man with a w'oeelbar- 
row; and in that barrow were 26 yards of blue 
and cream-colored matting, of a nice (juality, 
whicli we had bought for 50 cents a yard; also 
eight rolls of pretty gray paper, at 50 cents a 
roll. When the paper was up and the mat- 
ting was down, our front room was very clean 
and cool to look at. 

"But we could look at the pretty matting. 

and blue-gray paper in Merrion's store just as 
well," said Harrie. "And 1 don't see where 
we are to get any furniture. Our ancestors did 
not leave us any anticjue chairs." 

"We will make the curtains first," said Bes- 
sie, cheerfully, coming in at that moment, 
with her hat on and a bundle in her hands. 
"I've just been down street and bought the 

And Bessie opened her bundle and displayed 
a roll of snow-white muslin and some pale-blue 

"I paid 40 cents a yard for the muslin," she 
said, "and I bought 15 yards. Five yards to 
a window will be plenty, it is so wide. And 
the cretonne will make charming shades. It 
was 60 cents and here are six yards. We'll 
make some lambrequins of it, too, for the M in- 
dows, and for that ugly wooden m.antel-shelf. 
You can make some blue-and- white tassels, 
Harrie, like those on your tidy, but larger. 
And here are the fixtures for the shades. They 
cost a •^1..50 for the three. ' 

So we hung the blue shades in our three win- 
dows, with a blue-and-white crochet tassel 
pendent from each ; and over them we draped 
the full white muslin curtains, with pretty 
blue lambrequins at the top. Harrie sacrificed 
her freshest blue ribbons to loop the curtains, 
though Harrie is a blonde, and blue ribbons 
are very becoming twisted among her golden 

"Why it is charming !" she cried, admiringly, 
regarding tho effect from the doorway. "Now, 
Bessie, bring in your furniture !" 

"Ben will bring the table this evening," said 
Bessie. "And I can promise a lounge and two 
arm-chairs and a pair of ottomans. There I my 
ideas and the money will give out together.'' 

Ben did bring the table— a great, round pine 
afl'air, of his own manufacture, rude enough, 
certainly, Viut he planed it smooth and staineil 
the legs with amber, in imitation of walnut, 
and even that did not matter much, for very 
little of them showed when Bessie had covered 
it with a sheer-cloth, abstracted from the din- 
ing-room . 

"There now !" she replied in triumph; "could 
anything be neater ? It M'ill hold piles of books 
and papers, and that's all we want it for. 
Who's going to lift the cover to see if it is wal- 
nut ? We will cover it with white cloth for 
the summer (thank our stars we have plenty of 
table linen I), and next summer I promise to 
save $10 from my allowance to buy a cover for 
it. 1 had lien make it nice and big, because 
I hate a small table; I like one that everybody 
can gather around and be sociable." 

After the table followed, at intervals of a 
day or two, the other articles which Bessie had 
enumerated. First, a lounge — perhajis it 
would be better called a sofa — composed of a 
long packing-box, with one side knocked out, 
and a square block under each corner. These 
square legs were stained with amber, in imita- 
tion of walnut, like the table legs. 

Bessie expended all the rest of her money for 

blue-and-white chintz — a distractingly pretty 
pattern, and bought at a bargain ! With this 
she covered that unpromising sofa, stuffing the 
cushions with corn-husks; and the two big, 
square piUows were ornamented at each cor- 
ner with Harrie s pretty tassels. Upon my 
word the sofa was as pretty an article of fur- 
niture as the Bentons had in their house. 

Then Ben brought us two large casks, or 
hogsheads, or whatever you call them, sawed 
down lengthwise to the proper bights for a 
seat, and then sawed crosswise, and a board 
fitted in. These also were covered with the 
pretty chintz, and well cushioned with husks, 
and they made the coziest arm-chairs imagin- 
able. Harrie finished them off with crochet 
and netted tidies. Bessie's ottomans were sim- 
ply two soap boxes cushioned on top, and 
covered with chintz. 

We took a few chairs from the other rooms 
and added to this array. We cut engravings 
out of old magazines, .and framed them with 
straw and jianne ptirtout frames; took the tine 
landscape painting from the dining-room and 
brought it into the parlor; Bessie brought down 
her pet chromo of the "C'enci, " from her bed- 
room, and placed it between the eastern win- 
dows; we filled two great conch shells with 
growing vines and suspended them at each cor- 
ner of the high old-fashioned mantel shelf, now 
prettily "upholstered" in blue cretonne. And 
our front room M as finished. 

I say nothing about the flowers with which 
our room was adorned, but perhaps they did 
more than anything else to make our room at- 
tractive to us and to all our friends. It wag 
cool and dainty to the eye, and all summer our 
friends kept telling us how pleasant it was to 
come in there and sit down. Sam and Millie 
Benton came in often of an evening, and they 
thought it a prettier room than their moth- 
er's grand ' parlor. 

And all for .$.35. 

"And 43 cents,'' says Harrie. — Balloiis 

Santa Cruz Sunshine. 

FniTORs pRKss: — Sitting in the sunshine, 
with a book and writing materials within easy 
reach, I hesitate whether to read or write. 

Tiie glorious landscape spread out before me 
with the glistening Monterey bay in the dis- 
tance, prompts me to try to tell your readers 
what a lovely spot .'^anta t'ruz is. If one is 
tired of business pursuits, of giving and receiv- 
ing calls, of the monotonous routine of house- 
keejiing, or of teaching, come to Santa Cruz for 
a breathing spell. 

Kise early, and climb one of the hills to see 
the sun rise, when the air is moistwith dew and 
fragrant with flowers. Take a ride to the beach 
during the forenoon and see the hordes of sea 
bathers in their grotcsijue costumes, or join a 
picnic party to the big tree grove or on one of 
the many charming lieaches beyond the town. 

By all means bring all the children along, for 
there is fun enough for all. 

Moonlight rides either in boats on the water 
or on horseback, or jollier still, in a wagon 
without springs half filled with hay and a merry 
party of singers. 

Then the camping out is another great attrac- 
tion, with fishing and dove shooting for excite- 
ment. The stories around the camp fire at 
night, and impromptu charades and tableaux 
accompanied by choruses and comic songs, in- 
haling the while the spicy mountain air, all tend 
to give one a new lease of life. It is a charming 
way to become thoroughly acquainted, and 
sometimes wicked Cupid takes advantage of the 
occasion and more than one happy marriage has 
been the result of a few days of camp life. 

If any one doubts my assertions, let him or 
her come and judge if I misrepresent matters in 
and about our merry little city on the Monterey 
bay. N. 
Santa Cruz, Cal. 

New Music. 

With a view of making our "Home Circle" a 
more inviting retreat, we expect from time to 
time to give reduced transcripts of the popular 
music of the day. Our space will not allow us to 
give selections entire, but a knowledge of the 
leading part will enable our music lovers to 
judge whether the composition pleases or not. 
If they like it they can order the full sheets of 
the publishers with some idea of what they will 

"Baby Mine," which we give this week, is a 
pretty little song and chorus which seems to 
seize upon the popular ear and heart, and is the 
latest home song. 

"SrsDAV Afi'ekn'oo.v." — This is the title of a 
new magazine published at Springfield, Mass. 
It has just finished its first volume and demon- 
strated its right to exist by speedily obtaining a 
strong hold upon popular appreciations. It is 
not a religious publication in the strict sense of 
the term, and yet it earns its title by truth to 
reHgion and morality; truth to the highest and 
purest in human life; and truth to the most 
chaste literary taste. It has won the contriVm- 
tions of our best magazine writers and the ap- 
proval of our leading authors. Its contents em- 
brace brief and inviting essays on timely sub- 
jects, entertaining and wholesome stories, good 
poetry, and pertinent editorial comments. We 
have withheld remarks upon the publication 
until we should perceive its true character, and 
we find it to be a magazine which we can freely 
recommend to the "Home Circle." 

July 27, 1878.] 


"Have" or "Be." 

Editors Press: — If our Lord's beatitudes 
were submitted to a popular vote in California, 
I wonder whether their "platform'' would be 

Would it be "Blessed are the poor in spirit," 
or "Blessed are the rich in pocket? " Anyway 
our actions speak all too plainly in favor of our 
belief that to the latter class alone is blessed- 
ness possible. 

What young man, "starting in life," but has 
for the goal of his ambition, not the achieve- 
ment of excellence'of character, but the attain- 
ment of a proud pre-eminence as a possessor of 
dollars untold? Even in his contemplation 
of matrimony, his views run suspiciously in the 
rythm of the popular rhyme, 

"This fine .young woman's very tall, 

Of course she's very thin, 
What a tiny thing her heart must be. 

If she's one at all within! 
No fine young girl need have a heart, 
If she's only lots of tin," etc., etc. 

Moreover the gentler sex seem entirely bitten 
by a dog of the same color. In spite of Shak- 
sperian warnings that "crabbed age and youth 
cannot live together," age, with one foot in the 
grave, if amply endowed with "the needful," 
seems to be far preferred to youth unblessed 
witli that indispensable requisite to any large 
extent. Like Hood's illiterate female, their 
"Cupids are all Cupidities." 
Now there are certain facts that every age, 
no matter how far advanced beyond the dull- 
ness of their progenitors, must learn for them- 
selves. One of these facts is the difference be- 
tween value and worth. Things may have great 
value and yet be quite worthless. A jeweled 
cup might have a value of thousands of dollars, 
and be of less worth than a drink of water to a 
poor wretch perishing from thirst. A man may 
possess "all that heart could wish" of hard cash, 
and be of all men the most miserable — hated 
by his fellows and hateful to himself. Our very 
word for an accumulation of gold, "miser," is 
the Latin equivalent to our "miserable." 

Such a one may be the object of our envy 
or our jealousy; scarcely of our love. We don't 
want to make bosom friends of such. Says 
Schiller — 

If thou hast somethincr, bring thy goods, 
A fair return be thine; 

If thou art something, bring thj soul, 
And interchange with mine. 

The world's sober verdict corroborates the sen- 
timent. History notes not men who /uid; but 
men who did, who thought, who bled; women 
who loved, who sung, who suffered. These are 
characters dear to the historic muse. 

Marriages, contracted on the filthy lucre 
basis, inevitably prove that tho' only one of the 
parties, perhaps, was bought, both were surely 

The recent annals of Californian jurispru- 
dence pointedly prove the portraiture of old 
Chuzzlewit, as portrayed by Dickens. The 
millionaire has again and again confessed to his 
miserable mistake in making money his mark. 

I want to warn the young readers of the liv- 
KAL against deferring their life's work until 
they .have acquired a store of coin of the realm. 
Real worth is what the world wants. It is love, 
love, love, as the old French song says, that 
makes the world go round, hard cash don't do 

Moreover, there is a realm where coin is not 
currency; where greenbacks are not even legal 
tenders, at the most fabulous discount. Can 
we not do our best to instil into our own, and 
our children's ntiuds, that it will conduce far 
more to even our earthly happiness if we will 
lend our best energies to the laying^p of treas- 
ure, current, not only among living humanity, 
but in that hoped-for and longed-for 


Where all is made right which so troubles us here, 
Where the glare, and the glitter, and tinsel of time 
Fade and die in the light of that region sublime, 
Where the soul, disenchanted of Hcsh, and of sense. 
Unscreened by its trappings, its show and pretense. 
Must be cloMied for tlie life and the service above 
With purity, truth, faith, meekness and love." 

Let us all strive to realize that a "man's life 
• consisteth not in the abundance of things that 
he possesseth." Let us glory not in what we 
hciDe, but in what we are. Finally, Latis omnia 
Deo. Edward Berwick. 

Monterey, Cal. 

A.N' Anecdote of Jenner. — The celebrated 
Dr. .Tenner, who introduced vaccination, w as a 
man of genial wit, and the following lines ad- 
dressed to a lady upon the recovery of her 
daughter, and sent with a pair of ducks, afford 
a fair specimen of his facetious vein: 

"I've dispatched, mydear madam, this scrap of a letter, 

To sa.y that Miss is very much better; 

A regular doctor no longer she lacks, 

And therefore I've sent her a couple of Qu»cks." 

Y©<^[*Q F@LkS^ Q'©L\!^M, 

Dan Bascom's First Bear. 

The Hair Bu.siness. — Our human hair pros 
pects are improving. According to the figures 
furnished us by the Bureau of Statistics our 
imports of human hair from France in 1874 
were valued at .¥148,000 ; for 1875, .^;88,514 ; 
for 1876, $17,887; and for 1877, only $.-),830. So 
it seems probable that in the course of a year 
or two more we can raise our own hair, 
These figures hair encouraging. Our Western 
Indians have also a good reputation for hair 

A THORN in the bush is worth a dozen in the 

(Written for the Ri r.\l Prkss by Winnib Winter). 

I>ittle Dan Bascom lived on the frontier^ in 
the wild woods of the far northwest. His 
father had built a log cabin there, and had en- 
closed it, together with a small piece of ground, 
inside a fence or stockade made by driving 
pickets firmly into the ground. Dan was eight 
years old at the time we write, and this little 
yard was his play ground. It sometimes hap- 
pened that he was left at home alone, and at 
first he felt rather lonesome, but he soon got 
used to it aud amused himself by turning 
somersaults, teasing the Muscovy drake, and 
riding on the Nannie goat's back. He had been 
forbidden to open the gate or go outside the 
yard unless accompanied by his father or 
mother, because of the bears and other wild 
beasts that were continually roaming about the 

One afternoon his father was away at work 
in a clearing some distance from the house and 
his mother had gone on a visit to a neighbors, 
several rriiles away, leaving Dan in charge of the 
cabin and a large pot of lye swung on poles at 
one end of the yard that was being boiled down 
for the purpose of making soap. Dan frollicked 
about for a long time, until finally getting tired 
he went and sat down on a stool near the pot of 
lye, which he kept boiling briskly with a good 
fire underneath. While he was sitting watch- 
ng the lye boil he began to think about bears, 
and wondered if there was any danger of their 
getting into the yard, because, said he to him- 
self, "I don't mind dead bears like the one's 
father brings home occasionally, but a real live 
bear that can scratch, and bite, and hug, (father 
says they are very fond of huggmg, and some- 
times hug people to death), this kind of a bear 
I think 1 should be afiaid of. 

"Now let me think what I should do if a real 
live bear should walk up and jump over the 
fence. I couldn't get into the cabin, because 
that's at the other end of the yard, and the 
bear would catch me before I got there. I 
might holler, but father is so far away that he 
could not hear me. Here's a chicken coop I 
could get under, but the bear could easily turn 
that over with one of his paw's, or here's a tree 
I could climb, but father says that bears are 
very expert clim))ers, and so he could walk right 
up the tree and haul me down. Well, I don't 
sec any safe place that I could get to, unless I 
could get into the cabin, and perhaps after all 
the bear won't come; if he does, I suppose I'll 
have to 'trust in Providence, 'as preacher Trust 
all says, to take care of me, but I'm afraid that 
trusting in Providence won't do a feller much 
good when a bear gets hold of him. What's 
bears got agin boys, anyhow, boys don't bother 
them, and I think they might stay to home and 
tend to their own business." 

,Iust then Dan heard a cracking of sticks out- 
side the .yard, as if some one was walking there, 
but he was too much frightened to get up and 
look, so he sat quite still and listened. Pretty 
soon he heard a low growl, and saw something 
like the snout of a hog poked through the fence 
near the other end of the yard, then the pickets 
were shoved forcibly aside and in walked a great 
big bear, followed by a cub, a frisky little fel- 
low, who danced about and rolled over on the 
ground like a kitten. Nannie was lying on the 
doorstep, but when she saw the bear, she 
jumped down and crawled quickly through a 
hole under the cabin. 

Poor Dan was so scared that he forgot all 
about his chicken coop or his tree, but he 
crouched down behind the pot, trembling all 
over, his hair standing on end, and his heart 
going thumpety thump. He now thought his 
time had come, aud he could not think of one 
good thing that he had ever done, but all the 
bad things stared him full in the face, and he 
began to pray very earnestly, saying, "0, Lord! 
I've been a very bad boy, I've teazed Nan and 
the drake, I've been disobedient to mother and 
said naughty things to her, and I have actually 
lied, and stole sweetmeats out of the pantry; 
but O, Lord! I am very sorry, and if you will 
just forgive me this time, and not let the old 
bear eat me up, I'll promise to be one of the 
best boys that ever lived, I'll work hard and 
not want to play any, but will be a good indus- 
trious boy all the time." 

Meantime Mrs. Bear walked up to the cabin, 
smelt all around and tried to get into and under 
it, but failing to do either, she lay down in 
front of the hole, through which Nannie had 
disappeared, like a cat watching a mouse; but 
cubbie didn't seem inclined to keep still. He 
kept running about here and there, aud at last 
came to where poor Dan sat quaking with ter- 
ror, and running up to him he put his paws 
playfully upon him, as much assay, "Come out, 
old boy, and let's have a tussel." But Dan, 
not caring for such a playfellow, pushed cubbie 
away, but cubbie seemed to think this the sig- 
nal for commencing the play. So he grabs Dan, 
pulls him over on the ground and rolls over and 
over with him, Dan struggling in vain to get 
away from him. Mrs. Bear, hearing the noise , 
gets up and walks over to where Dan and cub- 
bie are tussling, sits down on her haunches and 
looks on, apparently much pleased with the per- 
formance of her offspring. For 15 or 20 minutes 
Dan exerted all his strength to get away from 

his tormentor, but cubbie held him fast and 
kept rolling him over until Dan was out of 
breath and lay quite still. Cubbie pawed and 
shook him, but finding no more play in him, 
went away a few paces and stood watching liim. 
Meantime Nannie was bleating from under the 
cabin and Mrs. Bear went back to make her 

Dan lay very quiet until cubbie started for 
him again, when he suddenly, forgetting his 
fright in his anger at cubbie for using him so 
roughly, jumps up, dips out some hot lye and 
throws it upon cubbie, who runs away howling 
to his mother. Mrs. Bear, not well pleased at 
the treatment of her cub, starts for Dan with 
an angry growl, but Dan, seeing the good effect 
the hot lye had on cubbie, thinks he will try 
the same thing on Mrs. Bear, and as she comes 
up, he dashes a dipperful right into her face 
and eyes. This blinds her so that she cannot 
see, and burns her so badly that she jumps 
about and rolls over, howling madly. 

In a few minutes Mr. Bascom rushes up, 
rifle in hand, opens the gate and looks rather 
puzzled at what he sees going on, but seeing 
Dan at the end of the yard, he incjuires of him 
what has happened, and when told he laughs 
heartily, but says, ' 'We had better put the poor 
creature out of her misery, for she will never be 
able to see again, and she'll make meat enough to 
last us quite awhile." Then making Dan sit 
down behind the stool, he cocks and places the 
the rifle on it and puts the butt against Dan's 
shoiiyA', while he kneels down behind Dan and 
says, "Now, when I call out pull the trigger 
quickly." Then sighting along the barrel he 
cries out "pull." Dan shuts both eyes and 
gives a quick jerk on the trigger. Instantan- 
eously there is a loud report and Mrs. Bear 
tumbles over (juite dead. 

"Now, Dan," says Mr. B. , who has been ex 
amining cubbie and found him only a little 
scalded on the back, "we'll keep this chap and 
make a pet of him for you." 

"Oh! No, father, please not!" cries out Dan, 
"he's too rough; he bites and scratches awfully." 

"Never mind that," says Mr. B., "we'll 
teach him how to be gentle. The roughest 
people, when properly educated, are often the 
most amiable." 

At this juncture, Mrs. Bascom appears on the 
scene, and Mr. B. , lifting his hat, cries out, 
"Mrs. Bascom, allow me to introduce you to 
Dan's first bear. " 

How they succeeded in cubbie's education I 
will tell at another time. 
Fountain Dell, .July 10th. 

Q00D t^Ei^Lflt. 

Tobacco's Devotee. 

Ebenezer learned to smoke 

When he was of a tender age, 
And he could smoke and spit and chew. 

And thought himself a sage; 
And smoked till he was bald of head, 
And chewed till he was almost dead. 

He married Susan Glen, you know. 
And she was pretty, young and fair; 

But soon he smoked her till her face 
Was just the color of her hair; 

And kept her e.ves and eyelids red 

As those who weep for loved ones dead. 

She loved him once, until she found 

That his tobacco was his god; 
He lived for it and worshipped it. 

Till he was but a stupid clod; 
AtkI selfish self-indulgence seemed 
The onl.v hope of which he dreamed.- 

His poisoned children could not live, 
Yet still he smoked and chewed the same. 

And quarreled with his heartsick wife. 
Because she knew he was to blame; 

And all the burdens, toil and care. 

Her slender shoulders had to bear. 

The love he promised her went out 
In smoke and chew, and chew and smoke; 

And she would sadl.v mourn and grieve, 
For it was certainly no j<»ke 

To see all manliness and use 

Stewed out in strong tobacco juice. 

Tobacco grew too weak in time-- 
Liquor was era\ ed, and it was used; 

The wife so sad and worn before. 
Was now most cruelly abused; 

And she would mouni and grieve and pra.v. 

In hopeless sorrow night and day. 

Paralysis, with lightning thrust. 

Laid Ebenezer low at last, 
And all his errors and his sins 

Were with the unburied past; 
Ani Susan, withered, sad and lone, 
Had neither money, friends nor home. 

there will be a decrease of more than one-third 
of the sickness and mortality which formerly 
occurred. The immense advantage, or value, 
which will be gained by this prevention of dis- 
ease, in the saving of time and expense, in the 
prevention of pain and distress, in the general 
improvement of health and prolongation of life, 
cannot be estimated in figures or described in 
language. The more extensively and thor- 
oughly these principles are applied, the greater 
good will they accomplish, and the more per- 
fectly we shall find the laws of the external 
world adapted to the human system, showing 
that man has a far greater control of those laws 
than has generally been supposed. 

Another important consideration is, that the 
more thoroughly sanitary agencies are applied, 
on a large scale, they not only serve directly to 
prevent disease, but furnish essential aids in 
curing it. Thus the more you improve ventila- 
tion and the quality of water, drainage and 
sewerage, and have regard to dietary habits 
and physical exercise, etc., the more successful 
will be the operation of all therapeutical agen- 

Cool Drinking Water. 

Editors Press: — I have tried the plan ad- 
opted in some hot countries, where ice cannot 
be had for cooling drinking water, and am so 
much pleased with it that I give the method, 
which probably has been published before, but 
as some may not have seen it, and as the plan 
is very simple, I send it, feeling satisfied that 
no one who tries it will be disappointed with 
the result. I bought half dozen tin milk-cans 
holding four g.allons each, and covered them 
with coarse thick canvass of a kind that ab- 
sorbs water easily, drawing the cloths tightly 
around the cans and sewing them so that they 
could not get oft'. At night the cans are dipped 
in a tub of water until the cloths are thorougly 
saturated, they are then filled with water and 
set where the breeze will blow upon them, and 
in the morning the water is quite cold and re- 
mains so during the day if the cloths are wet 
occasionally and the cans placed in the shade 
where they are exposed to a current of air. 
The men on going out to work take as many cans 
of water as they will need, aud so have the lux- 
ury of cool water to drink during the heat of 
the day. Any kind of coarse cloth will do to 
cover the cans, the thicker the better as they 
won't need wetting so often, but the cans must 
be kept closed and the cloths wet to insure suc- 
cess. Di. Kinsman. 
July 6th. 

Household Economy. 

Editors Press: — Some one sent to the Ru- 
rai> Press a budget of home topics, a few 
weeks ago which deserve a place in every lady's 
cook-book. I quite agree with the lady regard- 
ing the saving of time and labor by using 
cream instead of first making it into butter for 
all culinary preparations. 

The best of pie- crust can be made of flour 
with a little salt, wet up to the right consis- 
tency with thin cream, (either sour or sweet) 
without soda. The acid seen a to work off in 
the baking, leaving the crust tender and flaky. 

Crullers wet up with cream aud eggs without 
any other rising are most excellent. 

Sour cream put into mashed potatoes instead 
of milk and butter should be tried to be ap- 
preciated. N. 
Santa Cruz, Cal. 

Results of Sanitary Regulations. 

The agitation of sanitary regulations has con 
tinned for some time, and it is fair to ask what 
has been the result of their enforcement. In a 
paper lately read before the Social Science 
Meeting at Cincinnati, Dr. Nathan Allen, of 
Massachusetts, said: It is not time yet to 
obtain the full benefits of such means; for while 
the advantages of observing some sanitary laws 
may be seen very soon, it will take many years 
to reap the complete benefit of others. In cer- 
tain localities in Great Britain, where these 
laws have been only partially applied for a few 
years, there has been witnessed a marked de- 
crease in the amount of sickness and rate of 
mortality. From careful investigations it is 
estimated that this diminution will already 
range from one-fourth to one-third; but it is the 
opinion of the best judges on the subject that, 
when sanitary science is faithfully applied, 

Beee-a-la-Mode. — ^Procure a juicy and ten- 
der round, or part of a round, according to the 
size of family, and cut out the marrow bone, 
make a stuffing of bread crumbs, a little melted 
butter, salt and pepper, a pinch of thyme, 
sweet marjoram and summer savory, pulver- 
ized and mixed together, a small teaspoonful of 
ground cloves, aud three tablespoonfuls of water, 
just enough to moisten the bread crumbs. 
Have ready some strips of good solid salt pork; 
score thickly, and fill the places alternately with 
a strip of the pork and the bread crumbs. Re- 
serve some of the crumbs for the gravy. Next, 
bind the beef with a stout twine, into a round 
shape, spread slices of pork over the top, and 
place the beef upon a wire rack that will sit 
upon a dripping pan, and allow the juice of the 
meat to fall through; put a pint of water in the 
pan and place in the oven; baste the beef very 
fre((uently with water that has had onions boiled 
in it. When done place the gravy pan upon 
the range; add more water from the onions, the 
reserved crumbs, two table spoonfuls of viueg;ir 
and browned flour enough to impart a rich dark 
color; blend .all well together, boil for a minute 
or two, and serve with the meat; a few spoon- 
fuls of gravy poured over the meat when dished 
is an improvement. Serve the boiled onions 
either in a dish by themselves or upon the plat- 
ter with the . The marrow from the bone 
chopped fine and added to the stuffing enriches 

Rowley Powley. — Roll out a large sheet of 
paste, cover it with any jam or marmalade you 
prefer, roll it up and tie it loosely in a cloth, tie 
each end of the cloth tight, Jboil it one hour and 
cut it in slices; it is good served hot with wine 
sauce. ' 



[July 27, 1878. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers. 

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Saturday, July 27, 1878. 

EDITORIALS. The Flat Pcaeh of I hina : A Hare 

Specimen of Fossil ivory ; Ostrich Fanning, 49-67. 

Tile Week: Me i ami Machines ; Agricultural Eiiueation. 

56. Tea and Silk in the Southern States, 57. X >tices 

of Recent Put. nts. 60. 
ILLUSTRATIONS, -t'orraling the ostrich on farm 

of Mr. A. Douglas, Siiuth .\frica, 49- Assisting Weak 

Birds from the Shell ; The Incubator RiKim at .Mr. 

Douglass's Farm ; .\partnient for Sorting and Storing 

Plumes. 57. 

CORRESPONDENCE. — Amiulor County N.. 1. 

Irrigating t'aniils of Tulare t'oiintv. 50. Wheat and 

fhess. 50-51 lloncv Fruit. I'oor Raisins. 51. 
PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY, (im.ige Warninu- 

agaiiist Adulterations; Granger's Itank of California; 

The Propi.sed Ai;rieultural t'ollege in .Mississijipi ; In 

Menioriani. 52 
QUERIES AND REPLIES. - Diseiused Almoml and 

.Vprieot Trees; A Hem Harvester W.vited, 57. 
AGRICULTURAL NOTES from the various coun- 
ties ..f California and Idaho, 52-53. 
NEWS IN BRIEF on i.age 53. and other jiages 
HORTICULTURE. — Earlv Wilson Blackberries; 

llealtlifniness of Fruit. 51. 
THE STOCK YARD. Native Cmsses of Australia 

and New Zealand. 51. 
HOME CIRCLE. Maud's An8«cr(poctry);0ur Front 

RiKini; A Popular Song and Chorus— "Baby .Mm*;" 

Santit Cm/. Sunshine; New Music; *'.Sundav .\fternoon." 

54. "Have " or "Be," 45 
YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN. - Dai. Bascmi's First 

B ar, 55 

GOOD HEALTH. Tobacc.'s Dciotee; Results of 

Sanitarv Regulations, 55. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY. Cool Drinking Water: 

Household Keonom\ ; Beef-a-la-Mode; Rowlev Powlev, 



Holly .V Megoon's Culli>alor, M C. llawlev ^ Co , agents, 
S. F.; Lumber Mill for sale. F. Byxliee. S. F.;l'ni- 
ver8it.\ of California. Berkeley, M. Keliogg, Dean; Semi- 
annual Statement of the tirangers' Bank of Califfirnia, 
A. Montpellier, Cashier and .Manager, S. F. ; tiilbert .\ 
Moore, 2I'.I Bush street S. F. 

The Week. 

Day after day, as the dispatches have brought 
accountfl of the death-dealing and long-continued 
lieat all over the Eastern States, there have 
Imrst from California lips earnest expressions of 
admiration for our more moderate summers 
and thankfulness that to us is it giveii to enjoy 
them. The description of the heat ravages 
from the Missouri river eastward to the Atlan- 
tic is most appalling. In the large cities scores 
of men have fallen in the streets, have been- 
carried to the dead-houses and have been 
(juickly interred, as the dead are buried in time 
of pestilence. In the villages, cases of sun- 
stroke have been less frenuent, but not less 
fatal, and in the grain-fields many a laborer has 
been stricken down never to rise again. We 
have nothing in this .State which answers to 
such a description of human loss of life and suf- 
fering. We have ijotent heat at times in the 
interior, and within the last few years there 
have been, at intervals, cases of i)rostration, 
but the general effect of the same deorrees of heat 
here and at the East is very different. We 
have none of that deadening c<mdition of air 
which at the Kast is known as "muggy; ' 
weather which afflicts everything, making every 
bodily movement a burden and even affecting 
the inanimate creation, as it spoils the milk 
even when fresh in the cheese-makers' vats. 
We are fortunate indeed in our freedom from 
these dark deeds of the elements. 

The harvest is progressing. In some parts 
it is proved that the farmer will thresh more 
than once was thought, because the rust has 
not wrought as bad effects as was anticipated. 

Men and Machines. 

Several notable advances made of late in the 
design and manufacture of agricultural ma- 
chines, have awakened anew the discussion of 
the effect to he expected from the growth of 
labor-saving machinery. 'I'lie (|iie»tion is an 
old one, and we do not see that anything has 
occurred which should change the old verdict 
that, though the introduction of a new labor- 
saving implement may, for a time, work to the 
disadvantage of certain bodies of citizens, there 
soon follows an adjustment of affairs to meet 
the innovation, and the stream of progress and 
prosperity pours along just as deep and wide as 
ever, .lust now there is the louder outcry be- 
cause agriculture seems to be enjoying unusual 
favors from the inventor. People generally 
have come to falsely look upon agriculture as a 
dull, plodding and intensely conservative in- 
dustry, and they are the more surprised and 
alarmed when their eyes are pried open by the 
levers of some new machine and they behold 
the lifeless occupation alert and moving for- 
ward, rapidly forward. The people affect to be 
alarmed because the self-binder has excited the 
threats of a few men whom their own State has 
justly pronounced outlaws. They peer into the 
future through clouded eyebrows, because the 
header and thresher have been succeesfully 
combined and the farmer's power over his Tield 
has been increased many fold. We do not see 
why these improvements should excite greater 
alarm than other just as grtat improvements 
which have .tided the manuiaiturer, the miner 
and other producers in their work. Is the self- 
binder a greater adv.ance from the sickle than 
the power loom is over the cloth-making appa- 
ratus of our grandfathers? Is the combined 
header and thresher more effective in labor- 
saving over the old swinging cradle than the 
many-stamp quartz mill is o\er the primitive 
arastra'; It is common to cite the ludignaBt 
protests of the London pressmm over the intro- 
ductiim of the power press as an example of 
mist:iken zeal, beciuse the it creased demand 
for printed matter afterward kept them all 
fully employed, even with the best machinery 
which could be devised to aid them. Nor has 
the progress ever halted for an instant. The 
1 eoplo nowdem.ind such a number of papers upon 
heir breakfast tables that they must be sup- 
plied by a press which helps itself from a contin- 
uous roll of paper, makes its impressions, cuts 
and folds its sheets ready for the carrier turn- 
ing out, without tiuman aid, its thousands of 
impressions, where its forerunner issued hun- 
dreds, with the aid of many hands. 

It is time that the progress of labor-saving 
machines in agriculture may not find its bene- 
tici.-il effects wrought out in just the same way 
that they have been in the progress of other in- 
dustries, but this gives no reason to distrust 
their ultimate coming. There is every evidence 
to argue by analogy that the results will be ul- 
timately good. There is no welfare of tlie race 
which demands that one industry should be 
siHjeded forward and another hehl stationary or 
restricted to sluggish growth. This theory has 
prevailed to a certain extent, it is true, and it 
has been held by other people than politicians 
that farmers should occupy the back seats in 
the car of progress, but such an idea is false to 
every sound theory of political and industrial 

It is a plain fact without labo -javing 
machinery the agriculture of all the newer 
.Stat ;s would remain undeveloped to this day, 
and tlie rapid increase of people in this country 
would be swarming, shirtless and supperless 
upon the Atlantic seaboard. Without labor- 
saving agricultural machinery California could 
never have exported a pound of grain; her few 
farmers would have done well couhl they have 
led themselves and the miners. With such a 
history of results attending the progress of ag- 
ricultural machinery, why should we distrust 
its further advancement ■/ With leagues of un- 
cultivated land in our own State, why should 
we malign the very agency which is to bring it 
infc) ]>rotitable production ? With the great un- 
occupied northwest, which can yet be carved 
up into prosperous States, with climate and 
fertility which the world cannot surpass, why 
should agriculture be called upon to halt in her 
advancement when she alone holds the key 
which can unlock these treasures ': 

It is true, perhaps, that the growing applica- 
tion of machinery ti agriculture will work hard- 
ship to some of our laboring population, 
as successive improvements are t'lrst reached. 
This is to he regretted, but it seems una- 
voidable. This seems to be the price at 
which the nation buys every step in 
industrial progress, but as this hardship has 
always heretofore l>een followed by compensa- 
tions, why should it now come without attentl- 
ant rewards? It is not given to the most far- 
sighted to penetrate the future, except as the 
past indicates its probabilities. This method 
of forecasting the future certainly gives assur- 
ance, not ground for alarm, in the special line 
which we are considering. 

We cannot see how help will come to the 
thousands whose work the new machines are 
doing. Agriculture has .so long been looked 
upon as the kind mother who shall feed and 
clothe all the liroken and distressed from all 
other occupations, that it is little wonder that 
her reduced dependence upon manual labor is 

viewed with anxiety. It is easy to say that, as 
an abstract proposition, it is plain that men 
must enter agriculture more as masters than as 
journeymen; that those who are thrown out by 
the progress of agricultural machinery must go 
upon the new fields at a dist.ince and build them- 
selves up as those have done who are now proHt- 
ing by the use of the machines that laid the foun- 
dations of their prosperity. How shall they who 
arc now tramping from kitchen to kitchen 
anmml the State be embued with the disposi- 
tion to move into the oiien lands and to do there 
what they fail to do here, namely, to labor. 
And how are tliey w ho have the disposition, 
but cannot lind work, to get stiirt enough to get 
to promising fields and obtain food, seed and 
implements with which to maintain themselves 
and put in their crops. This we acknowledge 
we do not know. To restore the qualities of 
manhood fn those who are heartless, homeless, 
ambitiouless, is perhaps a problem in mental, 
moral and social science which the doctors in 
those philosophies can solve; we cannot. To 
provide material for those who have the will to 
use it is a (juestiou of hnance and political 
economy which is beyond our pocket and our 
brain. And yet while stumbling on these blocks 
hewn from the impossible, we are strong in the 
belief that other causes than the progress of 
labor-saving machinery are to l>lame for much 
of the evil and lack which are in these men's 
minds and stomachs. .So far as tnechanical pro- 
gress is concerned we believe it will be, as it has 
been, one of the chief agencies in the world's 
advancement. None can stop its course.' Those 
are safe who can climl) into its car; those in 
danger who sport beneath its wheels. 

Agricultural Education. 

EniToRN Phbhs: If jou had a boy and girl to educate 
(the boy now 17 and the girl 15), and the boy wished to be 
a first-class farmer and stOiTk-raiser (being well-fitted in- 
tellectually and physically so far), and the girl wished to 
get a gooil start towards horticulture, isiultry and dairy- 
ing, with enough of music and taste for good reading to 
make life pleasant, what would you do with them 'r So 
far as I kni>w of schools, there are more te.xt books and 
useless forms gone over, than little bodies and minds can 
emerge with any brightness from. - Mas. 0. E. Guilds, 
Santa Barbara, Cal. 

It is difficult to prescribe in a case where you 
have no knowledge of the symptoms. What 
might be a wise and attainable course with our 
boy and girl might be unwise or beyond the 
reach of another's children. The converse 
might also be true. It would be impossible to 
give advice which|would apply to any particular 
case, without knowing exactly the ruling condi- 
tions. We will, however, show our respect for 
our correspondent's ijuestions by outlining our 
belief as delinitely as possible in the space which 
we can give to the subject. 

First: Our boy has grown up with us upon a 
stDck ranch. We have followed the business 
in a practical way for years. We have never 
mastered the mysteries of herd books or pedi- 
grees, but we have learned long ago that there 
is a great difference in animals, and that by 
breeding from the best we could improve our 
cattle in many ways. We have found that a 
constant supply of different kinds of nutritious 
food was a powerful aid in our breeding improve- 
ments. In our daily work we have continually 
come upon questions which we did not under- 
stand, and upon which we have longed for more 
light. We have not had time or facilities for 
investigating these questions, and yet we have 
felt sure that they might be investigated and 
determined. We have resolved that our son 
shall learn how to investigate, and that he shall 
be made familiar with all the principles which 
underlie our practice, ao far as they can be 
made known. We have taught him all the 
details of our work ; we have been gratilied to 
see that he takes a deep interest in our busi- 
ness. We have allowed him to consider some 
of the animals and their increase his own. We 
have him joined to us in sympathy; and by 
trusting him and confiding in him we have led 
him to see that there is a future before hiin in 
farming, and that by increasing his knowledge 
in all directions which bear upon the industry, 
lie can make himself a better farmer than his 
father. We have taught him practice; we have 
taught him to observe anil draw right conclusions 
(so fai as we have been able) from what he sees; 
now what we want is to edu';ate him for his 
future work, and we have made money enough 
to pay his expenses. We commit him to the 
agricultural college. We maintain his home 
interest and give point to his studies by encour- 
aging him to examine our home practice, as he 
goes along, with all the truths of science which 
he is taught. We make him constantly feel 
that he is the agent of the home concern sent 
abroad to gain light to improve it. We reason 
with him, and, so far as important matters are 
not risked by what may lie his immature con- 
clusions, we conduct judicious experiments to 
prove the truth and application of his conclu- 
sions. We do a hundred things which we can- 
not describe, for the express purpose of holding 
his home interest and showing him the oppor- 
tunity which the farm outholds for the enlist- 
ment of his best efforts. We get him back 
again at the end of his course, not wiser than 
Soloman, but with a fund of facts and witli a 
knowledge of the true scientific method to ap- 
ply to all our future inquiries, which, perhaps, 
enable us to improve our practice a little; and .-is 
we work along we find that his training is a 
constant help in that he has learned to observe 
and investigate, and believes that no theory is 
worth consideration which is not the logical 

outgrowth of obscrt'ation, experience and ex- 

lyct us take another case, and we want to 
outline it very briefly: Our boy has reached his 
17th year, living upon a stock ranch. We have 
held to the Ijelief that the talk of improvement 
in farming was all nonsense. We have shown 
our son by our words and actions that there is 
nothing in the business which we did not leara 
before he was born. When his young, eager 
mind has shown signs of splurging into the un- 
known we have given him a good hard job of 
work to take the conceit out of him. We nev- 
er have seen any use of encouraging him in idle- 
ness by talking about work and ways and rea- 
sons for doing it. We have shown him how 
and that is enough. He is smart and ambitious 
and we send him away to school. He gets an 
idea of the rush and the progress which is ap- 
parent in all other occupations but that of his 
father. We are proud of the progress he makes 
in his studies ami we are determined that he 
shall go to the highest institution in the State. 
We would like to have him come back to us 
and take charge of the farm and be the repre- 
sentative man in the neighborhood. He ne\ er 
comes. No institution, existing or conceived 
of, can make a farmer out of a boy with such a 

There are boys, not farmers' sons, and who 
have no knowledge of farm practice, whose 
parents would like to educate for agriculture. 
Here is one, for instance. He hardly knows a 
milk stool from a saw buck. He cannot plow, 
nor milk, in fact the simplest operations of the 
farm are beyond his knowledge. The place for 
such a boy is not in an agricultural college until 
he has mastered these preliminary details of the 
business. He should be put upon a farm. No 
school which can be planned can teach the de- 
tails of farm work so well as they can be 
learned upon the farm, nor so cheaply. If we 
have a green lx)y of this description, whom we 
wish to transform into an educated farmer, we 
should seek out some progressive man, whose 
ideas of farm work and its possibilities are like 
those we described in the first instance, and we 
should prevail upon him to let our son work 
with him for his board, believing that such a 
man would not only teach him the facts which 
are needful, but would foster in the young man 
the desirable disposition, would embue him with 
the true spirit of agricultural progress, and 
would teach him to observe and to think earn- 
estly of what he sees. After this apprentice- 
ship is reasonably complete, and the young man 
wishes to follow the calling because he believes 
in it, we should entrust him to an agricultural 
college, feeling sure that able and enthusiastic 
professors could well hold a mind and interest 
which is thus prepared for them. 

Our course with a young lady would be simi- 
lar. (Jain access for her to the elementary 
practice, either in fruit growing, poultry rais- 
ing or dairying by actual contact with the work 
on a ranch. Then if her interest can be en- 
listed and her tastes awakened (and she does 
not marry somebody in the meantime), let her 
attend the regular courses in an agricultural 
college and she will gain new facts and reasons 
for her simplest operations which she had not 
dreamed before. 

We believe that our correspondent's protest 
against excess of text books and forms are war- 
ranted in a general way, and we believe, also, 
that the tendency of the time is toward more 
concrete and inviting methods of instruction. 
We believe that the elements of the sciences 
which underlie agriculture should be taught in 
the lower schools, because they are an essen- 
tial part of the jireparation for all higher train- 
ing. They are as inviting as they are valuable. 
As soon as they are more generally introduced, 
anil when the home training is more generally 
toward the farm than away from it, we shall 
have full classes in our agricultural colleges and 
a cloud of "educated fanners" returning to the 
farm at each oemmencement day. 


readers who are on the lookout for grasses 
which might be with advantage introduced to 
enrich our store of forage plants, will read with 
interest the letter from Dr. Curl, of New Zea- 
land, which is printed upon another page of this 
issue. Dr. Curl has undertaken many investi- 
gations to prove the practical value in New 
JCealand of a great many indigenous Australian 
grasses, as his letter shows. His communica- 
tion, and others which we hope to receive from 
him, will extend the value of his researches to 
California, and his exchanges of seeds with some 
of our leading experimenters will furnish ma- 
terial for supplementary local statements con- 
cerning the plants which he describes. This 
will in the end be productive of great good. 
We have within our great State conditions fa- 
vorable for the growth of a great proportion of 
the valuable plants and trees of the whole 
world. Kvery movement which undertakes the 
introduction and trial of promising growths is 
praiseworthy. There should be a comprehen- 
sive work of this kind undertaken by the State, 
but in the absence of this there should be many 
individual efforts made toward the same end. 
We are always glad to forward these efforts in 
every way we can, and we have an outstanding 
invitation to all importers and experimenters to 
communicate their achievements to the Kural 
Pke.'*.-;, so that all may profit by the labor of 

Ox Fii.F..— "Apricots for Name," .1. S.; 
"Women's Rights," .J. T. 

July 27, 1878.1 

Continued ft-om page 49. 

comes on, the ostrich farmer must turn mid- 
wife and delicately assist the young one to open 
its shell, haviOg certain instruments for the pur- 
pose. Aud when he has performed his obste- 
trical operations he must become a nursing 
mother to the young progeny, who can by no 
means walk about and get his living in his ear- 
liest days. The little chickens in our farm- 
yards seem to take the world very easily; but 
they have their mother's wings, and we as yet 
hardly know all the assistance which is thus 
given to them. But the ostrich farmer must 
know enough to keep his young ones alive, or 
he will soon be ruined; for each bird when 
hatched is supposed to be worth .f50. The 
ostrich farmer must take upon himself all the 
functions of the ostrich mother, and must know 
all that instinct has taught her, or he will 
hardly be successful. 

"The birds are plucked before they are a year 
old, and I think that no one as yet knows the 
limit of age to which they will live and be 
plucked. I saw birds which had been plucked 
for 16 3«ears, and were still in high feather. 
When the plucking time has come, the neces- 
sary number of birds are enticed by a liberal 
display of mealies — as maize or Indian corn is 
called in South Africa — into a pen, one side of 
which is movable. The birds will go willingly 
after mealies, and will run about their paddocks 
after any one they see, in the expectation of 
these delicacies. When the pen is full, the 
movable side is run in, so that the birds are 
compressed together beyond the power of vio- 
lent struggling. They cannot spread their 
wings, or make the dart forward which is cus- 
tomary to them when about to kick. Then 
men go in among them, and, taking up their 
wings, pluck or cut their feathers. Both pro- 
cesses are common, but the former, I think, is 
most so, as being the more profitable. There is 
a heavier weight to sell when the feather is pluck- 
ed; and the quill begins to grow again at once, 
whereas the process is delayed when nature is 
called upon to eject the stump. I did not see 
the thing done, but I was assured that the little 
notice taken by the animal of the operation may 
be accepted as proof that the pain, if any, is 

"Tlie feathers are stored in the feather room 
on racks, as shown in the engraving. The 
feathers are sorted into various lots; the white 
primary outside rim from under the bird's wing 
being by far the most valuable — being sold at a 
price as high as f 12,5 a pound. Tlie sorting 
does not seem to be a difficult operation, and is 
done by colored men. The produce is then 
packed in boxes and sent down to be sold at 
Port Elizabeth by auction." 

The large engraving on our first page shows 
how the birds are herded and corraled. The 
birds run in large enclosures. The one where 
our view is taken is 3,000 acres, with a troop of 
240 birds in it. Here, once a week, they are all 
hunted up by men on horseback, armed with 
large boughs of thorn, to keep the birds off , as 
many are very savage, and their kick is dau- 
gerous. One man will be observed in front, 
with a pack horse, loaded with Indian corn, to 
lead them. 

The incubating room, as shown in the engrav- 
ing, is located in a large building soconstructed 
as not to be affected by change of weather. 
Here several incubators are at work; in one an 
egg can be seen just broken through. On the 
top of the machines are the birds' sleeping 
places, all heated. The drawers are represented 
as when lowered and drawn out, to show them; 
when again pushed in, they are lifted and 
fastened by large screws beneath them. 

In another cut Mr. Douglass is represented 
in the act of helping a weakly bird out of its 
shell. By certain signs discovered by himself 
it can be told to an hour when the bird is 
ready; but it often happens that the bird can- 
not pierce the shell, and unless helped would 

Tea and Silk in the Southern States. 

Tea and silk, these old "great expectations" 
of California agriculturists, upon which many 
words and much time and money were bestowed 
a few years ago, are now coming forward with 
modest and yet confident mien in the S?)uthern 
States. We have never lost complete hold of 
them, for we have tea plants growing and silk 
worms munching in different parts of the State. 
We seem, however, to be resting ou our oars 
after our grand spurts, waiting for others to 
bump on the rocks aud show us the channel. 
General Le Due, Commissioner of Agriculture, 
is confident of tea by the American method 
which will do away with the Asiatic processes 
by hand labor, simplify the manufacture, so that 
machinery can do the greater part of it, or dis- 
tribute the production, so that tea can be made 
in farm-houses in all regions where the plants 
will flourish. Mr. Aiken, of South Caiolina, 
recently visited the Commissioner, and gives 
the Charleston N^eirs notes of his visit. Among 
other things, the Commissioner said: "There 
is a sample of American tea, forwarded to me 
from (ieorgia. I don't think the flavor and 
quality of this tea needs any commendation 
from me. You will see by this letter it has 
been prepared very simply, without rolling the 
leaves, which labor is not necessary. It is 
something worth knowing that tea of this qual- 
ity can be grown and manufactured on your 
Southern coast." Of this Georgia grown tea, a 
Baltimore firm, who for three generations have 

been dealing extensively in China and Japan as 
tea merchants, said: " We have received a 
sample of tea from a lady in Georgia, the only 
trouble with which was in the curing. It just 

worth about .f6.50 an ounce, or $1 per 100. He 
thinks that the cost of silk culture per acre 
would be about the same as that of cotton, and 
estimates the product at from 150 to 200 


iiiiiliiiisaiiiil ii 


missed being a tea tliat would have excelled any j pounds of silk per acre, worth from .'i>4 to .*!6 
from China, and equaled any from India, which ! per pound. Mr. Lowery is the principal of a 
it so closely resembled." colored school at Huntsville, Ala., and seems 

So much for tea. Alabama is the latest as- 1 to have prosecuted the enterprise with a view 


pirant on the silk /ajiix. It seems that the ex- I 
istence of an "industrial academy" hant;s upon 
the success of her silk experiments. We read 
that three years ago Mr. Samuel Lowery, a 

to test its practicability. Among those who 
have taken an active intei-est in the introduc- 
tion of the silk-worm culture is one of the an/i' 
helium governors of the .State, IJeuben Chap- 


colored lawyer of Huntsville, Ala., commenced I man, on whose estate Mr. Lowery's Industrial 
the raising of silk-worms, which proved very Academy is situated. This gentleman has 
healthy. Mr. Lowery has now a number of granted a lease of 25 acres of suitable land on 
mulberry trees planted, and has had for sale which are valuable buildmgs, and as a proof of 
last spring from 4,000,000 to 5,000,000 of eggs, I his earnest desire to advance the interests of 

the colored people of his section. Gov. (_ 
man has offered to make a gift of the land ana 
buildings to the industrial academy, on condi- 
tion that the promoters of the enterprise suc- 
ceed in obtaining an endowment equal in value 
to the lands and buildings which he proposes to 
present to them. We hope Huntsville will 
secure its endowed academy and the silk exper- 
iment prove so successful that all the boys shall 
have silk hats and the girls silk stockings. 

Samuel Chamberlain writes to the Poli/tfchnci 
Rcvku\ concerning a plan of a silk school, farm 
and village about .30 miles from Philadelphia. 
He believe.s that the failure to introduce silk cul- 
ture in 1840 was chiefly due to the want of perse- 
verance. The three years of actual trial (for the 
rest was only speculation in trees) were not 
sufficient to carry it on to success. Business, 
like machinery, must be carried over the dead- 
points. A school, farm and village, whose con- 
tinuance will be maintained for some 16 to 20 
years, will secure a permanent source of knowl- 
edge, example and instruction from which the 
culture will extend year by year. It will not 
be overthrown, as formerly, by causes outside 
of the silk business. It will keep the subject 
before the public through advertisements. It 
will at all times provide eggs, trees, books, etc. 
The educational advantages will be very great. 
We are now endeavoring to introduce the indus- 
trial schools of Europe for instruction in the 
mechanical arts. But they have possessed silk 
schools for nearly 100 years; through them have 
obtained aud retained till now the silk business 
of the world: It is mort than strange that 
such schools, urged by M. D'Homergue in 1835, 
should not have been long since established in 
this country. The present effort ought to have 
the immediate support of every intelligent and 
far-sighted capitalist; for through it we shall 
draw the silk business of the Western World to 

Diseased Almond and Apricot Trees. 

Editor.s pKEs>i: -I have just read Mr, Xmiiially's question 
and your remarks on the eicadian fly, and it oceurred to 
me that's what's the matter with our almond trees. 
.\hout two months ag-o they commeneed dropping their 
leaves, and one, I noticed at that time, was dying at the 
top of one branch. I examined the leaves. I found them 
full of blaclj specks, as though they had been stung by 
some insect. We have almonds, apri':ots, peaches, figs, 
etc., all planted and mi.ved up in the same Held. I was 
looking at tliem to-day, and find ((uite a number of the 
almonds badly affected, and some of the largest and 
thriftiest at that. At first it seemed to be only the small 
ones. None of the other varieties are injured much, 
although the |jeach and apricot leaves are somewhat 
specked. I could not find the fly. 

Some two years ago, I wrote jou in relation to apricot 
trees dying from knotty or knurled roots. One of mine 
died. The others 1 found with knots. I took the chisel 
and chipped a part of the knot off. This year the trees 
are very thrifty, made a big growth and produced a heavy 
crop of beautiful fruit. I concluded the remedy saved 

W'e are having the coolest season for the past eight 
years, so far, foggy overhead most all